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kpds, üds; konu anlatımlı test kitabı

kpds, üds; konu anlatımlı test kitabı

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    High score High score Document Transcript

    • HIGH SCORE KPDS TEST BOOK for upper intermediate and advanced learners yasin yaylarf fisebilillah yaylar@gmail.com
    • CONTENTSArticles 1Determiners 3Tenses 11Modals 43If clause 59Wish clause 69Reported speech 73Conjunctions 85Adjectives 105Adverbs 117Prepositions 131Relative clauses 143Gerund - Infinitives 159Participles 171Passive voice 181Causatives 193Phrasal verbs 197Vocabulary questions 217Paragraph analyzing 229Appendix 253Glossary 260
    • Articlesa/ an• one yerine:she has a brother• sıfat tamlamalarında: a strong man, a hard question• mesleklerde:He is an engineer.• bir grubun geneli:A teacher must be patient.• ilk defa bahsedilen şeyler:Suddenly there was a bright light.• her manasında: two times a week, once a year• her zaman çoğul olarak kullanılan kelimeler: a pair of shoes, a pair of glasses• sayılamayan nesneler:a sum of bread, apiece of chocolate* okunuşu sessiz harfle başlayan kelimelerde a:a doctor, a car, a university* okunuşu sesli harfle başlayan kelimelerde an:an optimist, an hour, an FBI agent, an honor for methe• daha önceden bahsedilmiş şeyler:Suddenly there was a bright light. Then the light turned grey.• tek olan şeyler: the moon, the sun• superlative form:the most important thing, the ugliest woman 1
    • • ne olduğu açıkça anlaşılan şeyler: the weather is getting cold.• sıfatlarda geneli kastederken: the poor, the young• milletler:The English, The French• tanınmış yapılar:The Eiffel Tower, The Pyramids, The Topkapı Palace• unvanlar:The President, The Ambassador• kanal, çöl, okyanus, nehir, deniz isimlerinden önce:the Panama Canal, the Sahara, the Pacific, the Nile, the Black Sea• tamlama şeklindeki yer isimleri (of içeren):the Gulf of Mexico, Republic of Maltazero article ( article almayanlar)• özel isimler:Mrs. Thompson, Steven• bir türün geneli: Storks can fly more than twelve hours non-stop.• göl, ada, dağ, şehir, cadde, ilçe, eyalet, ülke isimleri:Lake Van, Long Island, Mount Ararat, Dublin, West Street, Tyler County, Texas, Algeria 2
    • Determiners• Kelimelerden önce gelerek miktarlarını belirtirler. Bu konuda öncelikli olarak bilmemiz gereken countable ve uncountable isimler.bunun için sözlük kullanmakta fayda var.some (of) (biraz) They took some papers with them. (birkaç kağıt) [C] Some of the papers were torn. (kağıtların bazıları) [C] I want some information about her. (biraz bilgi) [U] Some of the information was wrong. (bilgilerin bazıları) [U]any (hiç)sadece soru veya olumsuz cümlelerde kullanılır. Do you have any problems? [C] Do you have any sugar? [U] She didn’t bring any presents for us. [C] I won’t take any responsibility. [U]many/ much (of) (çok) There were not many guests yesterday. (çok misafir) [C] Many of the guests were from Monaco. (misafirlerin çoğu) [C] I don’t have much time. (çok zaman) [U] She spends much of her time on chatting. (zamanının çoğunu) [U]few/ littleolumsuz manada az anlamında. Few people eat sushi in Turkey.(pek az insan) [C] Few of the people die in prosperity. (insanların pek azı) There is little food left for him. (çok az yemek) [U] Little of the food is left.(yemeğin azı)a few/ a littleolumlu manada az There are few trees on the road. (birkaç ağaç) [C] Few of the trees are pine. (ağaçların birkaçı) [C] There is a little cheese in the fridge. (biraz peynir) [U] A little of the cheese is used. (peynirin birazı) [U]a lot/ lot of / lots of (pek çok) You can see lots of cars on the street. [C] He earns a lot of money. [U] I don’t know him a lot. [U] 3
    • neither/ either/ both ofĐki şeyden bahsederken She has two sons. I like neither of them. (ikisini de sevmem) [C] I like either of them. (ikisini de severim) [C] I like both of them. (ikisini de severim) [C]each/ every (her biri/ her) You can have two sandwiches each. [C] Each of you can have two sandwiches. [C] Every student must come on time. [C]no/ none of (hiç) There is no trouble about the schedule. [C] None of the troubles were solved. [C] She has no love for you. [U] None of her love is for you. [U]all/ all of (hepsi) There were seven plates. We bought them all. [C] We bought all of them. [C]whole (tamamı) He ate the whole pizza. [C] I want the whole story. [U]Demonstratives This novel is on love. [C] This meal is cold. [U] That novel is on love. [C] That meal is cold. [U] These novels are boring. [C] No [U] Those novels are boring. [C] No [U]Possessive Adjectives my, your, our, his, her, its, their, Gina’s, school’s, garage’s They will see her new flat. Hospital’s ER is full with injured people.Articles a/ an/ the/ Ø They saw a snake on the grass.bkz. Articles 4
    • Determiners• Kelimelerden önce gelerek miktarlarını belirtirler. Bu konuda öncelikli olarak bilmemiz gereken countable ve uncountable isimler.bunun için sözlük kullanmakta fayda var.some (of) (biraz) They took some papers with them. (birkaç kağıt) [C] Some of the papers were torn. (kağıtların bazıları) [C] I want some information about her. (biraz bilgi) [U] Some of the information was wrong. (bilgilerin bazıları) [U]any (hiç)sadece soru veya olumsuz cümlelerde kullanılır. Do you have any problems? [C] Do you have any sugar? [U] She didn’t bring any presents for us. [C] I won’t take any responsibility. [U]many/ much (of) (çok) There were not many guests yesterday. (çok misafir) [C] Many of the guests were from Monaco. (misafirlerin çoğu) [C] I don’t have much time. (çok zaman) [U] She spends much of her time on chatting. (zamanının çoğunu) [U]few/ littleolumsuz manada az anlamında. Few people eat sushi in Turkey.(pek az insan) [C] Few of the people die in prosperity. (insanların pek azı) There is little food left for him. (çok az yemek) [U] Little of the food is left.(yemeğin azı)a few/ a littleolumlu manada az There are few trees on the road. (birkaç ağaç) [C] Few of the trees are pine. (ağaçların birkaçı) [C] There is a little cheese in the fridge. (biraz peynir) [U] A little of the cheese is used. (peynirin birazı) [U]a lot/ lot of / lots of (pek çok) You can see lots of cars on the street. [C] He earns a lot of money. [U] I don’t know him a lot. [U]
    • neither/ either/ both ofĐki şeyden bahsederken She has two sons. I like neither of them. (ikisini de sevmem) [C] I like either of them. (ikisini de severim) [C] I like both of them. (ikisini de severim) [C]each/ every (her biri/ her) You can have two sandwiches each. [C] Each of you can have two sandwiches. [C] Every student must come on time. [C]no/ none of (hiç) There is no trouble about the schedule. [C] None of the troubles were solved. [C] She has no love for you. [U] None of her love is for you. [U]all/ all of (hepsi) There were seven plates. We bought them all. [C] We bought all of them. [C]whole (tamamı) He ate the whole pizza. [C] I want the whole story. [U]Demonstratives This novel is on love. [C] This meal is cold. [U] That novel is on love. [C] That meal is cold. [U] These novels are boring. [C] No [U] Those novels are boring. [C] No [U]Possessive Adjectives my, your, our, his, her, its, their, Gina’s, school’s, garage’s They will see her new flat. Hospital’s ER is full with injured people.Articles a/ an/ the/ Ø They saw a snake on the grass.bkz. Articles
    • DETERMINERSÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları1. I don’t imagine he wrote the speech 4. Several experts were working on the____ but ____ did so, certainly made a project, and each came up with somegood job of it. interesting proposals, and naturally ____ claimed that ____ was the best.A) for them / whomsoeverB) of his / somebody A) many /eachC) by him / they B) some / itsD) himself / whoever C) we / itE) themselves / whichever D) all / he98K E) each / his 98M2. As ____ of our employees can afford cars 5. If the others hadn’t voted in favor of theof ____ own, they all have to rely on public younger candidate, I probably wouldn’ttransport. have done so ____ .A) few / them A) evenB) some / his B) tooC) none / their C) alsoD) most / our D) as wellE) many / its E) either98K 98M3. The lawyer decided to call ____ of the 6. The editor thought that the new series ofwitnesses only and paid no attention to articles would prove very popular, but____ . actually hardly ____ seems to have been impressed by it.A) both / othersB) the two / any other A) nobodyC) two / the others B) anyoneD) some / another C) the otherE) any / some others D) any other98M E) somebody 99K 5
    • 7. We are confident that the management 11. The failure so far to produce evidenceand the workforce will get on well together of life on any planet but ____ has givenas long as ____ respects ____ . continued strength to the belief in the uniqueness of Earth.A) the other / anotherB) both / itself A) usC) the one / another B) theirD) everyone / themselves C) oursE) each / the other D) our99K E) them 00K8. The majority of ____ are apprehensive 12. ____ half of the budget of the USabout new computer programmes, until National Institute on Ageing is spent onwe’ve actually tried them out for ____ . research into Alzheimer’s disease.A) him / himself A) As much asB) us / ourselves B) More ofC) them / themselves C) Rather thanD) ours / us D) OtherE) theirs / ours E) The most99M 00K9. One gathers from the press that a large 13. He said I was submitting my applicationmajority of the people are not in favour of form rather late. But now I find ____ havethe impeachment proceedings, and, frankly, still not submitted ____ .I’m not, ____ . A) most / theirA) either B) none / anyB) too C) many / itC) also D) others / theirsD) as well E) a few / theseE) even so 00M99M10. Though they had ____ government 14. It looks ____ the hiring committee isntbacking ____ a potential home market, the impressed by his qualifications, and I dontcompany poured billions of dollars into the think the manager of the company is, ____project and lost everything. .A) with / less A) like / alsoB) neither / nor B) as if / eitherC) some / any C) so that / as wellD) no / without D) though / tooE) few / more E) just as / neither00K 00M 6
    • 15. Few things ____ unnerved the Spanish 19. Indeed, the situation is such that theconquerors of the New World ____ the chairman has finally promised to implementprospect of death on Aztec sacrificial stone. ____ the committee recommends.A) as / as A) whoeverB) so / as B) howeverC) not only / but also C) if everD) neither / nor D) as everE) so / that E) whatever01K 02K16. Some anthropologists think that man 20. Of the companys three accountants,today is ____ honest _____ he was only one is useful; ____ deserve to be senthundreds and thousands of years ago. away.A) much / as A) they bothB) the less / than B) all the othersC) the least / of C) both the othersD) little / as D) each oneE) less / than E) each of them01K 02M17. More than ______ invention of the last 21. They are in no way responsible; weeight years or so, television has been the must face the fact that we have only ____most harmful to family life. to blame.A) some other A) itselfB) another B) oursC) the others C) themD) any more D) themselvesE) any other E) ourselves01M 02M18. Basically a country has two objectives 22. The micro air vehicles they are workingin imposing tariffs; one is to raise revenue on are____ small that it will be almostfor government, ____ is to protect home impossible to detect them with radar.industries by raising the price of competinggoods from abroad. A) too B) asA) other C) suchB) both D) soC) another E) moreD) the other 02ME) each02K 7
    • 23. Human activity has destroyed____ 27. A structural formula is a chemicalplant species that collective action is formula that shows how the atoms areessential for the conservation of those that bounded to____ in a molecule.remain. A) anotherA) more B) othersB) so many C) the othersC) many more D) each otherD) the most E) every otherE) as many 07M04K24. Exciting new research is transforming 28. In 1990 it was introduced into the fieldindustrial robotics, offering the promise of of scientific psychology, defined as thewhole new generation of ____ intelligent ability to monitor____ and others’machines. feelings.A) more A) one’s ownB) much B) one another’sC) any C) oneselfD) mostly D) the selfE) too E) each other’s04M 06M25. In business, every trend contains the 29. The doctor who is continuallyseeds of ____ counter-trend. confronted with human suffering cannot afford to become emotionally involved withA) itself ____ patient.B) its ownC) any one A) anotherD) any B) someE) ones own C) each05K D) few E) more 05K26. In Kuwait, foreign companies are 30. The impression I got was that thepresently taxed at 55 per cent of profits, director has completely given up ____whereas the Kuwaitis themselves pay____ hopes he may at one time have cherished.or ____ tax depending on their status. A) as manyA) less / least B) suchB) little / no C) everyC) more / less D) anyD) few / fewer E) so manyE) less / none 02M05M 8
    • KEY TO DETERMINERSBOŞLUK 26 BDOLDURMA 27 D1D 28 A2C 29 C3C 30 C4E5 E*6B7C8B9A10 B11 C12 C13 D14 B15 A16 E17 E18 D19 E20 C21 E22 D*23 B24 A25 B 9
    • TENSESThe Simple Present Tense• rutin işler, Jane goes to school by bus.• alışkanlıklar, My grandpa smokes a cigarette after every meal.• fiziksel gerçekler, The moon circles around the world.• programlanmış olaylar, The train departs at 9.30. Lost begins at 7.00 PM.• hikaye yada fıkra anlatırken, One day a crow goes into pub and asks, “Do you have any cookies.”• durum bildiren fiiller (appendix) Children love playing games.• emir yada tarif verirken, Stop yelling at me! First add some milk to the flour…Time Expressions*Every day ,every week, every…NowadaysThese daysOn Sundays, on Summer daysDikkat: he, she, it olumlu cümlelerde ‘s takısı alıyor.* bundan sonra anlatılan her “tense” konusundan sonra Time Expressions bölümü verilecektir. Zaman zarfıdiyebileceğimiz bu kelimeler cümlenin zamanı hakkında bize ip ucu verecektir.Yani “every day “ geçen bir cümlenin “simple present tense” olabileceğini anlayacağız. 11
    • The Present Continuous Tense• konuşma anında devam eden olaylar, I’m studying English now. Jack is trying to open the jar.• sürekli başımıza gelen ve bizi sinirlendiren olaylar, Melissa is always leaving the light on. The teacher is always warning me.• bir süreç içersinde meydana gelen değişimler, I pods are getting more and more popular. The fear of global warming is rising among people.Time ExpressionsNowFor the time beingAt the moment, at that momentWhile, asWhenCurrentlyAt presentDikkat: be +V ing 12
