Sectionalis m The North became more industrialized and the South reliant on agriculture. This increased tensions between the regions. Divisions among people began to occur based on loyalties to their region.
States Rights Slavery and economics were growing problems between the North and South. The debate over how much power a federal government should have continued to be an issue as well. Southern states feared federal laws could overrule their state laws protecting slavery.
Terms to Know1. sectionalism2. tariff3. slave state4. free state5. nullification6. states’ rights7. Underground Railroad8. popular sovereignty9. free soil10. John Brown
Tariff of Abomination -1828 The United States Congress passed a tariff (tax) on foreign imports to protect American manufacturing. It helped the North where most industries were located but hurt southern consumers who relied on foreign goods to purchase. The South feared that foreign countries (like Great Britain) would retaliate and place a tariff on their cotton.
Nullification Crisis- 1832 South Carolina argued that the tariff was unconstitutional. Led by John C. Calhoun, they threatened to nullify (cancel/reject) the federal tax in the state of South Carolina. President Andrew Jackson threatened to send troops South to enforce the law. South Carolina backed down.
What do you think? Should a state have the right to nullify a federal law if it is harmful to that state? Discuss with the people at your table for a few minutes and come to a consensus for your group.
Balancing States- Free and Slave Missouri wanted to join the United States. People in Missouri wanted slavery to be legal. Northern states wanted to let Missouri join only if slavery was illegal. Congress tried to find a way to keep a balance between slave and free states.
Missouri Compromise -1820 Missouri was allowed to join as a slave state. Maine joined at the same time as a free state to keep the balance ( 12 free and 12 slave). A latitude line was established (36° 30’ N) to divide future slave from free states. (Missouri Compromise Line) The compromise lasted 30 years.
New Lands / New Compromise War with Mexico added more land to the United States in 1848. Texas joined the U.S. as a slave state in 1845. Territories of New Mexico and Utah were created. California gold strike led to their wish to join the U.S. as a new state.
The Compromise of 1850 California joined as a free state. New states could vote (free or slave) as they joined the U.S. through popular sovereignty. Slavery was abolished in Washington D.C. The Fugitive Slave Act was passed to satisfy the Southern states. All escaping slaves had to legally be returned to their owners.
The Georgia Platform- 1850 Georgia held a convention to debate the Compromise of 1850. Georgia would support the Compromise if the Fugitive Slave Act was enforced. Georgians also wanted the North to stop trying to ban slavery in new states. Alexander Stephens led the effort to keep Georgia in the country and to support the Union of the country. The Georgia Platform is credited with preventing war and secession at that time.
Kansas-Nebraska Act- 1854 The Kansas and Nebraska territories were expected to soon join the U.S. The Kansas-Nebraska Act repealed the Missouri Compromise. It gave people in each territory the right to vote for slavery or not (popular sovereignty). Pro-slavery people moved to Kansas to sway the vote towards slavery. Anti-slavery forces sent people to sway the vote for a free state.
Violence Violence between the setters turned the territory into what became known as “Bleeding Kansas” Kansas finally voted to become a free state. Southern states felt the vote was unfair.
Dred Scott- 1857 He was a slave from Missouri. He sued for his freedom in the United States Supreme Court but lost. They said he could not sue for his freedom because he was not a citizen, but rather property of his white master.
Underground Railroad (no notes) A network of safe houses and hiding places for slaves escaping to Canada. Activity increased in the North in response to the Fugitive Slave Act. Harriet Tubman became famous for helping hundreds of slaves reach freedom.
Harpers Ferry (no notes) Abolitionist John Brown led a raid on a U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. He hoped to start a slave uprising by giving them weapons. It failed and he was captured and hanged for treason. Many in the South saw him as a dangerous villain. Many in the North saw him as a hero.
Election of 1860 A new anti-slavery party was formed called the Republicans. Abraham Lincoln was the Republican candidate for president. Three other candidates also ran. Lincoln won a majority of electoral votes, and popular (people’s) votes. No southern states supported him in the election.
Election Chart - 1860 The Election of 1860 Candidate Georgia Popular Electoral Vote U.S. Vote VoteJohn Bell 42,960 592,906 39 (Constitutional Union)John Breckinridge 52,176 858,356 72 (Southern Democrat)Stephen A. Douglas 11,581 1,382,713 12 (Northern Democrat)Abraham Lincoln None 1,865,593 180 (Republican)TOTALS 106,717 4,689,568 303
Secession- 1861 Lincoln’s victory caused southern states to debate secession (leave the Union). They believed Lincoln would end slavery everywhere. South Carolina voted to secede unanimously. Alexander Stephens argued to keep Georgia from seceding. Georgia chose in a close vote to secede in January of 1861. 11 states eventually seceded to form the Confederate States of America. Jefferson Davis became their first president. Alexander Stephens became vice president.
Map of United States- late 1861 (completed) NY PA IN OH DE ILCA VA MD KS MO KY NC TN AR SC MS AL GA TX LA FL
Match the Missouri Compromise , The Compromise of 1850 , or Kansas-Nebraska Act with each statement below.1. A slave or free line was created at 36’30.2. Popular Sovereignty would determine slave or free states.3. It caused violence to break out in the territories.4. Alexander Stephens helped pass the Georgia Platform.5. Slavery was abolished in Washington D.C.6. Maine was added as a free state.7. California was added as a free state.8. The Fugitive Slave Act was agreed to.9. It kept the country together for 30 years.10. The Missouri Compromise was repealed.
Disunion Terms and Dates Quiz Number a lined piece of paper from 1-10. Match the term to the correct definition by writing each term by the number to which it belongs . 1832 states rights sectionalism free state nullification 1828 tariff abolitionist popular sovereignty free soil1. A person strongly against slavery.2. To feel a loyalty to your own region.3. To reject a law of the federal government.4. A tax to help your goods be competitive with foreign goods.5. The year of the Nullification Crisis.6. A system where residents get to vote on an issue.7. The year that the Tariff of Abomination became law.8. The privilege a state has to govern itself by its own rules.9. The right to keep slavery from spreading to new territories.10. A state where slavery was declared illegal.