System of vote counting that allowed rural Georgians to keep governmental control: ended in 1962 Initially, GA was an agricultural state & farmers wanted their votes to count as much as city folks All the smallest counties combined equaled 59% of votes but only 32% of population=1/3rd of voters controlled 60% of votes US Supreme Court ruled the system was a violation of the 14th Amendment (Judge Griffin Bell) Ruling meant that more politicians would possibly come from more populated areas… All other state elections used “plurality”…candidate is elected based on majority of votes Since then, political power seems to come from urban areas
• The General Assembly had to reapportion (redraw) its Congressional voting districts by redrawing to make sure that the districts were of equal population sizes• Many legislators were “drawn” out of office…no longer held a position because their district changed…• 1963-US Supreme Court ruled the system was violation 14th Amendment (Judge Griffin Bell) • winners should be based on # of people voting for them… • Used the phrase1:1 votes = “one man, one vote” • “it doesn’t matter where you live; your vote should count the same as others” • A federal court finally had to draw the lines of the new GA districts for the 2004 November elections
Prior to 2003/2004, most of the state politicians were from the Democratic Party The GA Executive Branch (Governor) was of the Democratic Party for over 100 years The Democratic Party strength had its roots in the Civil War (Lincoln was a Republican) The Democrats were mostly confederate veterans; southerners blamed Republicans for supporting blacks after the Civil War Used to be considered a region of its own where all voters were thought to think alike Some Georgians left the Democratic party for various reasons Dislike for New Deal Programs -Civil Rights Acts of the 1960’s (1961-61% Dem.) Segregation Policies of the 1950’s -Reapportionment lines
1980’s- People thought Republicans had better economic ideals/better for business 1996 – only 34% of voters now claimed to be Democrats Republicans thought to be more conservative (in National Politics) 1980s/1990s, State was Democratic oriented; but National Government was voted Republican 1980-Mack Mattingly first Republican elected to US Senate since Reconstruction 1994-Republicans gained majority in House of Rep…GA, Newt Gingrich, elected Speaker of the House Sonny Perdue, 1st Republican Governor since Reconstruction (He was a conservative Democrat; he changed parties after debates over reapportionment)
• Born Oct. 1, 1924 as James Earl Carter – Plains, Georgia• Attended Georgia Southern College & US Naval Academy• Navy 1946-1953…returned to manage father’s business after father’s death • Warehouse, cotton gin, and peanut businesses• Successful with the business; he devoted much time to public service• His view on racism were different from his peers; he did NOT approve of segregation
• Elected to senate twice: 1962 & 1964 (worked to improve education)• Ran for Governor twice; lost once-1966…won 1970 • Inaugural address surprised people when he said, “racial discrimination is over”• Gubernatorial accomplishments: • Set up task force to study every state agency • Combined 300 agencies into 25 or 30 (saving time & $ for the state) • Equalized distribution of state funds to all schools • Passed laws to protect environment & historical sites (Georgia Heritage Trust) • Government jobs were based on experiences/abilities vs political influence • Appointed women and various ethnic groups/races to state government jobs • Appointed more races than all previous governors combined
• 1976 Election winner ; “hard-working, casual president• People were weary of Politicians-they believed in his honesty • Daughter, Amy, attended public school in D.C. • While President of the United States Jimmy Carter had many positive achievements, but also some negative drawbacks.
• Achievements • Developed mostly peaceful relationships with other countries • Developed & signed Panama Canal treaties • Treaty of Peace between Israel & Egypt (Camp David Peace Accords) • Soviet Salt II Treaty (reducing nuclear arms)…did withdraw US from 1980 Olympics • Established diplomatic relations with China • Took steps against countries that violated human rights • Created the Department of Education and Department of Health & Human Services • Established National Energy Policy as well as major civil service reforms • Expanded national park system & deregulated the trucking & airline industries
• Disappointments • Iranian Hostage Crisis; allowed the former shah of Iran to see a US doctor after the shah was removed by Ayatollah Khomeini • Iranians took 52 Americans Hostage…one rescue attempt failed…they were released after Carter left office (444 days as hostages) • Economic Crisis: high oil prices & high inflation rates
• Returns to Georgia: considered to be the most successful former President of all time• Founded the Carter Presidential Center & the Carter Center at Emory University to “wage peace and fight disease”• Established the International Network Council, The Jimmy Carter Work Project, & the Atlanta Project to assist low income families• He is admired for efforts in negotiating peace, efforts to defeat diseases, ensure fair elections around the world, and worked for Habitat for Humanity• Received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002
• Georgia is the second fastest growing state in the south…these are reports based on “legal” immigrations; they do not account for “illegal” immigrations• These immigrants Georgia impact our economy & communities in a large way • They provide labor for many industries • They bring new customs and businesses that make our state more interesting • They bring diverse opinions and ideas that allow us to consider other ways to conduct our lives • Help in the agricultural, textile and service industries. • Hispanics make up the second largest minority in Georgia.
• William (Billy) Porter Payne-attorney- wanted Atlanta to host the Olympics; he convinced Mayor Young & they put together a committee to convince local leaders that it could happen.• Major improvements were made all over Atlanta; even the Federal Government supplied money to improve Atlanta.• Atlanta benefitted economically & socially by hosting the Olympics • Infrastructure was improved as well as the MARTA system • Run down neighborhoods were renovated & new dorms built for athletes (these were used by Universities after the Olympics) • A new Stadium was built as well as Centennial park
• The bomb that exploded in Centennial Park killed one person & injured 117 during the games; however, many people enjoyed the true “Southern Hospitality” regardless of the critics and for 5 years following the games, people continued to hold more conventions and sports events here in Atlanta.
Left : Bomb Site at the Atlanta OlympicsThe bomb site is evacuated at the 1996Atlanta Olympic Games. The pipe bombwent off near the white sound tower(center) in Centennial Park.Below: Laser lights illuminate the skiesabove Olympic Stadium in Atlanta Sundaynight during the closing ceremonies for theCentennial Olympic Games.