    • The Past Simple Tense• geçmişte belirli bir zamanda yaşanmış olaylar, A friend of mine drove me home yesterday. Did he graduate last year?• tarihi olaylar, Mehmet The Conqueror surrendered Đstanbul in 1453. After the revolution, churches lost power.Time ExpressionsAgoLast (last year, last week…)YesterdayDates before now (in 1249, in the 19th century)Dikkat: V2 için Appendix 1 13
    • The Past Continuous Tense• geçmişte bir noktada başlayıp belirli bir süre devam eden olaylar, I was working in Scotland when the war broke out. We were playing football when it started to rain. Buraya tablo koy******• geçmişte aynı anda süre gelen olaylar, While the journalists were broadcasting it, the firefighters were struggling with the fire. The little girl was sleeping while her mum was cooking diner.• geçmişte planlanan fakat gerçekleşmeyen olaylar, My sisters were visiting us but they had to turn back early.Time ExpressionsWhenWhileDuringAsDikkat: was/were V ing 14
    • The Present Perfect Tense• geçmişte başlayıp bulunduğumuz zamana kadar devam eden olaylar, They have repaired the car. We can go now. tablo******* I’ve just finished my report.• geçmişte yaşanmış, tarihi önemsiz yada belli olmayan olaylar, Ceyda has told that story before. Has not the puppy caught cold once more?• henüz meydana gelmiş olaylar, I’ve cut my finger! Fetch me some bandages. Oh my God! The car has hit the child!• tekrarlanması muhtemel olaylar, Nuri Bilge Ceylan has won the golden orange twice. Mitch Albom has published his sixth book.For/ since I’ve lived in Eskişehir since 1998. I’ve lived in Eskişehir for ten years. She has never been ill since her childhood. She has never been ill for years.Time ExpressionsJustRecently, latelyBeforeSinceSo farUp until nowAlreadyDikkat: have/has + V3Appendix 1 15
    • The Present Perfect Continious Tense• geçmişte başlayıp bulunduğumuz zamanda halen devam eden olaylar, Mr. Aeron has been working in Jerusalem since 1983. Tablo***** Prof. Ege has been studying on social science for 35 years.• yada sona erse bile bariz etkisi gözüken olaylar, Have you been smoking in here? I’ve been attending a language course. How is my English?• bir süredir meydana gelen değişimler, Finding a good job has been getting harder day by day. Drug consumption has been increasing for some time.Time ExpressionJustDay by dayForSinceRecently, latelyUp until now ***Dikkat: have/ has been V ing 16
    • The Past Perfect Tense• geçmişte meydana gelen iki olaydan daha önce meydana gelen olay, Dr. Claude had worked as a soldier before he came here. Mrs. Hanna had closed the shop when new costumers came.• iki olaydan daha önce meydana gelen olayı (already kullanarak) vurgulamak için, The train had already departed when we arrived at the station. Tablo****** When the police came, the burglar had already gone. By the time I called Alan, he had already left home No longer had the locksmith opened the door, did she find her keys.Time ExpressionsBy the timeNo longerNo soonerAlreadyDikkat: had + V3 17
    • The Past Perfect Continuous• geçmişte başlamış ve bir süre devam ettikten sonra yine geçmişte bir noktada son bulmuş olaylar, When the police found the child, he had been trying to escape from the hut. Tablo***** The dog had been barking all the night when we heard a gun-shot. We had been driving for six hours when we had a flat tire.Dikkat: had been V ing 18
    • FutureThe Simple futurebe going to• planlanmış olaylar, I’m going to see the headmaster at diner. When are you going to be retired?• gelecekte olacağını bir delil sayesinde tahmin ettiğimiz olaylar, The boy is running too fast. He is going to fall. The man is aiming at the bird. He is going to shoot it!will• planlanmamış; ani kararlar, A: I’m going to see the new movie. B: Awesome! I’ll come too. A: Do you like fish? B: No, not at all. A: Ok. I’ll cook some chicken, then.• tarihi kesin olaylarda present continuous kullanılabilir, They are getting married on the 7th of November. He is flying to New York at 8 o’clock tomorrow morning.• önceden programlanmış olaylarda present simple kullanılabilir, Two and a Half Men begins at 5 PM on CNBC-E. The school board gathers at 10 AM tomorrow.Time ExpressionsNext week, next month, next…TomorrowSoon 19
    • Future Continuous• gelecekte belirli bir süre devam edecek olaylar, When I arrive at Houston you will be sleeping. They will be pumping oil when we arrive there.• önceden planlanmış olaylar, Edmond will be waiting for us at the airport. I’ll be driving my new car this time next week.Time ExpressionsThis time tomorrow, this time next yearDikkat: will be+ V ing 20
    • Future Perfect• gelecekte belli bir zamanda tamamlanacak olaylar, By the time I finish my homework, I’ll have written 15 pages. In two years time you will have learnt Chinese. The trees will have given fruit, the next time you visit us. They will have painted the house, by the time we arrive there. Tablo*****Dikkat: will have+V3The Future Pefect• daha önceden başlamış olay gelecekte hala devam ediyorsa, They will have been painting the house for two hours, by the time we arrive there. Tablo******** Samantha will have holding her breath for five minutes when the bell rings.the future perfect or the future perfect continuous Next week I’ll have worked here for six years. (haftaya 6 yılı tamamlayıp işi bırakıyorum.) Next week I’ll have been working here for six years. (haftaya 6 yılı tamamlıyorum, fakat çalışmaya devam ediyorum.)Time ExpressionsBy the timeBy this time next week, by this time next year…in two years time, in six months timeby next week, by next yearDikkat: will have been + V ing 21
    • Which Tense?The simple past or the present perfect Beatles wrote 186 songs all their life. (bir daha yazamayacaklar.) Black Eyed Peas has written 75 songs up until now. (hala yazabilirler.) Marlin Monroe acted in many films during her life. (artık rol alamaz.) Müjde Ar has acted in 36 films so far. (yeni bir filmde rol alabilir.)The present perfect or the present perfect continious She has been learning how to drive a car. (hala öğreniyor.) She has been learnt how to drive a car. (artık öğrendi.)The past perfect or the past simple When the teacher came in, the boys had stopped fighting. (öğretmen gelmeden önce kavgayı kestiler.) When the teacher came in, the boys stopped fighting. (öğretmen gelince kavgayı kestiler.)The past perfect continuous or the past continuous When I saw him, he was moving his house. (gördüğümde hala taşınıyordu.) When I saw him, he had been moving his house. (gördüğümde taşınmayı bitirmişti.) 22
    • TENSE UYUMU Aynı cümle içersinde kullanılan iki farklı tense in birbirleriyle uyumlu olması gerekir.Mesela simple present tense kullandıktan sonra simple past tense kullanamayız. Sorularıçözerken de bu kuralı göz önünde bulundurmamız gerekir.Beraber kullanılabilen tense grupları:the simple present - the simple present The She cries whenever she sees a dog. Every time I phone her, she hangs up.the Simple past - the simple past The officer looked at me when ı entered his room. After I finished writing the letter, I sent it to Martin.the Simple past - the past continuous She was preparing the meal when I called her. When her daughter came in, Mrs. Darko was sleeping.the past continuous - the past continuous He was watching tv while he was drinking a cup of coffee. She was palying a computer game while I was reading a science book.the present perfect - the simple past Brenda has never laughed since she lost her father. I’ve not heard of tom since he went to Paris.the present perfect continuous - the simple past Mr. Nerd has been teaching since he graduated in 1990. US troops have been struggling with suicide attacks since they attacked Iraq.the simple past - the past perfect The robbers had left the bank when the police arrived at the crime scene. By the time the electricity went off, I had finished drawing. 23
    • the past perfect continuous - the simple past Mr. Seyhan had been carrying the coal when his son came to help him. The doctor had been operating on her when I went to see her.the simple future - the simple present I will call you as soon as get off the plane. Susan will be very angry when she sees the broken vase.the simple future - the present perfect You won’t go out until you have finished your homework. As soon as we have taken the permission, we will start building the house.the future perfect - the simple present I will have taken more than 200 photos by the time I turn back to Turkey. Judy will have grown much older the next time we see her.the simple future continuous - the simple present Larry will have been working as a postman for 30 years when he retires next week. The road workers will have been working for six days by the time we pass by them. 24
    • TENSESÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları1. As the decade ____ to wind down, Mark 4. There have been some art critics whoMorris ____ as our century’s youngest ____ in depreciation of Van Gogh that hegreat choreographer. ____ a draughtsman all his life.A) has begun / had stood A) had maintained / has remainedB) will begin / is standing B) have maintained / remainedC) was beginning / has stood C) were maintaining / had remainedD) begins / stands D) maintained / would have remainedE) is beginning / has been standing E) will maintain / remains98K 99K2. In the past few months, our company 5. The Romanian Privatization Authoritydirector ____ more mettle than most announced last week that Renault of Franceindustrialists ____ in an entire career. ____ to be the sole bidder for a majority stake in the national car company, Dacia,A) had shown / have done which ____ cheap cars for the domesticB) showed / would do market.C) shows / didD) has shown / do A) would turn out / had madeE) was showing / may have done B) has turned out / made98K C) would have turned out / is making D) is turning out / has made E) might turn out / makes 99K3. For a hundred years or so some critics 6. At the Brussels meeting over the last____ that poetry is dying and all that time weekend Madeleine Albright, The Americanpoets ____ poems that later generations secretary of State, ____ her allies thatrecognize as great. future NATO missions ____ them further a field, but not all over the world.A) have maintained / have been writingB) maintained / wrote A) assures / is takingC) had maintained / were writing B) has assured / will have takenD) maintain / are writing C) assured / would takeE) would maintain / had been writing D) had assured / took98M E) was assuring / will take 99K 25
    • 7. Marxism ____ an important movement in 11. Over the last few years, consumerBritain even though it ____ its origin here. interest in organic agriculture ____ up dramatically, and demand ____ currentlyA) would never have been / takes ahead of supply.B) had never been / would takeC) never was / has taken A) has shot / isD) would never be / would have taken B) shot / wasE) has never been / took C) had shot / had been99M D) is shooting / has been E) was shooting / would be 00K8. The history of the Venetian Republic 12. Orwell ____ at that moment that when____ to an end in 1797 when Venice ____ the white man ____ tyrant it is his ownover to Austria by Napoleon. freedom that he destroys.A) was coming / would have been handed A) perceived / would turnB) had come / has been handed B) has perceived / turnedC) comes / had been handed C) had perceived / has turnedD) came / was handed D) would perceive / will turnE) would come / was being handed E) perceived / turns99M 00K9. Over the past two decades, the Corsicans 13. With the help of satellite images, the____ their idyllic island, which was wrested Indonesian government ____ that it is theby France from the Genoese in 1768, ____ timber companies which ____ the massinto terrorism, corruption and economic destruction of their rain forests.decline. A) will show / would have causedA) have seen / sink B) would have shown / had causedB) had seen / sank C) had shown / were causingC) saw / to sink D) shows / had been causingD) would have seen / had sunk E) has shown / are causingE) would see / had been sinking 00M99M10. It ____ a mistake to think that all 14. By the late 1980s, a surge of prosperitybacteria are harmful, for, without some ____ across southeast Asia, but in somespecies, we ____ for long. countries of the region the economic structure ____ sufficiently to the benefitA) is / had not survived from this trend.B) would be / could not surviveC) will be / have not survived A) would sweep / could not have developedD) has been / would not have survived B) would have swept / has not developedE) had been / did not survive C) was sweeping / had not developed00K D) has swept / was not developed E) could have swept / was not developing 00M 26
    • 15. The ridicule that ____ upon him by 19. He insisted that mountaineering ____ aleading scientists of the day ____ to the sport for him, but a passion that ____ hisnovelty of his thinking. whole life.A) is being heaped / would testify A) hadnt been / would dominateB) has been heaped / testified B) isnt / has dominatedC) had heaped / has testified C) hasnt been / is dominatingD) was heaping / had testified D) wouldnt be / is dominatingE) was heaped / testifies E) wasnt / had dominated00M 02M16. Early in 1940, when Europe was already 20. When he moved from Ethiopia where heat war, Hitler ____ the sale of uranium ____, to England, his experiences____from the Czech mines he ____ over. quite unlike those of his contemporaries at school.A) has banned / has takenB) had banned / took A) had been born / wereC) banned / had taken B) is born / will beD) bans / was taking C) would be born / would beE) was banning / had been taking D) has been born / are01K E) was born / will be 02M17. Sometimes people select certain foods 21. Once the director _____ just how muchthat they believe ____ their physical was at stake, he _____ immediate steps toappearance and avoid those they believe deal with the dispute.____ detrimental. A) realizes / will takeA) have improved / would have been B) has realized / had takenB) are improving / were C) had realized / tookC) improve / might be D) realized / takesD) improved / had been E) would realize / has takenE) would have improved / have been 03M01K18. While the parades for the opening of 22. The once radical notion that birdsparliament ____, the president ____a _____ from dinosaurs ____ stronger andsobering message for his countrymen. stronger since paleontologists first started taking it seriously a couple of decades ago.A) had rehearsed / preparedB) have been rehearsed / has prepared A) descended / has grownC) were being rehearsed / was preparing B) have descended / grewD) are rehearsing / is preparing C) had descended / had grownE) had been rehearsed / would prepare D) descend / is growing02K E) are descending / was growing 03M 27
