CITATION ANDDOCUMENTION, MLA STYLEWhy do we do it and why is it important to do well? Christina Neckles CRWT I 101-08 October 25, 2012
What is citation?• Citation is indicating, in a piece of writing, where you got the information.• In-text citation use parentheses to indicate where you, the writer, obtained information, wording, or an idea. • If you quote TWO or more words in a row from another piece of writing those words need to be in quotation marks.
Why do we cite sources?• In North American and most of Europe, we cite sources as often as possible to give credit for intellectual property.• Citing sources makes you more reliable as a scholar because it shows you’ve done research on your topic and that you know where your information comes from.• Citing source also allows your readers to follow up on other sources that they found interesting. In other words, it gives your readers respect and the freedom to follow their own interests.• We also cite sources because of copyright laws. It’s illegal to use someone else’s written ideas without giving them credit. • Sometimes it’s illegal even if you DO give credit (like if you want to show a movie on Netflix to your sorority sisters for “Friday Channing Tatum Night”).
But citation doesn’t really countoutside of school—why bother? •The fact is: You are right. •MLA Style doesn’t matter at all outside of school.
What does matter?• Information literacy• Crucial to understand what kind of information sources you encounter and how to use them.• MLA style and other citation styles are just the formats through which you learn that skill.• In our Website Evaluation session, we practiced that skill – you’ll always have to evaluate web resources, even if it’s just for shopping.• You’ll put the skill into effect as you choose and evaluate and cite your sources for the research paper.
How do we cite sources?• In English, Literature and Languages, • MLA style privileges the author’s and Philosophy, we use MLA style, the standardized citation style of the name because most information is Modern Language Association. intellectual property (arguments and ideas rather than statistics or• MLA style is a set of rules that research discoveries). scholars follow so that all of their citations look the same. • APA style privileges dates because• It’s a fairly simple system, but psychology and other sciences tedious to learn. Even experts have privilege the most recent research. to look up the rules sometimes…and sometimes they change. • Chicago style allows for more footnotes because history can• Using a standardized style ensures require more background that the resources you used are recognizable and fairly credited. explanation.
IMAGINE THIS…..• If we all cited sources however we wanted, an in-text citation of the same newspaper article could look like this: • “cool is irrelevant” (Rubin par.3). • “cool is irrelevant” (Rubin) • “cool is irrelevant” (http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/27/fashion/for-college-students- social-media-tops-the-bar- scene.html?_r=0&adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1348708968- MLct9UnOt56qvHMKvGNK4w) • “cool is irrelevant.” • “cool is irrelevant” (“Bars”). • “cool is irrelevant” (NYT 2012)
What would happen?• We might find everything … if we really wanted to …but it would take a lot of extra time.• Do any of us want to take more time to do research than we have to? • Using proper citation styles make things easy for you reader. • Using proper citations helps you steer clear of plagiarism.• Taking the time to think critically about when and how to cite sources will save you and your readers time in the long run.• So we choose one standard style and use it consistently.
When do I need an in-text citation?• When you quote TWO OR MORE words in a row from another text.• When you paraphrase or summarize the ideas or information in another text.• Citations should come at the end of the sentence in which the quotation or paraphrase appears.
In-text citations wouldn’t help me…• They don’t help anyone on their own.• They only work if a list of the sources they reference is provided at the end of a text.• In MLA style we call this the Works Cited page.• In APA style it’s called the References page.• In both styles, the term Bibliography is only used if you include more sources than you actually cited. • You won’t use this in most classes.
How do I know what to include in the Works Cited citation?• Every MLA style Works Cited entry (AKA bibliographic citation) will probably include: • Author name • Title of piece. • Quotations for articles or other short pieces • Italics for books, movies, or other “complete” works. • Publication information • Date of publication • Here’s one for the online newspaper article I cited haphazardly in slide 5: Rubin, Courtney. “Last Call for College Bars.” NYTimes.com. The New York Times, 26 Sept. 2012. Web. 28 Sept. 2012.
Will that work for everything?• NO• There are special rules for each type of source you use.• The newspaper article needed different information, because it’s not from a book and because I found it online.
Then how…??• There are resources to help you. • Hacker and Sommers’ Pocket Style Manual, 6th edition. • Not the 4th or 5th. Remember what I wrote about rules that change… • The Online Writing Lab at Purdue University. • OWL at Purdue. • Google it. • The Center for Reading and Writing for difficult cases.
But I….Don’t even know whatto look up?This is whereInformation Literacycomes in. You have toknow what kinds ofsources you are using inorder to cite themproperly.You also need to knowwhat kinds of sourcesyou are using in order toread them critically…butthat’s for another class.
So how…??• For books it’s easy: Look at the title page.
Check out the titlepage:And, if it’s an anthologycheck out the first pageof the selection.Look for all the importantelements of a citation.Remember the purposeof citation: To make iteasy for someone else tolocate your sources.
But I’m not using a book by one author…• Familiarize yourself with the kinds • The most common are: of sources that could come up by • work in an anthology reviewing the list in your • article in a journal handbook. • article in a newspaper • edition other than the first• Review the information about the source you can find and figure out • Article in an online publication what will work best. (newspaper, journal, website)
So what about EasyBib?• That’s fine….• But if you don’t know what kind of source you are citing or how to cull the correct information, it all comes out garbled.• EasyBib is just a formatting tool.• You, as scholars, need to understand the kinds of sources you are using and how experts in your field have agreed to cite them.• Like everything else in Critical Reading, it takes time and focus to cite and document your sources well.
Works CitedHacker, Diana and Nancy Sommers. A Pocket Style Manual. 6th Ed. New York: Bedford/ St. Martin’s, 2012.Rubin, Courtney. “Last Call for College Bars.” NYTimes.com. The New York Times, 26 Sept. 2012. Web. 28 Sept. 2012.
Exercise• Break into groups of 3• I have brought in 12 information sources• Each group should take two.• You have to figure out how to cite the thing….or the part of the thing I tell you to.• I want a sample in-text citation and a bibliographic citation.• Be ready to share with the class: • Type of source. • How you made the determination. • Where the citation information can be found in your handbook. • You have 20 minutes.