Age of Exploration Part I Do you remember what happened when the Europeans heard of the riches Marco Polo found in Asia?
European Exploration: Part I •Europeans needed spices from East Asia quickly & safelyCause •Tried to find a way to reach Asia faster than Silk Road •Whichever country found the way first would dominateResult •After Columbus “discovered” America & rumors abound, the new race began between France, Spain, & England
France• 1562, Exploring North America for gold, religion, & spices • Especially international prestige• Huguenots (religious group) were looking for a place to worship freely• Founded South Carolina colony: Charlesfort• Explorers ran out of food & supplies• Returned in 1565 but settlers had vacated (life was too hard there)• Founded colony, 1564, Florida-Ft. Caroline
England• Queen Elizabeth I (ruled 1558-1603)• Protestant (enemy of Spain who was Catholic); Also, religious freedom• 1588 defeated the Spanish Armada• British naval dominance allowed for American explorations• Hoped to find gold & discovered making money with copper & furs• Also came for overpopulation in cities/mercantile system• Traded Native American slaves (resulting in Native American deaths) • Native Americans also became involved in selling slaves • Few records exist to verify what actually happened
Spanish•Looking for wealth in North America (God, Gold, & Glory)•Destroyed French Fort Caroline in competition•1568, built first missions in Florida where Fort Caroline had been.•Missions were built to spread Catholicism to convert Native Americans to a new form of society •Ruled by Spanish colonial governments•Indian Chiefs were under Spanish rule-local leaders•Missions were communication points for Spanish with the Indians•Natives & Europeans traded at the missions•Hernando DeSoto one of best know Spanish Explorers
Age of Exploration Part II What happened to the Indians due to all the exploration?
Spanish Explorations: Part II •Ponce de Leon, Cortez, Pizarro, Allyon, & De SotoExplorers •Lucas Vazquez de Allyon, 1526, brought 600 settlers to Georgia Lost •Some from Africa-first Africans here? Colony •Settlement: San Miguel de Guadalupe on the Sapelo Sound •First European in GA & First formed settlement in N. America •Doomed to fail; settlers unprepared for winter & no discovery of wealth •Most explorations were done by the Spanish •Many Spanish colonies were based in the Caribbean Early •Missions were built on the barrier islands for easy access to the mainlandSpanish •Missions were built to convert/”civilize” the Native Americans •Natives used the missions to integrate/assimilate with the Europeans
Spanish Explorations: Part II •Spain considered the French a threat •Sent Pedro Mendez de Avilles (soldier/sailor) to retain territory •From St. Augustine, FL, went to St. Catherines Island •Established Guale (Wallie) (named after an indian friend) with 30 menSpanish •First mission was Santa CatalinaMissions •Many missions failed; King Phillip II set up additonal missions on barrier islands; established 70 mission & 40 missionaries in GA •Friars (catholic priests) wanted to civilize the Natives who “ruled over them” •Juanillo Revolt-local disagreement resulting in killings and abandoned missions •Missions lasted over 100 years •Ended with British aiding Natives and driving out the Spaniards
Spanish Explorations: Part II •First European on interior of Southeast •Looking for gold; landed in Florida first, went through GA, SC, NC, TN, & ALHernando •Brought 600 men, 200 horses, mules, and dogsDe Soto •Traveled up Mississippi; landed close to Albany, GA, 1540 •Introduced natives to white men and horses for first time •Better weaponry; guns, horses, crossbows, and body armor •He took advantage of the Native Americans and many Indians died •He died somewhere along the Mississippi without ever finding gold •Left notes/writings about his exploration
Spanish Explorations: Part II •Europeans robbed & killed approx. 11,000 Native Americans •Many Europeans died on the explorations; most of De Sotos army was lost to starvation and disease •Native Americans died from killings & diseasesOutcome •Measles, smallpox, influenza, & whooping coughfrom De Soto •Many European nations established settlements •European settlements competed with each other as well as Native Americans