    • 23. Is seems that, even if big western 26. Many parts of rural America ____tocompanies____ to help develop lifesaving reflect the values and traditions of theGM ( genetically modified ) seeds for the European immigrants who ____in theunderdeveloped countries, only South country during the nineteenth century.Africa ____to accept them. A) continued / have arrivedA) will be willing / is ready B) have continued / would have arrivedB) has been willing / will be ready C) continue / arrivedC) had been willing / would be ready D) would have continued / were arrivingD) would be willing / was ready E) will continue / would arriveE) were willing / would be ready 06K04M24. China, which_____ much of Mongolia 27. With few exceptions, most totalitarianfrom the end of the seventieth century until governments ____ more liberal since 1989the early twentieth century, still, ____ the when the Berlin Wall____.oil, coal, uranium, and empty grasslands ofits former possessions. A) became / falls B) are becoming / would fallA) was ruling / has coveted C) were becoming / has fallenB) had ruled / may have coveted D) had become / was fallingC) has ruled / coveted E) have become / fellD) ruled / covets 06KE) rules / is coveting05K25. Old Danish, one of the languages of the 28. Of all the arts it ____ to classical musicVikings who ____ in parts of Britain during that Germany ____ the greatestthe 9th to 11 centuries, ____a strong contribution.influence on the development of English. A) had been / madeA) have settled / had had B) is / has madeB) had settled /would have C) has been / had madeC) settle / has D) was / will have madeD) settled / had E) might be / would have madeE) would settle / will have 06K05M 28
    • Çeviri soruları29. He certainly ____ party members last 1. During the Gulf War in 1991, the Iraqiweekend when he announced that he ____ troops caused the worst ever man-madeto regain his party chairmanship. environmental disaster by setting fire to 650 of Kuwaits 950 oil wells.A) has shocked / had not soughtB) would have shocked / will not seek A) Đnsan tarafından şimdiye kadar oluşturulmuşC) had shocked / would not have sought çevre felaketlerinden biri, 1991deki KörfezD) was to shock / is not seeking Savaşı sırasında Irak birliklerinin Kuveytin 950E) shocked / would not seek petrol kuyusundan 650sini ateşe vermesiyle06M meydana gelmiştir. B) 1991deki Körfez Savaşı sırasında, Irak birliklerinin Kuveyte ait 950 petrol kuyusundan 650sini yakması, şimdiye kadar insandan kaynaklanan en korkunç cevre felaketlerinden biriyle sonuçlandı. C) 1991deki Körfez Savaşı sırasında, Irak birlikleri Kuveytin 950 petrol kuyusundan 650sini ateşe vererek insan tarafından şimdiye kadar oluşturulmuş en kötü cevre felaketine neden oldular. D) Đnsandan kaynaklanmış en korkunç cevre felaketi 1991deki Körfez Savaşı sırasında meydana gelmiştir; çünkü bu savaşta Irak güçleri Kuveytin 950 petrol kuyusundan en az 650sini ateşe vermiştir. E) 1991 yılında yalnız Körfez Savaşından dolayı değil, bu savaş sırasında Irak güçlerinin Kuveyte ait 950 petrol kuyusundan 650sini ateşe vermesi yüzünden de insan tarafından şimdiye kadar oluşturulmuş en korkunç cevre felaketi yaşanmıştır. 05M30. The patchwork of Anglo-Saxon and 2. A key problem throughout Japans longCeltic nations, the myths of a rural idyll years of economic stagnation has been thatcreated by rapid urbanization, the close the government and the central bank haverelationship with America and the been at odds.immigration from the West Indies, southAsia and Africa – all____ to the wealth of A) Hükümet ile merkez bankasının arası açıkmusic literature and recordings. olduğu için, Japonyadaki ekonomik durgunluğun uzun yıllar devam etmesi, temel bir sorunA) have contributed olmuştur.B) would contribute B) Japonyada ekonomik durgunluk uzun yıllarC) had contributed sürdüğü için, hükümet ile merkez bankasınınD) will contribute anlaşamaması ana sorun olmuştur.E) to have contributed C) Japonyanın uzun yıllar devam eden ekonomik07M durgunluk dönemindeki temel sorunu, hükümet ile merkez bankasının arasının açık olmasıdır. D) Japonyanın uzun yıllar süren ekonomik durgunluğu boyunca en temel sorunu, hükümet ile merkez bankasının hiçbir zaman uzlaşamamasıdır. E) Hükümet ile merkez bankası anlaşmamakta inat ettikleri için, Japonya’nın ekonomik durgunluğu temel bir sorun olarak yıllarca sürmüştür. 05K 29
    • 3. According to the UN observers in ihe 5. Birleşmiş Milletlerin, Filistinin Yahudi veregion, Rwandan troops have reentered Arap bölgelerine bölünmesini onaylamasıCongo in violation of the peace treaty üzerine, 14 Mayıs 1948de Đsrail devleti ilansigned between the two countries last year. edildi.A) Bölgedeki BM gözlemcilerine göre, Ruanda A) Once The United Nations had recommendedaskerleri, geçen yıl iki ülke arasında imzalanan partitioning Palestine into Jewish and Arabbarış antlaşmasına aykırı olarak, yeniden regions, the state of Israel could have beenKongoya girmiştir. , proclaimed on 14 May 1948.B) Bölgedeki BM görevlilerine göre, geçen yıl iki B) Once the partition of Palestine into Jewishülke arasında yapılan barış antlaşmasını and Arab regions had been approved by theçiğneyen Ruanda askerleri, Kongoya tekrar United Nations, the state of Israel wasgirmiştir. immediately proclaimed an 14 May 1948.C) Bölgede bulunan BM görevlilerine göre, C) Upon the United Nations approval of theRuanda askerleri Kongoya tekrar girerek geçen partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arabyıl yapılan barış antlaşmasını bozmuştur. territories, the state o Israel was proclaimed onD) Bölgede görev yapan BM sorumlularına göre, 14 May 1948.Ruanda askerleri Kongoya yeniden girmiş ve D) The state of Israel was proclaimed on 14 Mayböylelikle geçen yıl iki ülke arasında imzalanmış 1948 since the United Nations wasolan barış antlaşmasını ihlal etmiştir. recommending the partitioning of Palestine intoE) Bölgede bulunan BM gözlemcilerine göre, Jewish and Arab parts.geçen yıl iki ülke arasında imzalanan barış E) The state of Israel was proclaimed on 14 Mayantlaşmasına rağmen, Ruanda askerlerinin çoğu 1948 following there commendation of theKongoya bir kez daha girmiştir United Nations that Palestine should be divided04K into Jewish and Arab territories. 03M4. Hükümet giriş ücretlerini kaldırır 6. 1980lerden bu yana, dünyadaki nükleerkaldırmaz, çok daha fazla kişi müzeleri ve sanayi hızlı bir şekilde düşmektedir vesanat galerilerini ziyaret etmeye başladı. Avrupa Birliği içinde on beş ülkeden yedisi nükleer enerjiden aşama aşamaA) Following the governments ruling for no vazgeçmiştir.entrance charges for museums and art galleries,more and more people will start to visit them. A) Since the 1980s, the nuclear industry in theB) An increasing number of people had begun to world has been declining rapidly, and within thevisit the museums and art galleries even before European Union, seven out of fifteen countriesthe government abolished entrance fees. have phased out nuclear power.C) If the government decides to stop charging B) Starting with the 1980s, there has been aentrance fees for museums and art galleries, steep decline in the nuclear industry throughoutmany more people will start to visit them the world, especially in the European UnionD) As soon as the government had abolished where only seven of the fifteen continue to useentrance charges, many more people started to nuclear power.visit the museums and art galleries. C) The worlds nuclear industry has continued toE) Now, as there are no admission charges for decline since the 1980s; in particular, this is truemuseums and art galleries, following a of the fifteen countries of the European Union,government ruling, an increasing number of seven of which have slowly ceased to use itpeople are visiting them. altogether.03M D) Seven of the fifteen countries of the European Union have gradually put an end to the use of nuclear power; the movement started in the 1980s and has continued world-wide ever since. E) After the 1980s, the nuclear industries of the world have fallen into disrepute, especially in the European Union where seven of the fifteen countries have, step by step, stopped using it altogether. 00M 30
    • 7. Sonunda ormanın kenarına 9. When, in the mid-19th century, the woolulaştığımızda, uzun süre orada durduk ve trade boomed in Yorkshire, almost a tenthönümüzde uzayıp giden manzarayı of the population of Bradford consisted ofseyrettik. Irish immigrants.A) With the forest finally behind us, we stood for A) On dokuzuncu yüzyılın ortalarına doğrua long time looking at the countryside ahead of Bradford’da yaşayan ve nüfusun onda birinius. oluşturan Đrlandalı göçmenler Yorkshire’da hızlıB) On finally getting through to the edge of the bir gelişme gösteren yün ticaretini ellerindeforest we paused for a while, to look at the tutuyorlardı.landscape that stretched out before us. B) On dokuzuncu yüzyılın ortalarındaC) Once we had got through the forest, we Yorkshire’da yün sanayinin hızla gelişmesipaused to look at the landscape that lay ahead Bradford’a yerleşen Đrlandalı göçmenlerinof us. nüfusunun on kat artmasına neden oldu.D) When we finally got to the edge of the forest, C) Bradford nüfusunun onda birini oluşturanwe stood there for a long while and looked at Đrlandalı göçmenler, on dokuzuncu yüzyılınthe landscape that stretched out before us. ortalarında Yorkshire’da hızlı bir gelişmeE) When we finally came out of the forest we gösteren yün dokumacılığının temelinistood there, gazing for a long time at the oluşturuyordu.countryside in front of us. D) On dokuzuncu yüzyılın ortalarında,01M Yorkshire’da yün ticareti hızlı bir gelişme gösterdiğinde, Bradford nüfusunun hemen hemen onda biri Đrlandalı göçmenlerden oluşuyordu. E) On dokuzuncu yüzyılın ortalarına doğru Yorkshire’da yün ticaretinin hızla gelişmesi Bradford’daki Đrlandalıların hemen hemen onda birinin göç etmesi ile sonuçlandı. 98M8. Mozart iki yüz yedi yıl önce bu ay 10. Đspanya Kralı II. Philip 1580’deöldüğünde, daha sonra öğrencisi Süssmayr Portekiz’i aldığından bu yana Portekizlilertarafından tamamlanan Requiemini hep derin bir işgal korkusu taşımışlardır.bitirememişti. A) Since the Spanish King Philip II took overA) It was Süssmayr, one of Mozarts students, Portugal in 1580, the Portuguese have alwayswho completed the Requiem, left unfinished by had a deep fear of invasion.the composer when he died two hundred and B) After Philip II, King of Spain, conqueredseven years ago this month. Portugal in 1580, the Portuguese wereB) When Mozart died two hundred and seven extremely afraid of the consequences of hisyears ago this month, he had been unable to invasion.finish his Requiem, which was later completed C) Ever since Portugal was captured in 1580 byby his student Süssmayr. the Spaniards under Philip II, the PortugueseC) Two hundred and seven years ago this people have been unremittingly fearful ofmonth, when Mozart died, he left his Requiem another invasion.unfinished for his student Süssmayr to complete. D) The Portuguese had always been afraid of aD) Upon Mozarts death two hundred and seven Spanish invasion even before Portugal was takenyears ago this month, his student Süssmayr over in 1580 by Philip II, the King of Spain.completed the Requiem which the composer had E) The Portuguese people’s deep-seated fear offailed to finish. invasion dates back to 1580 when Philip II ofE) The Requiem, which Mozart had been unable Spain conquered Portugal.to complete before his death two hundred and 98Mseven years ago this month, was finished by hisstudent Süssmavr.99M 31
    • 11. Başkan Yeltsin Đtalya’ya yaptığı geziyi 13. On dokuzuncu yüzyılın sonlarında Xtamamlarken, Rusya’nın ulusal gaz şirketi ışınları keşfedildiğinde, bilim adamlarıGazprom da Đtalyan enerji grubu ENI ile 2 benzer tür başka ışınlar bulmak için hemenmilyar dolarlık bir sözleşme imzaladı. yoğun araştırmalara giriştiler.A) President Yeltsin’s visit to Italy ended with A) It was in the late nineteenth century that,the signing of a $2 billion contract between following the discovery of X-rays, scientistsRussia’s national gas company Gazprom and suddenly embarked on a serious researchItaly’s energy group ENI. programme to trace various other similar rays.B) During President Yeltsin’s last visit to Italy, a B) Following the discovery of X-rays in the$2 billion contract was signed between Russia’s nineteenth century, comprehensive research wasnational gas company Gazprom and Italy’s soon undertaken by scientists in order to detectenergy group ENI. other rays of the same kind.C) The $2 billion contract between Gazprom C) Towards the end of the nineteenth century,which is Russia’s gas company and ENI which is when X-rays were discovered, scientists wereItaly’s energy group was signed just as already involved in extensive research in orderpresident Yeltsin ended his tour of Italy. to study other kinds of rays.D) As the President Yeltsin rounded up his visit D) The discovery of X-rays in the late nineteenthto Italy, Gazprom, Russia’s national gas century motivated scientists to carry outcompany, signed a $2 billion contract with the exhaustive research in order to detect otherItalian energy group ENI. types of rays.E) While President Yeltsin’s visit to Italy was E) When X-rays were discovered in the latenearing its end, the $2 billion contract between nineteenth century, scientists immediately setthe Russian gas company Gazprom and the out on intensive research to find other similarItalian energy group ENI was finally signed. types of rays.98M 06K12. When the Sirkeci train station went into 14. Ortaçağ haritaları Hollanda’nınservice on November 3, 1890, the waiting neredeyse yarısını su altında gösterir, amaroom was heated with stoves brought from o zamandan beri denizden geniş alanlarAustria and lit by coal-gas lamps. kazanılmıştır.A) 3 Kasım 1890’da hizmete giren Sirkeci tren A) In medieval maps nearly half of theistasyonunun hava gazı lambalarıyla aydınlatılan Netherlands is under water, but since then thebekleme salonu, çoğu Avusturya’dan ithal edilen sea has withdrawn from large areas.sobalarla ısıtılıyordu. B) Large areas of what is now the NetherlandsB) Sirkeci tren istasyonu 3 Kasım 1890’da have often been claimed from the sea, but inhizmete girdiğinde, bekleme salonu medieval maps they were under water.Avusturya’dan getirtilen sobalarla ısıtılıyor ve C) Nearly half of the Netherlands does not existhava gazı lambalarıyla aydınlatılıyordu. on medieval maps but later large areas wereC) 3 Kasım 1890’da, bekleme salonu hava gazı recovered from the sea.lambalarıyla aydınlatılan ve Avusturya’dan ithal D) Medieval maps show that large areas of theedilen sobalarla ısıtılan Sirkeci tren istasyonu Netherlands used to be under the sea, but theyhizmete girdi. have since been reclaimed.D) Sirkeci tren istasyonu 3 Kasım 1890’da E) Medieval maps show nearly half of thehizmete girdiğinde, hava gazı lambalarıyla Netherlands under water, but since then largeaydınlatılan bekleme salonunu ısıtmak için areas have been claimed from the sea.Avusturya’dan soba ithal edilmişti. 06ME) Sirkeci tren istasyonunun Avusturyasobalarıyla ısıtılan ve hava gazı lambalarıylaaydınlatılan bekleme salonu, 3 Kasım 1890’dahizmete girmişti.06K 32
