Reconstruction Plans• Once the Civil War was over the federal government had to decide what to do about the southern states that seceded.• Two plans:- Lincoln wanted to rebuild rather than punish the South. Less harsh.- The Radical Republicans were leaders in congress that felt the south should be punished for causing the Civil War. More harsh.
Reconstruction Plans• April 14, 1865 Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth while attending a play at Ford’s Theatre.• Andrew Johnson succeeded Lincoln as the seventeenth president of the United States.• Andrew Johnson supported Lincolns less harsh views of rebuilding the South.• Radical Republicans did not like President Johnson and attempted to have him removed from office by impeaching him.• Radical Republicans were unsuccessful and Johnson remained in office due to one more vote in the Senate.
Radical Republicans Plan• Believed the majority of the southern states voting population should swear allegiance to the United States before they could be readmitted into the Union.• Also felt that freed slaves and their civil rights should be protected.• Felt that congress, NOT the president should be in charge of the reconstruction of the South.
Freedmen’s Bureau• Created by Congress in 1865 as a relief agency to help freed slaves.• Provided clothes, medical attention, food, education, and land for free slaves.• Due to lack of support, Freedmen’s Bureau ended in 1869.
13th, 14th, 15th Amendments• Under the Radical Republicans, Congress passed legislation that helped African Americans after the Civil War.• 13th Amendment – ended slavery throughout the country.• Fourteenth Amendment – granted citizenship to African Americans and guaranteed African Americans all the rights protected by the Bill of Rights.• Fifteenth Amendment – guaranteed the right to vote for African American men. (Women still not allowed to vote)
Sharecropping and Tenant Farming• With no money, land, or property former slaves turned to sharecropping and tenant farming in order to survive.• Sharecropping – agreeing to farm a portion of a white landowners land in return for housing and a share of the crop.• Tenant Farming – rented a portion of the land from white landowners and owned the crops they grew.• Both meant to keep the African Americans at the mercy of the white landowners.
Georgia’s Reconstruction Government• After the war, Georgia needed some form of government.• For while, the federal government took over and appointed a provisional governor. (The military ran the government).• Eventually Rufus Bullock, a Radical Republican, became governor of Georgia.• Ratified the 14th Amendment in Georgia.
Henry M. Turner• One of 32 African Americans that was elected a legislator in Georgia.• Doubted that blacks and whites could live peacefully together.• Complained about the way blacks were being treated and encouraged them to move to Africa rather than stay in the United States.
Unrest in Georgia’s Reconstruction• A faction of Southern Democrats plotted and caused the expulsion of 28 African American representatives for Georgia’s legislature.• Other groups used violence to keep African Americans from exercising their rights.• One of the most infamous white supremacist groups was the Ku Klux Klan (KKK).• KKK would dress up in white sheets and lynch those they targeted.
Unrest in Georgia’s Reconstruction• Governor Bullock was concerned about the unrest in Georgia, and expulsion of the black legislators in Georgia.• Bullock asked the federal government to bring back military rule over Georgia.• Once the military was back in charge the black legislators returned to office and ratified the 15th Amendment.
End of the Reconstruction• In 1876 the Radical Republicans and the Southern Democrats both claimed their candidate won the presidential election.• Both sides argued for months, until Republican Candidate Rutherford B. Hayes became president due to a compromise.• Compromise was called the Compromise of 1877.• Compromise states that Hayes would become president in exchange for the Republicans agreeing to end the Reconstruction in the South.
End of the Reconstruction• With the Compromise of 1877 the southern states now could run their own governments.• Due to the resentment of the Republican party the south entered into a long period called the “Solid South”.• “Solid South” for nearly 100 years the Democrats wont high elections in the south giving them a “solid” grip on southern political power.
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