Ruby seen from a C# developer

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At first glance, from a C# developer’s perspective, Ruby may seem a silly language with strange constructs and lousy syntax. But if you are able to get beyond this you will find a powerful and productive language to develop web applications and useful scripts. During the session we will take a look at Ruby from a C# perspective and analyse some of the “oddities” of this marvellous language!

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Ruby seen from a C# developer

  1. 1. RUBY SEEN BY A C# DEVELOPER Emanuele DelBono - @emadb
  2. 2. I AM I am a software engineer and web architect in CodicePlastico. I write web apps in C#, javascript e ruby.
  3. 3. IT ISN’T A RUBY TUTORIAL ! It’s a bunch of stuff that made me say WOW!
  4. 4. C# (2002) ! • Compiled, strongly typed • OOP (multiparadigm) • Delegate/lambda/enumerators • ECMA standard • Mono on Linux and MacOS • “A better java”
  5. 5. RUBY (1995) • Dynamic • Open Source • Interpreted • Multi inheritance through Mixin • Fully OOP
  6. 6. HELLO WORLD using System;! 
 public class Program
 {! public void Main()
 {! Console.WriteLine("Hello World");
 }! }!
  7. 7. HELLO WORLD p 'hello world'
  8. 8. RAILS class Employee < ActiveRecord::Base! belongs_to :company! attr_accessible :name, :surname, :role! has_many :activities! before_save :update_role! scope :managers, -> { where(role: 'manager') }! ! def update_role! # ...! end! def foo! # ...! end ! end
  9. 9. ALL CODE IS EXECUTED class MyClass < (rand < 0.5 ? Array : Hash)! end!
  10. 10. WOW!
  11. 11. REAL OOP class is an instance of class
  12. 12. class Cat end cat = Cat.new puts cat #<Cat:0x007fa2bc13d5d8> puts cat.class Cat puts cat.class.class Class puts cat.class.class.class ! Class
  13. 13. Klazz = Class.new
 => Klazz puts Klazz
 => Klazz puts Klazz.class Class k = Klazz.new => #<Klazz:0x007f8fc121ab58>
  14. 14. Foo = Class.new do def bar "I'm bar...an instance method of foo" end end ! a = Foo.new p a.bar => "hello"
  15. 15. WOW!
  16. 16. SINGLETON METHODS We can add methods to a single instance
  17. 17. class Cat def meow; ’meow’; end end cat = Cat.new new_cat = Cat.new def cat.argh 'argh' end p cat.meow => "meow" p cat.argh => "argh" p new_cat.argh NoMethodError: undefined method `argh' for #<Cat:0x007fda63085878>
  18. 18. ? EIGENCLASS
  19. 19. THE OBJECT MODEL • Every object, classes included, has its own “real class,” be it a regular class or an eigenclass • The superclass of the eigenclass is the object class • The superclass of the eigenclass of a class is the eigenclass of the class’s superclass
  20. 20. THE OBJECT MODEL class C; end class D < C; end obj = D.new #Object C #C D obj Object #D #obj Metaprogramming Ruby - Pag. 125
  21. 21. WOW!
  22. 22. monkey patching “a way to extend or modify the runtime code of dynamic languages [...] without altering the original source code.”
  23. 23. class String def foo to_s + ' fooed' end end s = "hello" puts s.foo => "hello fooed"
  24. 24. REMOVE METHODS class String remove_method :to_s end
  25. 25. WOW!
  26. 26. duck typing When I see a bird that walks like a duck and swims like a duck and quacks like a duck, I call that bird a duck http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duck_typing
  27. 27. class Type1 def foo; "I'm type1"; end end ! class Type2 def foo; "I'm type2"; end end def get_class rand < 0.5 ? Type1 : Type2 end !t = get_class.new p t.foo => "I'm type2" #or I'm type1
  28. 28. METHOD INTERCEPTION Using alias and monkey patching we can run through the execution
  29. 29. class def p end end cat = Cat meow "meow" Cat.new Cat.class_eval do alias :meow_new :meow def meow p "i'm about to meow" meow_new p "did you hear me?" end end => "i'm about to meow" => "meow" cat.meow => "did you hear me?"
  30. 30. METAPROGRAMMING Metaprogramming is the writing of computer programs that write or manipulate other programs (or themselves) as their data […] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metaprogramming
  31. 31. METHOD MISSING class Cat def method_missing(method, *args) #do something without failing end end
  32. 32. class Settings def initialize(options) options.each do |key, value| self.instance_variable_set "@#{key}", value self.class.send :define_method, key,
 proc{self.instance_variable_get("@#{key}")} self.class.send :define_method, "#{key}=",
 proc{|v| self.instance_variable_set("@#{key}", v)} end end end c = Settings.new YAML.load_file("config.yaml") ! p c.title # => "metaprogramming ruby" p c.author # => "Paolo Perrotta" p c.pub_year # => "2010" ! c.title = 'metaprogramming ruby 2.00’ p c.title # => "metaprogramming ruby 2.00”
  33. 33. HOOKS Since all code is executed. You can intercept some “facts” about it. inherited, append_features, included, extend_object, extended, initialize_copy, const_missing
  34. 34. WOW!
  35. 35. BUT THERE’S MORE > [1, 2, 3] * 3 == [1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3] > 1_000_000 > a = a || [] > a = [1,2,3]; a[-1] > [1,2,3].shuffle > (0..9).each { ... } > 3.times {...} > def name=(value); ...
  36. 36. PHILOSOPHY I hope to see Ruby help every programmer in the world to be productive, and to enjoy programming, and to be happy. That is the primary purpose of Ruby language. Yukihiro Matsumoto
  37. 37. o = Object.new! o.methods.count => 54 • ActiveRecord::Base => 367 • String => 161 • Fixnum => 128
  38. 38. SAME METRICS? DIFFERENT WORLD?
  39. 39. RUBY PRO • Simplicity • REPL (irb, rails c, heroku run console) • No ceremony • One file app • Community and frameworks • Expressiveness (DSL)
  40. 40. CONS • Freedom bring responsibility • Performance • No tools for refactoring • Tests are mandatory (mmh…)
  41. 41. DOES IT WORTH?
  42. 42. LINGUISTIC RELATIVITY “The principle of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects the ways in which its respective speakers conceptualize their world.” Sapir–Whorf hypothesis
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistic_relativity
  43. 43. THE PRAGMATIC PROGRAMMER “Learn at least one new language every year. Different languages solve the same problems in different ways. By learning several different approaches, you can help broaden your thinking and avoid getting stuck in a rut.” The Pragmatic Programmer
  44. 44. MORE LANGUAGES 
 ==
 BETTER PROGRAMMER

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