    • Cümle tamamlama soruları1. ____ even though certain difficult 4. While most people still saw computers aseconomic conditions prevail. science fiction, ____.A) European equities display strong profit A) the discriminating few immediatelygrowth appreciated their advantagesB) In 2004, the European economy remained B) the early ones were large in size and low infundamentally sound performanceC) Inflation had actually begun to improve C) they continue to get smaller and moreD) There were several other encouraging signs versatileE) It should have been easy to maintain the D) it is hard to imagine how banks earned oncompetitiveness their work without them05M E) a majority still wish they had never been invented 04M2. ____ when the occupancy levels in the 5. ____ so long as you pay attention andhotel fall off steeply. stick to the rules.A) There are no profits to be made during the A) There is a huge number of fascinating wreckscold winter months around BritainB) The hotel regained its five-star rating in 1996 B) Wrecks under the sea can contain hazardousC) The rebuilt Star has retained the original materials like oil and mutionsshell, but scarcely any of the fittings C) Scuba diving is very safeD) Training schemes were receiving even D) Scuba was first patented in 1865 and wasgreater attention perfected over the yearsE) Outside temperatures reached 50°C E) Scuba divers get a great deal of pleasure05M from exploring wrecks 04M3. When the feminist movement came into 6. ____, when Eveready introduced thebeing, _____. alkaline battery.A) a major issue is still the right to vote A) Their technological success is stili beingB) the aim had been to combat oppression questionedC) women were seen as constituting a single B) Many new materials have been adapted forclass battery useD) discrimination against women still continues C) Mercury, too, has recently been eliminatedin the workplace from batteries on account of its toxicityE) The professional-class working mother is D) The lifespan of these batteries are expectedanother exception to improve05K E) The first major advance in flashlight batteries came in 1959 04K 33
    • 7. In good hands, the harpsichord will 10. ____ that basic evolutionary processesalways have things to offer____. in the future will differ substantially from those in the past.A) that its value has never been doubtedB) which other musical instruments cannot A) The breaking up of habitats will createC) if yet another challenge had to be faced populationsD) even when the performances were not quite B) Nobody had thought to ask themselvesflawless C) They are carrying out a study of islandE) since a substantial amount of his earthy biogeographyperiod has been recorded D) There is no reason whatsoever to assume04K E) The argument was further supported 02M8. Kerrich carried out exhaustive 11. Though some scholars argue that ____,experiments in probability ____. others say that the beginning of the 15th century saw its real rise.A) until the coin has been tossed a thousandtimes A) by the latter part of the 12th century most ofB) if he had been arrested when the Germans the literary conventions of Urdu literature haveinvaded Denmark already been well establishedC) whether the coin toss is truly random B) the 12th century was the time of the greatD) while he was interned in a camp in Jutland religious movements in Indiafor the duration of the war C) Urdu literature dates back to the 12th centuryE) that he has been acclaimed as one of South D) most of the literary writings in India in theAfricas leading mathematicians 12th century consisted of religious tracts and02M allegories E) most Urdu poets in the 12th century turned to romances and narratives of heroic deeds 02K9. After he had learned my side of the story 12. ____, there just wasnt enoughfrom Molly, ____. evidence to convict him.A) his apologies are obviously worthless A) If the trial had been postponed to a later dateB) he phoned me to apologize for his attitude B) Since almost nothing the accused himself saidC) I dont even want to listen to his apologies could be substantiatedD) hes still too proud to admit he behaved badly C) Though he seemed extremely reluctant toE) it will obviously be better to forget all about it sign the statement02M D) Even before the judge had finished summing up the case E) Although everyone was convinced that Smith had committed the murder 02K 34
    • 13. _____, so the introduction of 16. ____ ,we need to find ways to copemetalworking made trade with the outside with it.world inevitable. A) As the disease wasn’t curedA) Compared with those of the iron ages, stone B) If relaxation was essential for a healthy mindage tools were very primitive and bodyB) Many ores, such as copper and tin are not C) After we had learned the living conditionsfound in all countries D) Whether he has confidence in our plans orC) The "bronze age" is a term used in prehistoric notarcheology E) Since we can not remove stress from ourD) The chemical processes involved in the livessmelting of ores were not as complicated 01ME) Subsequently the knowledge of metalworkingmust have spread among the less advancedcommunities around01M14. Iron deficiency is one of the commonest 17. ____ , Japanese firms moved the morecauses of anemia _____. intensive phases of their production process to cheap labour sites in East Asia.A) since even in a good diet the supply of iron isonly just adequate A) As production cost in Japan had becomeB) why adolescents outgrow their stores of iron excessiveC) which would result in brittle nails B) Unless the working day is kept at eight hoursD) though new ways of treating pernicious C) Once the trade unions in Japan have won aanemia were soon introduced few more victoriesE) as numerous iron preparations are available D) So long as a reduction in costs remains thefor treatment primary goal01M E) If interest rates in Japan had remained high 00M15. Pharmaceutical companies are unlikely 18. ____ a greet many alarming theoriesto develop a vaccine for an uncommon are sure to spring to the fore.disease like leprosy______. A) Before the truth had been verifiedA) how early diagnosis could help B) Even though his death had almost certainlyB) so that pressure would be put on them been from natural causesC) if the choice had been given to them C) If several perfectly natural explanations hadD) until the various charities were informed been put forwardE) that can be treated with drugs D) Whenever there are anonymous terrorist01M attacks E) As soon as this admittedly unpleasant incident got forgotten 00K 35
    • 19. While businesses and stores have 22. Before Freud shed light on dreams andstarted to perform well and make profits, extraordinary role of the subconscious,____ . ____ .A) only a crack in the stock market was to be A) there are many who have grasped theirfeared significanceB) inflation and unemployment have been held B) educated people in particular regardedin check dreams as meaningless and pointlessC) the economy ought to be able to withstand a C) many traditional ways of interpreting dreamsrecession are being analyzedD) the Euro currency could stand up to so much D) the relationship between stress and dreamscriticism would surely have been recognizedE) fiscal transfers across European nation states E) many great writers still draw on the principleswere of minimal importance of human psychology99K 98K20. ____ , there will be a notable decrease 23. ____ until Thomas Paine published Thein the profits of most businesses. Common Sense and sparked off the American Revolution.A) If people start to spend less and save moreB) However efficiently the inflation was curbed A) George Washington considered himself a loyalC) Had these reasonable measures been British subjectintroduced earlier B) Idealism hasn’t often been a determiningD) Before the financial situation could be fully factorunderstood C) Voltaire’s influence would have been moreE) Though the leading economists had started to pervasive,grow more hopeful D) That was a period of radical change in all99K spheres E) They were the people responsible for shaping the national character of the United States 98K21. As heavy rain had been forecast for the 24. ____ that scientists are now sendingarea, ____ . out “e prints” instead of preprints of unpublished articles.A) record harvest are expected this yearB) they would presumably cancel the excursion A) Prior to the internet, it was not possibleto the ruins in the valley B) One change that the advent of the internetC) I can’t imagine why they neglected to take all has brought isnecessary precautions to avoid flooding C) The internet has indeed opened many doorsD) farm labors would have to work overtime and D) The benefits of technology should not beweekends overratedE) the resulting floods caused widespread E) Among academics, technological advanceshardships attract less attention98M 98K 36
    • 25. ____ while such African languages as 28. In general, when credit demand is low,Hausa and Swahili continued to serve the ____.everyday needs of the masses. A) it is not sensible to take out loans duringA) During the colonial era in Africa, English deflationbecame the shared language of the B) following the wrong guideline could haveadministration and a Western-educated elite, been catastrophicB) In colonial Africa, the teaching of English C) interest rates measure the cost of credit, notliterature is no longer popular the price of moneyC) Modern African writers have found it D) interest rates are correspondingly lownecessary to adapt certain aspects of English, E) precautionary savings were rising at this timeD) Today, English is the official language of 06Msixteen countries in Africa,E) English as a second language has been taughtin Africa for nearly four hundred years,06K26. Before the 21st century has run its 29. ____ when countered by antistresscourse, ____. measures such as exercising, enjoying time with friends and cultivating a hobby.A) the powers of computers have expandedvastly due to advanced research A) The ladder of success is a hard oneB) countless technologies not envisioned yet will B) There must be a balance between tension andbe available to us relaxationC) a great deal of scientific effort is being made C) Workloads seem lighterto find solutions to complex problems D) Relaxation techniques are easy to learnD) most people in developed countries enjoy a E) Stress can be understood in a variety of waysstate of true health throughout their lives 07ME) our knowledge of the world around us hasimproved to a great extent06K27. By 1809, Sweden’s military power had 30. The United Nations officially recognizedwaned to such an extent ____. the greenhouse effect in 1995, ____.A) as a new constitution transferred power from A) when its International Panel on Climate notedthe king to Parliament that human activity had a discernible influenceB) so that it could no longer continue as a great on global temperaturespower B) as the economies of developing nations willC) that the country was forced to surrender part grow over the next few decadesof its territory to Russia C) if developing nations were exempted from theD) in that nearly one million Swedes migrated, Kyoto Agreementmostly to America D) since the US government announced that itE) even though the Swedes had contributed to would not participate in Kyoto AgreementEurope’s Age of Enlightenment with advances in E) that the participating nations must makescience large and costly changes in their energy systems06K 07M 37
    • Benzer cümle soruları31. Oxygen, sugars and amino acids are 1. Until recently people felt that Nigerianallowed into the brain ____. ministers were being too optimistic, but there is now no question that the country’sA) as toxins could severely impair the brain’s financial position is growing steadilyfunctioning stronger.B) which provided early evidence of the blood-brain barrier A) It is now clear that Nigeria’s economy is in aC) but most other substances are kept out strong upward cycle but previously peopleD) that controls which molecules in the doubted the hopeful attitude of Nigerianbloodstream can enter the brain ministers.E) just as no other organ is equally efficient B) Nigerian ministers today have no07M apprehensions about their country’s financial status, as it is plain that it is constantly getting better. C) In the past, even though Nigeria’s economic status was constantly improving, people were often mistrustful of its ministers’ confident views. D) Though Nigerian ministers were previously skeptical of positive ideas about their country’s financial status, it has become obvious that its economy is advancing day by day. E) Today we see that Nigeria is progressing economically, but in the recent past, this was not the case and economists were wary of the optimistic views of its leaders. 06K 38
    • Paragrafa uymayan cümle soruları1. (I) X-rays, chemical analysis of paint and 3. (I) In 1912 some of the topclose scrutiny by expert eyes are all used to mathematicians in the world receivedtell art forgeries from the real thing. (II) letters full of incredibly complex formulas.But now computer scientists at Americas (II) They came from Madras, India, from aDartmouth College have come up with a 23-year-old accounts clerk named Srinivasadigital method for sorting the real from the Ramanujan. (Ill) He claimed to havecounterfeit. (III) Drawings or paintings are worked them out in his spare time afterscanned at high resolution and a computer leaving school. (IV) It is an ambition onebreaks them down into digital elements shares with lots of people, of all ages andcalled wavelets. (IV) An analysis of backgrounds. (V) One of the lettersMadonna with Child by the Renaissance reached Professor G.H. Hardy of Trinitypainter Perugino showed that at least four College, Cambridge, who soon realized thatpeople had worked on the six faces in the the formulas were the work of one of thepainting. (V) The wavelets are then greatest mathematical geniuses of all time.analyzed statistically to find consistenciesor differences. A) I B) IIA) I C) IIIB) II D) IVC) III E) VD) IV 02KE) V05M2. (I) in India, a lower-middle-class group 4. (I) Global warming is bringing newis steadily emerging, (II) it was a long time arrivals to British shores. (II) Sincebefore any improvements were made to the 1980,18 new fish species have been caughtinfrastructure, (III) Further, with the off the coast of Cornwall. (Ill) As the waterarrival of television, the expectations of warms up, they feel the need to movethese people have risen considerably. (IV) northward. (IV) Since they are cold-Indians are now demanding better blooded creatures, they have to findeducation for their children. (V) They are suitable surroundings in which to regulatealso asking for tarred roads to facilitate their temperature. (V) Indeed, betweenbusiness, and better products and services 1960 and 1980 no new species wereto make their lives easier. reported any where in the area.A) l A) IB) II B) IIC) III C) IIID) IV D) IVE) V E) V04M 02K 39
    • 5. (I) It should be stated at the outset that 7. (I) In Brazil, as in much of Latinit is the successful farmers with the best America, oil in particular has long been aquality land who have generally benefited political symbol. (II) This has beenfrom all the government support. (II) represented by the countrys federal oilTraditionally the farmers on plateau in company Petrobras. (III) Consequently,Central India cultivated a large number of mismanagement and subsidized pricingunirrigated wheat varieties. (III) With the paralyzed the system with debt. (IV) Whenintroduction to this region in the late founded in 1962, it was regarded as an iconsixties of electricity, and the technology for of emancipation from foreign economicdigging deep wells, they were induced to domination. (V) Yet, today the Brazilianchange to irrigated farming. (IV) Moreover, government has taken serious steps to end,to develop high-yielding varieties of wheat through privatization, Petrobrass oilappropriate for irrigated farming, the monopoly.government set up a wheat research centrein the area. (V) This was then backed up A) Iwith the organization of special training B) IIcourses for farmers. C) III D) IVA) I E) VB) II 99KC) IIID) IVE) V00M6. (I) The collapse of the economies ofsouth east Asia in the early years of thedecade was later followed by that of Korea,the classic tiger economy. (II) Whathappens next in a region that is nowstrewn with the wrecks of so-calledeconomic miracles? (Ill) This leaves Europeand United States as significant massmarkets. (IV) The assumption thatrecession will spread in the region owing tocapital flight and belt-tightening is mostplausible. (V) This will deepen as foreigninvestors increasingly reduce their profilein south east Asia.A) IB) IIC) IIID) IVE) V00M 40
    • KEY TO TENSES 26 C 4ABOŞLUK 27 E 5C BENZER CÜMLEDOLDURMA 28 B 6E 1A1E 29 E 7B2D 30 A 8D PARAGRAF3A 9B 1D4B ÇEVĐRĐ 10 D* 2B5E 1C 11 C 3D6C 2C 12 E 4E7E 3A 13 E 5A8D 4D 14 A 6 A*9C 5C 15 E 7 C*10 B* 6A 16 E11 A 7D 17 A12 E 8B 18 D13 E 9D 19 B*14 C 10 A 20 A15 E 11 D 21 C*16 C 12 B 22 B17 C 13 E 23 A*18 C 14 E 24 B19 E 25 A20 A CÜMLE 26 B21 C TAMAMLAMA 27 C22 A 1A 28 D23 E 2A 29 C24 D 3C 30 A25 D 31 C 41
    • OUTLINE OF MODALS MODAL KULLANIM PRESENT / FUTURE PAST 1- kibar ricalar May I use your internet? X 2- izin isterken may You may wait in the lobby. X (resmi) 3- düşük ihtimaller She may forget to bring the camera. She may have forgot to bring the camera. might düşük ihtimaller She might forget to bring the camera. She might have forgot to bring the camera. 1- tavsiyeler I should stop smoking. I should have stopped smoking.should-ought to He should be delayed in the traffic. He should have been delayed in the traffic. 2- yüksek ihtimaller had better You had better come early, or else we start eating without X tehditkar tavsiyeler you.be supposed to öngörü You are to be here at 9:00. You were to be here at 9:00. 1- kendimiz için emir I must see the headmaster. I had to go to class yesterday. must You must not enter that room. X 2- yasaklar I heard a voice. There must have been somebody 3- yüksek ihtimal I hear a voice. There must be somebody outside. outside. 1- dıştan gelen emir I have to see the headmaster. He asked for me. I had to see the headmaster. He had asked for me. have to 2- gereksizlik You dont have to buy onions. We have enough. You didnt have to buy onions. We had enough. 1- kesinlik (gelecek) X I will be at the meeting at 3:00. will 2- kibar ricalar Will you please show me the way? X 1- kabiliyet Can you ride a horse? Could you ride a horse when you were a child? can 2- izin isterken Can I borrow your ruler? X 3 - ihtimal Diving can be dangerous. Diving could have been dangerous. need gereklilik The room needs cleaning. The room needed cleaning. You neednt buy eggs. We have enough. You neednt have bought eggs. We had enough. used to eski alışkanlıklar X I used to like fish before.(would kullanılmaz) * would eski alışkanlıklar * X I would see the dentist every week before. ** durum bildiren fiillerle kullanılamaz. bkz. appendix 2 43
    • MODALSÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları1. Its not considered safe to leave your 4. Cross-border shopping is a fundamentalcomputer on when you are not in the office, right under EU law and ____ as a form ofso you____ do so. tax evasion.A) dont have to A) must not have been regardedB) mustnt B) had not been regardedC) neednt C) should not be regardedD) havent got to D) would not have been regardedE) dont need to E) was not being regarded02M 06M2. Applicants ____ the ability to work well 5. If a financial gain is thereby achieved,in a multicultural environment and ____ to then the time spent in the educationalwork to tight deadlines. process____ seen as an investment.A) have had / had been able A) might have beenB) should have / be able B) would beC) must have / were able C) wasD) will have / had had D) had beenE) could have / have had E) can be05M 07M3. All hay fever sufferers will be aware ofthe pollen “rain” that ____ them in thespring and summer.A) should afflictB) can afflictC) had afflictedD) would afflictE) afflicted06K 44
    • Çeviri soruları1. Eğer bir kişiyi kendi davan için kazanmak 3. Rescuers estimate that up to 5000istiyorsan, önce onu, onun gerçek dostu people may have died in a remote provinceolduğuna ikna etmelisin. of northern Afghanistan after an earthquake completely devastated theA) In winning a person to support your cause, area.you must first of all establish that you are trulyhis friend. A) Bölgeye giren kurtarma ekipleri, KuzeyB) Before you can win a man to your side, you Afganistan’ın uzak bir eyaletini tamamen tahripmust first prove to him that you are a faithful eden bir depremden sonra 5000 kadar insanınfriend. ölmüş olabileceğini bildirmektedir.C) If you want to win a man to your cause, you B) Kurtarma görevlileri, Kuzey Afganistan’ınmust first convince him that you are his true uzak bir eyaletinde meydan gelen tahrip gücüfriend. çok yüksek depremden sonra 5000’den fazlaD) The very first step in persuading to take up insanın ölmüş olduğunu açıkladılar.your cause is to impress on him that you are C) Kurtarma uzmanları, Kuzey Afganistan’ıngenuine friend of his. uzak bir eyaletini tamamen tahrip edenE) Should you wish to win a man over to your depremden sonra, en az 5000 kişinin ölmüşside, you have in the first place to convince him olabileceğinden endişe etmektedirler.of your true friendship. D) Kurtarma görevlilerince, en az 5000 kişinin98M ölümüne neden olan depremin, Kuzey Afganistan’ın uzak bir eyaletini tamamen yerle bir ettiği bildirilmiştir. E) Kurtarma görevlileri, Kuzey Afganistan’ın uzak bir eyaletinde, bölgeyi tamamen tahrip eden bir depremden sonra 5000 kadar insanın ölmüş olabileceğini tahmin ediyorlar. 99M2. Eğer hafif uçaklar veya helikopterler 4. Cinsel iktidarsızlık, yaşlanmanın doğalmevcut olsaydı, felaket alanı üzerinde bir işareti olabileceği kadar, bünyede şekerbunlarla yapılacak alçak uçuşlar, hasarın veya yüksek tansiyon gibi ciddi bircoğrafi boyutları hakkında hızlı bilgi gelişmenin belirtisi de olabilir.sağlayabilirdi. A) Diabetes and hypertension, which areA) If light aircraft or helicopters were available, generally regarded as serious bodilylow altitude flights over the disaster area would developments, have the same symptoms asyield rapid information on the geographic extent sexual impotence in old age.of the damage. B) One of the serious developments that old ageB) Had light aircraft or helicopters been ready, causes in the body is sexual impotence whichflights at low altitudes over the disaster area may also be a common symptom of diabetescould have provided useful information as to the and hypertension.geographic extent of the disaster. C) It is not only old age but also diabetes andC) The geographic extent of the damage in the hypertension which, as serious developments indisaster area could have been established by low the body, cause sexual impotence.altitude flights If light aircraft and helicopters D) The causes of sexual impotence, a naturalhad been available. condition of old age, are usually regarded asD) So long as light aircraft and helicopters for related to diabetes or hypertension.low altitude flights are available, valuable E) Sexual impotence can be as much a naturalinformation concerning the geographic extent of sign of growing old as the symptom of a seriousthe damage in the disaster can be obtained. development in the body, such as diabetes orE) The geographic extent of the damage in the hypertension.disaster area could have been rapidly learned if 99Monly light aircraft and helicopters could havebeen made available for low altitude flights.99K 45
    • 5. According to a report published last 7. According to the "capitulations"week, annual stipends for British graduate generously granted by the Ottomanstudents should be increased by more than sultans, the foreigners operating within thea third. Empire could import and sell goods at any price they chose and were largely exemptA) Geçen hafta yayımlanan bir rapora göre, from taxes.Đngiliz lisansüstü öğrencilerinin yıllık bursları üçtebirden daha fazla artırılmalıdır. A) Osmanlı padişahlarınca cömertçe verilenB) Geçen hafta açıklanan rapora göre, Đngiliz kapitülasyonlara göre, imparatorluk içindelisansüstü öğrencileri harçlarının yıllık olarak faaliyet gösteren yabancılar, malları, tercihüçte birden daha fazla artması gerekir. ettikleri herhangi bir fiyattan ithal edipC) Geçen hafta yayımlanan bir rapora göre, satabiliyorlardı ve büyük ölçüde vergidenĐngiliz lisansüstü öğrencilerinin üçte birinden muaftılar.daha fazlasının yıllık burslarının artırılması B) Osmanlı padişahlarının cömertçe verdiğişarttır. kapitülasyonlara göre, imparatorluk içindeD) Geçen hafta yayımlanan bir rapor ticaretle uğraşan yabancılar, istedikleri malıdoğrultusunda, Đngiliz lisansüstü öğrenci istedikleri fiyattan alıp satabiliyor ve tümharçlarının her yıl üçte bir oranından daha fazla vergilerden muaf tutuluyorlardı.artırılmasına karar verildi. C) Osmanlı padişahlarınca cömertçe verilenE) Geçen hafta açıklanmış olan bir rapora kapitülasyonlar sayesinde, imparatorluk içinde işdayanarak, Đngiliz lisansüstü öğrencilerine sahibi yabancılar, mallarını istedikleri fiyattanyapılan yıllık ödemeler üçte birden daha fazla ithal ediyor ve satıyor, üstelik çoğu hiç vergiartırıldı. vermiyordu.00K D) Osmanlı padişahlarınca cömertçe verdikleri kapitülasyonlarla, imparatorlukta yaşayan yabancılara, her türlü malı uygun gördükleri fiyattan ithal edip satma ve vergilerin tamamından muaf olma hakkı tanımışlardı. E) Osmanlı padişahlarınca cömertçe verilen kapitülasyonlar sayesinde, imparatorluk içinde yerleşmiş olan yabancılar, istedikleri malı, tercih ettikleri fiyattan ithal edip pazarlıyor ve geniş bir vergi muafiyetinden yararlanıyorlardı. 00M6. In the first place, we should ask how it is 8. Sustainable development is a keypossible for a wet rainforest to be ruined by concept that needs to be analyzed andfire. debated before it can be implemented by the underdeveloped countries in the world.A) Öncelikle yoğun nem içeren yağmurormanlarının yangınla tahrip edilip A) Sürdürülebilir gelişme, tanımlanmaya muhtaçedilemeyeceğini araştırmamız gerekmektedir. ve tartışılmaya açık; ancak dünyada az gelişmişB) Đlk önce bizce çok yağış alan bir yağmur ülkelerin uygulamaları için kapsamlı birormanının yangınlarla yok edilmesinin nasıl kavramdır.mümkün olduğu araştırılması gereken bir B) Sürdürülebilir gelişme, dünyada az gelişmişkonudur. ülkelerce uygulanabilmesi için öncelikleC) Öncelikle sorgulamamız gereken, nemli bir tanımlanması ve yorumlanması gereken sağlamyağmur ormanının tahrip edebilecek bir yangının bir kavramdır.nasıl ortaya çıktığıdır. C) Sürdürülebilir gelişme, tartışılması veD) Her şeyden önce, nemli bir yağmur ormanının yorumlanması gereken; ancak dünyadaki azyangınla tahrip edilmesinin nasıl mümkün gelişmiş ülkelerin uygulayabileceği yararlı birolduğunu sormamız gerekiyor. kavramdır.E) Her şeyden önce, yoğun yağış alan yağmur D) Sürdürülebilir gelişme, dünyadaki az gelişmişormanlarının yangınlarla yok edilmesinin ülkelerce uygulanmadan önce, irdelenmesi vemümkün olup olmayacağını sormamız tartışılması gereken bir kavramdır .gerekecek. E) Sürdürülebilir gelişme, dünyadaki az gelişmiş00M ülkelerin uygulamaya koymadan önce iyice tanımaları ve yorumlamaları gereken çok önemli bir kavramdır. 00M 46
    • 9. Sosyal psikoloji açısından bakıldığında, 11. Abu Dhabi may be the largest andkültürün insanlar arasında yayılması, insan wealthiest of the seven emirates thatdoğasındaki, çoğunluğu ve en başarılı constitute the United Arab Emirates, but itkişileri taklit etme eğilimiyle is Dubai that has come to the fore.ilişkilendirilebilir. A) Her ne kadar Dubai çok bilinse de Abu Dabi,A) Considered from the point of view of social Birleşik Arap Emirliklerini kuran yedi emirliğinpsychology, the spread of culture among en büyüğü ve en zengini olarak görülebilir.humans can be related to the tendency in B) Birleşik Arap Emirliklerini oluşturan yedihuman nature to imitate the majority and the emirlikten en büyüğü ve en zengini Abu Dabidir,most successful individuals. ancak bunlardan en çok bilineni Dubaidir.B) From the point of view of social psychology, C) Birleşik Arap Emirliklerini oluşturan yedithe spread of a culture seems to relate to mans emirlikten biri olan Abu Dabi, bunların endesire to imitate either the majority or the most büyüğü ve en zenginidir ama Dubai daha çoksuccessful people. bilinir.C) The spread of a culture, if we consider it from D) Abu Dabi, Birleşik Arap Emirliklerini oluşturanthe point of view of social psychology, seems to yedi emirliğin en büyüğü ve en zengini olabilir,be related to mans need to conform with the ancak öne çıkmış olan Dubaidir.majority and successful individuals. E) Dubai daha iyi tanınmakla birlikte, AbuD) As regards social psychology, the desire to Dabinin Birleşik Arap Emirliklerini oluşturanstay with the majority and admire the successful yedi emirliğin en büyüğü ve en zengini olduğuhas been an paramount force in the spread of kabul edilebilir.culture. 04ME) The spread of culture is the result of socialpsychology whereby man has a tendency toimitate the majority and the most successfulindividuals.01M10. Under a new resolution passed by the 12. Minority representatives in any politicalSecurity Council, Iraq will once more have establishment must be made to feel thatto place all its oil earnings under UN their interests are sufficiently protected.control. A) Herhangi bir siyasal kuruluşta, azınlıkA) Güvenlik Konseyinin almış olduğu yeni bir temsilcileri, çıkarlarının tam olarak korunduğunukarara göre, Irak, petrol gelirlerinin tümünü hissetmelidirler.BMnin denetimine bırakmaya zorlanacaktır. B) Herhangi bir siyasal kuruluştaki azınlıkB) Güvenlik Konseyince kabul edilen yeni bir temsilcilerine, çıkarlarının yeterince korunduğukarara göre, Irakın tüm petrol gelirleri BM hissettirilmelidir.denetimine bırakılmak zorundadır. C) Herhangi bir siyasal kuruluşun azınlıkC) Güvenlik Konseyinin aldığı yeni bir karar temsilcileri, çıkarlarının olabildiğinceuyarınca, BM, Irakın petrol gelirlerinin tümünü korunduğunu hissedebilmelidirler.denetim altına alacaktır. D) Azınlık temsilcileri, bir siyasal kuruluştakiD) Irakın tüm petrol gelirlerinin BM tarafından çıkarlarının tamamen korunduğunudenetim altına alınacak olması, Güvenlik hissetmelidirler.Konseyince kabul edilen yeni bir karara E) Bir siyasal kuruluş, azınlık temsilcilerine,dayanmaktadır. çıkarlarının tamamen korunduğunuE) Güvenlik Konseyince kabul edilen yeni bir hissettirmelidir.karar gereğince, Irak, yine, tüm petrol gelirlerini 06MBM denetimine bırakmak zorunda kalacaktır.02K 47
    • 13. Yaklaşık olarak M.Ö. 8. yüzyılda Homer 15. A person’s health history may reveal atarafından kaleme alınan Truva Savaşı disease that interferes with the body’s usehakkındaki destanlar, birkaç yüzyıl boyunca of nutrients or that affects the person’ssözlü olarak korunmuş olabilir. eating habits.A) Homer’s epics about the Trojan War were A) Kişinin sağlık öyküsü, yemek yemesiniwritten down, probably in the 8th century B.C., engelleyen veya bedeninin besinlerdenbut may have been around for centuries in oral yararlanma sürecini etkileyen bir hastalığı açığaform. çıkarmada kullanılabilir.B) Homer apparently wrote down the epics of B) Kişinin sağlık öyküsü, bedenin besinlerdenthe Trojan War sometime in the 8th century yararlanmasını engelleyen veya kişinin yemekB.C., but they had already existed in oral form yeme alışkanlıklarını etkileyen bir hastalığı açığafor centuries. çıkarabilir.C) The Trojan War epics had probably existed for C) Đnsanın yemek yemesini engelleyen veyacenturies in oral form before they were finally bedenin besinlerden yararlanma sürecinitranscribed by Homer sometime in the 8th etkileyen hastalıklar, kişinin sağlık öyküsündencentury B.C. yararlanılarak ortaya çıkarılabilir.D) The epics about the Trojan War written down D) Bir kişinin sağlık öyküsünden, hem onunby Homer in about the 8th century B.C. may yemek yeme alışkanlıklarını etkileyen hem dehave been preserved orally for several centuries. bedenin besinlerden yararlanmasını engelleyenE) Homer transcribed the Trojan War epics hastalıklar kolaylıkla anlaşılabilir.sometime during the 8th century B.C., but their E) Bedenin besinlerden yararlanma süreciniorigins go back to an earlier oral tradition. etkileyen veya kişinin yemek yemesini06M engelleyen hastalıkların çoğu, kişinin sağlık öyküsünden anlaşılmaktadır 06K14. Çocuklar daha fazla bağımsızlıkkazandıkça, onların genleri kendilerineuyan çevreler yaratmak için daha aktif birtarzda işleyebilir.A) Once children start to grow moreindependent, their genes operate in a morepositive manner to create environments that suitthem better.B) As children get more independence theirgenes start to operate more forcefully to createwhat is for them a more congenial environment.C) As children gain more independence, theirgenes can operate in a more active manner toproduce environments that suit them.D) When they attain more independence,children start to desire a more congenialenvironment and their genes work with them toattain it.E) Once children have attained a greater degreeof independence, their genes prompt them todesire a more congenial environment.06M 48
    • Cümle tamamlama soruları Benzer cümle soruları1. ____ I would never have felt the need to 1. I surely couldn’t have been expected toread them. forgive him readily as this wasn’t the first time he’d tried to cheat me.A) Whichever of these modern plays he maydecide to direct A) It was only natural that I should have beenB) Unless some books on the care of house unwilling to forgive him as he had behavedplants are given to me as a present dishonestly towards me on other occasions.C) However many cookery books my husband B) As he’d tried to cheat me on several previousmay care to give me occasions, I felt I was right not to forgive himD) Until I saw him intently reading those this time.sermons C) It was impossible for me not to forgive himE) If she had not written so enthusiastically even though he’d tried to deceive me severalabout the diaries of Scott of the Antarctica times before.00K D) I might have been willing to forgive him if this had been the first I’d caught him cheating me. E) Since this wasn’t the first time he’d attempted to deceive me I was obviously not going to forgive him. 98K2. ____ ,we need to find ways to cope with 2. All agree that the environment has to beit. protected, but should it really take priority over education and public health?A) As the disease wasn’t curedB) If relaxation was essential for a healthy mind A) Are we all agreed that the needs ofand body environmental protection should take priorityC) After we had learned the living conditions over the claims of education and public health?D) Whether he has confidence in our plans or B) Though the need for environmental protectionnot is not contested, do we really regard the claimsE) Since we can not remove stress from our of education, and public health as of lesslives importance?01M C) It is not agreed that the claims of education and public health cannot be ranked below those of environmental protection? D) However pressing may be the needs of environmental protection, is it not generally agreed that those of education and public health should take priority? E) The claims of education and public health will come high on our list of priorities, but cant we agree to put those of environmental protection even higher? 99K 49
    • 3. He should face the fact that hell never 5. They might just as well close the cafe forbe as great a pianist as his father . this year, as the tourists have all left.A) The father is a wonderful pianist, but the son A) They can’t be bothered to run the cafe aftershows even more promise. the tourist-season is over.B) The father is a great pianist, and the son is B) Once the season is over and the tourists havehoping to be at least his equal. gone, they’ll probably decide to close the cafe.C) I dont think hell ever admit that his father is C) I think they plan to close the cafe once thethe greater pianist, but he ought to. tourists have all gone away.D) As a pianist, hes just not the equal of his D) There’s no point in keeping the cafe openfather and never will be, so hed do well to now, since the season is over and there are noaccept the fact . more tourists around.E) The son seems set to surpass his father as a E) Since the tourists have gone, they find itpianist; he even admits the fact hardly profitable to keep the cafe open.99K 99M4. I do wish they could have planned the 6. Millions of Germans are uneasy about thejourney so as to allow us a week in London. prospect of reform because they fear the process will be painful, but they suspectA) If only the travel arrangements had made it that in the long run it will have to come.possible for us to spend a week in London.B) We hoped they would rearrange the A) As they expect the process of reform willprogramme to allow us a full week in London. prove extremely painful, millions of Germans areC) Travel arrangements have been made so as reluctant to admit that in the end it will have toto allow us a whole week in London. come.D) They have arranged for us to travel to B) Though its obvious that, sooner or laterLondon and spend a week there. reform is inevitable, the feeling among a lot ofE) They plan to allow us a week in London if people in Germany is that it should bethat’s what we wish. postponed for as long as possible.99M C) A great many people in Germany find the likelihood of reform worrying as they are afraid it will prove unpleasant, but they have a feeling that in the end it will be inevitable. D) Since the process of reform promises to be unpleasant, the majority of Germans are trying to pretend that it need never happen. E) Though they admit that there is a need for reform, millions of Germans nevertheless fear the process, which will inevitably be painful, and seek to postpone it. 00K 50
    • 7. He finds the new job far more 10. For many years now transport plannersdemanding than the old one, but I expect in the UK have been demanding thathell soon get used to it. motorists pay directly for the use of roads.A) He has to put a lot more effort into this job A) In the opinion of British transport planners, itthan into the previous one, but hell soon get is the motorists themselves who should haveused to it. paid for the upkeep of the roads all these years.B) His former job was easier than his present B) Over the years, transport planners in the UKone, but that was because he was used to it. have been suggesting that the upkeep of roadsC) Once he was settled into his new job, hell must be paid for by the motorists themselves.probably find it just as stimulating as his old C) Transport planners in the UK have, for a longone. time now, been insisting that those who use theD) Until hes familiar with the work in the new roads must pay for them directly.job, hes obviously going to find it less pleasant D) British transport planners recommended, athan the old one. long time ago, that those who use the roadsE) Until he gets accustomed to the new job, hell must pay for their upkeep directly.wish he had stayed in the old one. E) In Britain, transport planners have been01K arguing for many years that the upkeep of the roads is the responsibility of motorists. 03M8. You would do well to wait a little before 11. He should have known better than tobuying a car. have left his son in charge of the factory if only for a week.A) If you are thinking of buying a car, this is theright time. A) Though it was only for a week, it was foolishB) You must realize that this is not the right of him to make his son responsible for thetime to change old car. running of the factory.C) Dont buy now; car prices are expected to B) it was quite wrong of him to leave his son tofall. run the factory for as long as a week.D) It would be better if you didnt buy a car just C) it was foolish of the boy to imagine he couldyet. take his fathers place in the factory for a week.E) Buy a car now and you wont regret it later. D) He must have known that he couldnt leave00M his son in charge of the factory for a whole week. E) He was mistaken in thinking that his son was up to the responsibility of running the factory for a week. 04M9. We might well find that we need more 12. You should be able to tell the meaningthan three weeks in which to complete a of this word from its context.report of this kind. A) The context of the word gives one a prettyA) It shouldnt take us more than three weeks to good idea of what it must mean.finish a report like this one. B) Out of context I couldnt say what this wordB) We might as well try to get this report means.finished within three weeks. C) As you know the subject well, cant you makeC) I dont imagine we can get through this out what hes trying to say?report in three weeks, but we can try. D) You dont know the word but you can stillD) A report of this kind has never been drawn make an educated guess as to what it means.up in under three weeks. E) It wasnt difficult to figure out what he wasE) Its quite likely that three weeks wont be trying to say.sufficient for us to finalize such a report. 05K03M 51
    • 13. I dont believe she is particularly clever, 15. Some scientists think that a meteorbut she has a great deal of charm and impact, that occurred around 65 millionpeople tend to do what she wants. years ago, may have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs.A) Though she really is not very intelligent, shehas charm and people are always pleased to A) In the opinion of some scientists, theaccept her leadership. extinction of the dinosaurs could have been theB) She may not be very bright, I personally result of the impact of a meteor which occurreddont think she is; but she certainly has a roughly 65 million years ago.winning way with people so they generally act in B) According to some scientists, the extinction ofthe way she wants. the dinosaurs was caused by a meteor thatC) Her intelligence is no more than average, but struck Earth 657 million or so years ago.she makes up for this with charm, so she can C) Some scientists reckon that the impact of amanipulate people easily. meteor that struck Earth some 65 million yearsD) It is as much her charm as her intelligence ago need not have caused the extinction of thethat enables her to make people act in the way dinosaurs.she wants them to. D) These scientists agree that the impact of aE) She doesnt need to be intelligent as she has meteor over 65 million years ago must havethe gift of knowing-how to charm people so that caused the extinction of the dinosaurs.they act in the way she wants. E) The extinction of the dinosaurs could only05M have been caused by a meteor impact that occurred some 65 million years ago. 05M14. I cant understand why we havent 16. The sooner we get the new system intoheard from him yet: he must have received action, the better.the parcel several days ago. A) Once the new system is working, theA) Surely he would have contacted us situation will improve.immediately on receiving the parcel; but its B) We should get the new system working ashardly likely that it hasnt reached him. soon as possible.B) Im worried because he still hasnt contacted C) Sooner or later well have to install a newus could it be that the parcel still hasnt reached system.him? D) At some future date a new system is going toC) Its odd that he still hasnt got in touch with be necessary.us: surely the parcel reached him at least a day E) We are going to get a new system installedor two ago. without delay.D) I was sure hed get in touch with us about 05Mthe parcel; could it be that he hasnt received ityet?E) He really ought to have got in touch with usbefore this, unless, of course, he still hasntreceived the parcel.05M 52
    • 17. Of all the decisions a free people must 19. Im not sure, but I have a nasty feelingface, the question of war or peace is the he didnt do at all well at the interview.most crucial. A) Actually, in my opinion, he may have done aA) A free people is never confronted by a more lot better at the interview than he fears.momentous choice than that of war or peace. B) I hope Im wrong but from what I can gatherB) The choice of war or peace is a critical one, he made a real mess of the interview.but all free people do, on occasion, have to face C) Its not definite yet, but I suspect he didntit. perform as well as he claims at the interview.C) The issue of war or peace is a vital one but D) I could be wrong but Im afraid hisfree people sometimes have to come up against performance at the interview was rather poor.it. E) Its not very nice of me, and I may beD) When confronted with the choice of war or mistaken, but I dont think he was any good atpeace free people realize it is the most the interview.momentous of all issues. 02ME) The most critical choice that a free people isever called upon to make concerns the issue ofwar or peace.06M18. An engineer must attempt to foreseepossible misuses of a product by aconsumer, and take this into account in hisdesign.A) When designing a product an engineer shouldconsider how a consumer might misuse it, andadjust the design accordingly.B) An engineer should never forget that hisproducts will be misused and so he must makethem as safe as possible.C) In designing a product, an engineer shouldremember that it will most likely be misused byconsumers unless his design prevents this.D) An engineer should design products thatconsumers cannot possibly misuse.E) Engineers know that, however well a producthas been designed, consumers will always find away to misuse it.07M 53
    • Bu durumda söylenebilecek cümle1. You have moved to a new house and are 3. A friend of yours has fallen and brokenlooking for a fairly large, original picture to his leg. it will have to be in plaster for quitehang near the front door. You have a friend some time. Since hes normally a verywhose taste you trust and who has a lot of active person, hes going to find it veryfriends in the art world. You think he can difficult to lead a more sedentary life. Youhelp you find something suitable, so you cant offer much comfort but do your bestsay to him; and say:A) I wish you’d keep an eye open for a picture A) I’m afraid your leg wont heal for a long time.that would look good on the wall by my front B) What are you going to do all day stuck here?door. C) What were you doing? You must have beenB) I don’t own a picture large enough to hang at very careless.the top of the stairs. D) Whats happened has happened. Youll justC) The picture needn’t be large but it must be have to make the best of it.imaginative and colorful. I leave the rest to you. E) Even when they take the plaster off, it willD) Should I commission someone to paint a still be difficult to walk!picture to hang on that wall? 04KE) How much would I have to pay for an originalpicture of the right size for this wall?98M2. You need a book from the library rather 4. A friends child is acting in a veryurgently but just cant spare the time to go disturbing way. You feel that professionalthere. You overhear a colleague say hes help is urgently needed, so you say to yourgoing to the library, so you write down the friend and her husband:title of the book you want and the authoron a slip of paper, and you go up to him and A) Why dont you wait a little? l think youresay: being over-anxious. B) all children go through difficult limes.A) Next time you go to the library theres a book C) I really think you ought to consult aI want you to borrow for me. psychiatrist as soon as possible.B) As youre going to the library anyway, would D) Its probably just a phase hes going through.you mind taking this book out for me? Not to worry.C) I do wish youd let me know when youre E) You must come to some agreement betweengoing to the library, so you can take out any yourselves before going to a psychiatrist.book I might need. 04MD) I shall be needing this book shortly. Can youget it for me?E) If youre going anywhere near the library Iwish youd choose some nice light reading forme.02K 54
    • 5. Your director at work has offered you apromotion. You don’t want to take theposition even though there would be alarge pay increase, because it wouldinvolve moving your family to another city.You go to the director and say:A) What do you think I should do?B) Thank you for considering me for thisposition, but I’ve decided I’d rather stay where Iam for now.C) Could you give me a week to think it over?D) How much would my salary increase were Ito take this promotion?E) I’ll take the position only if I can find a goodjob for my wife and good schools for mychildren.06K 55
    • KEY TO MODALSBOŞLUK CÜMLE BU DURUMDADOLDURMA TAMAMLAMA SÖYLENEBĐLECEK1B 1E CÜMLE2B 2E 1 *3B 2B4C 3D5E BENZER CÜMLE 4C 1A 5B 2BÇEVĐRĐ 3D1C 4B2B 5 *3E 6 A*4E 7A5A 8D6D 9E7A 10 C8D 11 A9A 12 A10 E 13 B11 D 14 C12 B 15 A13 D 16 B14 C 17 E15 B 18 A 19 E* 56
    • If ClausesFuture possibility if + V1 , will/may/can + V1• gelecekle ilgili ihtimaller, She will apply for the job, if they have a position. Mr. Clark will have an operation, if the doctor thinks it’s necessary. We will buy some gas if we run out of it.Real present if + V1 , V1• fiziksel gerçekler, If you heat the water, it boils. The sun rises from the east.Unreal present if + V2 , would/could/might + V1• içinde bulunulan zamanla ilgili varsayımlar, If I were* a teacher, I would give high marks to my students. (ama öğretmen değilim.) I could take photos if I had my camera with me now. (ama fotoğraf makinem yanımdadeğil.) If Ezgi were taller, she could reach the glass. (fakat boyu uzun değil.)Unreal past if + had V3 , would/could/might + have V3• geçmiş için söylenen varsayımlar, If you had warned them earlier, they wouldn’t have gone to that forest. (uyarmadın ve ormana gittiler.) My grandpa could have lived longer if he hadn’t smoked. (fakat sigara içiyordu ve öldü.) Jason wouldn’t have had an accident if he had driven carefully. (ama dikkatsiz sürdü ve kaza yaptı.)* Varsayımın gerçek olmadığını belirtmek için was yerine were tercih edilir. 57
    • Mixed Clausesunreal present + unreal past If he were a successful businessman, he wouldn’t have gone bankrupt. (başarılı bir iş adamı değil ve bu yüzden iflas etti.) If I were Jack, I would have already resigned. (ama onun yerinde değilim.)unreal past + unreal present If he had raised her son better, he wouldn’t be in the jail now. (oğlunu iyi yetiştiremedi ve oğlu şu an hapiste.) If she had passed her exams, she would be a seventh grader now. (sınavını geçemedi ve hala altıncı sınıfta.)Unless (if not) If you don’t do what she wants, she will cry all day. Unless you do what she wants, she will cry all day. They will cut on your wage, if you don’t go on time. They will cut on your wage, unless you go on time. 58
    • IF CLAUSESÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları1. If they ____ what sort of a person he 4. If we ____ the terms of the contract, allwas, they ____ him their support. the paint-work in the building ____ finished by the 15th of next month.A) would know / didn’t giveB) knew / won’t give A) are to meet / will have to beC) had known / wouldn’t have given B) were meeting / will beD) would have known / hadn’t given C) met / would have had to beE) have known / haven’t given D) had met / is being98K E) will meet / was being 98M2. ____ the embargo imposed on us is lifted 5. Marxism ____ an important movement inin the near future, we can’t hope for any Britain even though it ____ its origin here.economic recovery. A) would never have been / takesA) Whereas B) had never been / would takeB) While C) never was / has takenC) Because D) would never be / would have takenD) In case E) has never been / tookE) Unless 99M98M3. Most newspapers are of the opinion that 6. Julius Caesar ____ a great historian ifif a majority of Scots really ____ the making of history ____ him the timeindependence, the British Parliament has and the inclination to write it.no option but ____ to their wishes. A) could be / could have allowedA) did want / had acceded B) would be / allowedB) wanted / have acceded C) had been / would have allowedC) had wanted / would have acceded D) would have been / could allowD) do want / to accede E) could have been / had allowedE) would have wanted / acceded 01K98M 59
    • 7. Had it not been for the variety and 11. One day humans ____on Mars if USflexibility of its trades, Huddersfield, like so President Bushs recently announced plansmany of the other textile towns, ______ ____to fruition.into a decline in the 20th century. A) could be walking / comeA) was going B) would walk / had comeB) had gone C) can be walking /will comeC) would have gone D) would have walked / comeD) would go E) will be walking / might comeE) had been going 05M01M8. If she____ to the interview in a more 12. If you _____ a car, you _____ itspositive state of mind, she ____a better performance, not its appearance.impression. A) were buying / had been consideringA) will go / would make B) were buying / would have consideredB) goes / has made C) bought / had consideredC) had gone / might have made D) have bought / would have been consideredD) would go / had made E) are buying / should be consideringE) has gone / makes 05K02M9. If Britain ____ the euro, say in 2004, the 13. The acquisition of knowledge bystability pact ____ highly important. reading a book can give pleasure and benefits to an individual equivalent toA) will be joining / is becoming consuming an ice-cream or seeing a film atB) has joined / will have become the cinema. But education can also helpC) will have joined / will become advance in a chosen career ____success isD) would join / has become achieved in specific examinations.E) were to join / would become02K A) even so B) since C) if D) as if E) unless 07M10. Is seems that, even if big western 14. Several species of birds in Vietnamcompanies____ to help develop lifesaving vanished during the war, ____they beganGM ( genetically modified ) seeds for the to reappear in the 1980s and their gradualunderdeveloped countries, only South return has been encouraged by VietnameseAfrica ____to accept them. villagers.A) will be willing/ is ready A) butB) has been willing / will be ready B) sinceC) had been willing/ would be ready C) unlessD) would be willing/ was ready D) whenE) were willing / would be ready E) if04M 07M 60
    • Çeviri soruları1. Eğer bir kişiyi kendi davan için kazanmak 3. Malthus, öz olarak, eğer nüfus geçimistiyorsan, önce onu, onun gerçek dostu imkânlarından daha hızlı artarsa, bununolduğuna ikna etmelisin. daha düşük bir yaşam düzeyine yol açacağını iddia ediyordu.A) In winning a person to support your cause,you must first of all establish that you are truly A) In essence, what Malthus claimed was thathis friend. when a population increased faster than theB) Before you can win a man to your side, you means of subsistence, living standards dropped.must first prove to him that you are a faithful B) Malthus claimed in essence that, if afriend. population increased faster than the means ofC) If you want to win a man to your cause, you subsistence, this would lead to lower livingmust first convince him that you are his true standards.friend. C) The essence of what Malthus suggested wasD) The very first step in persuading to take up that if a population increased faster than theyour cause is to impress on him that you are means of subsistence, a lowering of livinggenuine friend of his. standards could be inevitable.E) Should you wish to win a man over to your D) The claim of Malthus was that a lowering ofside, you have in the first place to convince him living standards was inevitable as the populationof your true friendship. had grown faster than the means of subsistence.98M E) According to Malthus, living standards would naturally fall as the population was growing faster than the means of subsistence. 01M2. Eğer hafif uçaklar veya helikopterler 4. Bir çocuk, doğduğu zaman annesiylemevcut olsaydı, felaket alanı üzerinde babası evliyse "meşru"dur.bunlarla yapılacak alçak uçuşlar, hasarıncoğrafi boyutları hakkında hızlı bilgi A) The parents married when the child was born,sağlayabilirdi. making it "legitimate". B) A child is said to be "legitimate" if its parentsA) If light aircraft or helicopters were available, are married before it is born.low altitude flights over the disaster area would C) A "legitimate" child is one whose parents areyield rapid information on the geographic extent married at the time of its birth.of the damage. D) The child is "legitimate" as, when it was born,B) Had light aircraft or helicopters been ready, the parents were married.flights at low altitudes over the disaster area E) A child is "legitimate" if its parents arecould have provided useful information as to the married when it is born.geographic extent of the disaster. 02MC) The geographic extent of the damage in thedisaster area could have been established by lowaltitude flights If light aircraft and helicoptershad been available.D) So long as light aircraft and helicopters forlow altitude flights are available, valuableinformation concerning the geographic extent ofthe damage in the disaster can be obtained.E) The geographic extent of the damage in thedisaster area could have been rapidly learned ifonly light aircraft and helicopters could havebeen made available for low altitude flights.99K 61
    • 5. Eğer Rusya reform yapacak ve sonuçta 7. Last fall, Tony Blair announced that hemüreffeh olacaksa, güvenli ve istikrarlı bir would serve a full five-year term if thebölgeye ve yeni yatırımlara ihtiyaç Labor Party won.duyacaktır. A) Geçen sonbaharda, Tony Blair, Đşçi PartisiA) Russia can only reform and consequently kazandığı takdirde, beş yıl tam dönem hizmetprosper once a safe and stable neighbor exists edeceğini ilan etti.and new investments are made. B) Tony Blair, eğer Đşçi Partisi kazanırsa, beş yılB) Russia will get the reforms she needs and daha hizmet edeceğini geçen sonbahardaeventually prosper if the neighborhood becomes açıklamıştı.safe and stable and there are new investments. C) Geçen sonbaharda Đşçi Partisi’nin kazanmasıC) A secure and stable environment and new üzerine, Tony Blair görevini beş yıl dahainvestments are essential if Russia is to achieve sürdüreceğini ifade etti.these reforms and eventually prosper. D) Tony Blair, Đşçi Partisi’nin kazanmasınınD) There will have to be a safe and stable kendisine beş yıl tam dönem hizmet olanağıenvironment and more investments before sağlayacağı yolundaki açıklamasını geçenRussia can introduce reforms and consequently sonbaharda yaptı.prosper. E) Geçen sonbaharda Tony Blair, eğer Đşçi PartisiE) If Russia is to reform and eventually prosper, kazanırsa, bir beş yıl daha hizmet etmekit will need a secure and stable neighborhood, istediğini söyledi.and new investments. 06K02K6. A barometer measures air pressure, andif you watch the weather forecasts you willsee that an increase in air pressure oftensignals fair weather, whereas a drop in airpressure may mean that a storm is on theway.A) Barometre hava basıncını ölçer ve havatahminlerini izlerseniz, hava basıncındaki birartışın çoğu kez iyi havaya işaret ettiğini, ancakhava basıncındaki bir düşmenin ise fırtınanınyolda olduğu anlamına gelebildiğini görürsünüz.B) Barometrenin hava basıncını olduğunubiliyorsanız, hava tahminlerini izlediğinizde havabasıncındaki bir artışın çoğu kez iyi havanın,basınçtaki bir düşmenin de fırtınanınyaklaştığının habercisi olduğunu anlarsınız.C) Hava basıncı barometreyle ölçülür ve havatahminlerinde genellikle, hava basıncı artarsahava nin iyi olacağı, basınçta bir düşmemeydana gelirse fırtınanın yolda olabileceğisöylenir.D) Hava tahminlerini izleyenler, barometreninhava basıncını ölçtüğünü ve hava basıncı artarsaiyi havanın, düşerse de genellikle fırtınanın yoldaolduğunu bilirler.E) Hava basıncı barometreyle ölçülür ve havatahminlerinde hava basıncındaki bir artışın çoğukez iyi havaya, basınçtaki bir düşmenin isefırtınanın yolda olduğuna işaret ettiği söylenir.05M 62
    • Cümle tamamlama soruları1. I would naturally have felt extremely 4. ____ unless there is an agreement to thedisappointed ____ . contrary.A) since he must have been by far the best A) copyright is a form of protection provided toapplicant the creators of "original works of authorship"B) unless the competition has had very few B) The authors of a joint work are co-owners ofentrants the copyright in the workC) even though the two teams were C) There is list of countries that maintainextraordinarily well matched copyright relations with the United StatesD) if they hadn’t sent us an invitation to the D) Works by the US government were notconcert eligible for copyright protectionE) as the first prize went to a racist author E) Works consisting entirely of information that98K is common property were given no such protection 04M2. ____, a multitude of new residential 5. Teachers cannot be criticized for failingdevelopments are underway. to promote engineering ____.A) Unless the first impression is a good one A) so the manner in which design is presented isB) Once the new marina had started of first importanceC) If there were a reception centre to greet B) that it is not a required field of study in mostprospective customers technical universitiesD) Since Dubai would like to persuade people to C) whether students should follow enoughstay on a more permanent basis math’s and science courses to quality forE) As if they have benefited from the swimming engineering schoolpool and sports facilities D) if they have not been exposed to it03M themselves E) as all the young children had a flair for designing and building 04M3. If only the tax return over the year had 6. The overall quality of life in today’sbeen as high as had been predicted, _____. world cannot be improved ____ .A) this can easily be accounted for A) just as population growth would strain theB) they have underestimated their economic global urban environmentcommitments B) while the underdeveloped countries wereC) some people regard accounting as an art, not ignored completely by international agencies likea science the United Nations and the World BankD) companies are no longer the unified, self- C) as the population of that part of the worldcontained organizations that they used to be rose from 800 million in 1960 to 1.2 billion inE) such increased government outlays on public 1985services would have been feasible D) unless the developed countries are prepared03M to offer a helping hand to the underdeveloped E) whenever the OECD declines to support a series of projects for the development of poorer countries 98K 63
    • 7. If only they had realized that our 10. Unless they promise to use some of thesupplies were running out ____ . money to improve career prospects for young scientists, ____ .A) the crisis might still be avoidedB) those in charge could put the matter right A) the issue under discussion has been droppedC) nobody could appreciate the gravity of the B) there were a number of things we had to takesituation into accountD) there were reinforcement ready to be sent C) no one else thought of opposing the schemeout D) the money left over from donations could beE) they would most certainly have done includedsomething about it E) we feel we cannot give our support to the98M campaign 00M8. Unless the Central European countries 11. If aluminum is used in place of steel incan keep their labor costs at this level, bridge construction, ______.____ . A) this would be especially suitable in long-spanA) exports are already starting to drop bridgesB) they haven’t been able to compete with B) resistance to atmospheric corrosion had beenWestern Europe betterC) unrest in these countries would have been C) there would have been a reduction inunavoidable maintenance costsD) the finished products will have to go up in D) erection and foundation costs will be lowerprice E) there had been a considerable increase in theE) a firm control of distribution and sales has not safe volume of trafficproved adequate 01M99K9. ____ I would never have felt the need to 12. Unless a country can establish the factread them. that its economy is sound_____.A) Whichever of these modern plays he may A) only the very rich have risked their moneydecide to direct thereB) Unless some books on the care of house B) the worlds public and private lenders alikeplants are given to me as a present refuse to extend loansC) However many cookery books my husband C) trade-agreements were rarely made in itsmay care to give me favourD) Until I saw him intently reading those D) the industrial projects there did not receivesermons adequate backingE) If she had not written so enthusiastically E) even an abundance of mineral resourcesabout the diaries of Scott of the Antarctica could not have saved the situation00K 01M 64
    • 13. The manual workers in the automobile 16. If the company is to invest in long-termfactory are threatening to go on strike growth, ____ .____. A) the main aim is nevertheless to improveA) if they do not receive an adequate pay rise customer relationsB) after their pay claim is granted B) there was still a need for short-term profitsC) that working conditions are not improving C) it will clearly have to sacrifice short-termfast enough profitsD) even if the union hadnt offered any support D) a new sales force is already being trainedE) which is due to start next week E) the investment would ultimately yield a02M return 05M14. The evacuation of the World Trade 17. We are determined to give the contractCenter towers might have been easier to an architect____.____. A) since a great many problems had alreadyA) unless some of the steel columns had been arisenheated beyond their melting point B) whose handling of the interiors wasB) since in some places stairways are required outstandingto be in different corners of tall buildings C) who is committed to environmentallyC) if the multiple stairways had not all been in responsible designthe central core of the building D) until we learn the kind of garden that isD) so long as effective fire-proofing had been possibleinstalled E) if their requirements were even slightlyE) after so many of the offices had already been unusualvacated 05M02M15. If there had bee no one to encourage 18. If there is too much mineralher and feed her ego at this time, ____. accumulation in the compost, ____.A) she might well have given up writing A) roots get burnt and plants diealtogether B) some plants need less fertilizer than othersB) the critics were indeed merciless C) the flowering season was greatly reducedC) Even her best novels attracted little attention D) most plants grow far more quickly in wetD) Like many of her friendships, this one was areasshort-lived E) the growing conditions also need to beE) She has not been able to repeat the success considered05K 07M 65
    • Benzer cümle soruları1. I would willingly have lent you the 3. If I had heard about this conference onmoney myself if only Id known you needed Satellite Services even a little earlier, Iit. would most certainly have prepared a paper for it.A) As I realized just how necessary the loan wasto you, I naturally lent you what you needed. A) Unfortunately, I haven’t had sufficient time toB) I am quite willing to give you a loan myself if write a paper for that conference on Satelliteyou can convince me that it is necessary. Services, though I would very much have likedC) Had I realized that you were in need of such to have done so.a loan, I would gladly have lent it to you myself. B) I knew nothing about this conference onD) I would lend you the money willingly if I were Satellite Services until it was too late to write aconvinced that you really require it. paper for it, but I certainly would have if timeE) I was under no obligation to offer you a loan, had allowed.but nevertheless did so gladly. C) There’s still time to write a paper for that99K conference they are talking about on Satellite Services, and I would certainly like to do so. D) If only they had informed me about the conference on Satellite Services, I would definitely have got this paper ready a lot earlier. E) If they had given out some information about the conference on Satellite Services at an earlier date, it might have been possible to have given a paper there. 01M2. You would do well to wait a little beforebuying a carA) If you are thinking of buying a car, this is theright time.B) You must realize that this is not the righttime to change old car.C) Dont buy now; car prices are expected tofall.D) It would be better if you didnt buy a car justyet.E) Buy a car now and you wont regret it later.00M 66
    • KEY TO IF CLAUSESBOŞLUK CÜMLE BENZER CÜMLEDOLDURMA TAMAMLAMA 1C1C 1D 2D2E 2D 3B3D 3E4A 4B5E 5D6E 6D7C 7E8C 8D9E 9E10 E 10 E11 A 11 D12 E 12 B13 C 13 A14 A 14 C 15 A 16 CÇEVĐRĐ 17 C1C 18 A2B3B4E5E6A7A 67
    • Wish ClausesPresentwish + V2 or wish + could/ would V1• pişmanlık duyduğumuz geniş zaman olaylar, I wish I could read Arabic. (ama Arapça okuyamıyorum.) I wish I were* more courageous. (fakat cesur değilim.)• bizi sinirlendiren insanlar yada olaylar, I wish you would stop speaking! I wish you would tell my name right! I wish people wouldn’t smoke in closed areas!• hayaller, I wish I were handsome. (fakat yakışıklı değilim.) I wish she were in love with me! (ama bana aşık değil.)• elimizde olmayan nedenler, I wish there were not terror in the world. (fakat dünyada terör var.) I wish we didn’t have economical problems. (maalesef ekonomik sorunlarımız var.)Pastwish + had V3 or wish + could/would V3• pişmanlık duyduğumuz geçmiş zaman olayları, I wish I had studied for the exam. (ama sınava çalışmadım.) I wish she had accepted my proposal. (fakat teklifimi kabul etmedi.) I wish I could have gone the Cranberries concert. (fakat konsere gidemedim.)Futurewish + could/ would• gelecekle ilgili dilekler, I wish you could visit us in New York next week. I wish Amelie would like my present. I wish you would get the job this time.* durum gerçek olmadığı için was yerine were tercih edilir. 69
    • WISH CLAUSESÇIKMIŞ SORULARCümle tamamlama soruları1. If only they had realized that our 4. While most people still saw computers assupplies were running out ____ . science fiction, ____.A) the crisis might still be avoided A) the discriminating few immediatelyB) those in charge could put the matter right appreciated their advantagesC) nobody could appreciate the gravity of the B) the early ones were large in size and low insituation performanceD) there were reinforcement ready to be sent C) they continue to get smaller and moreout versatileE) they would most certainly have done D) it is hard to imagine how banks earned onsomething about it their work without them98M E) a majority still wish they had never been invented 04M2. ____ , it was not long before they could 5. If only she had come up with someresume broadcasting. positive suggestions, ____.A) If only their permit had been renewed A) the scheme certainly had very manyB) Once the fault in the system had been found drawbacksC) So long as the electrical supply remains B) nobody else is likely to complainstable C) so far this is the best thesis to be submittedD) Since the maintenance team were on leave D) the others will already have been rejectedE) However unwelcome the delay might be E) I wouldn’t have minded her criticism of the98M project 06K3. If only the tax return over the year hadbeen as high as had been predicted, ____.A) this can easily be accounted forB) they have underestimated their economiccommitmentsC) some people regard accounting as an art, nota scienceD) companies are no longer the unified, self-contained organizations that they used to beE) such increased government outlays on publicservices would have been feasible03M 70
    • Benzer cümle soruları Bu durumda söylenebilecek cümle1. I would willingly have lent you the 1. A neighbor is going to a big reunionmoney myself if only Id known you needed dinner that you know your brother, who isit. a well-known local figure, will also attend. You think the two of them should meet, soA) As I realized just how necessary the loan was you say;to you, I naturally lent you what you needed.B) I am quite willing to give you a loan myself if A) My brother is sure to be there at the reunion,you can convince me that it is necessary. and I expect he’ll recognize you.C) Had I realized that you were in need of such B) If only I’d been going too I would havea loan, I would gladly have lent it to you myself. introduced you to my brother.D) I would lend you the money willingly if I were C) My brother is a lot like you, so its only naturalconvinced that you really require it. that you should have got on well.E) I was under no obligation to offer you a loan, D) I’ve told my brother about your suggestion,but nevertheless did so gladly. and he seemed interested.99K E) My brother will also be there. Everybody knows him. So, do introduce yourself to him and give him my greetings 98M2. I do wish they could have planned thejourney so as to allow us a week in London.A) If only the travel arrangements had made itpossible for us to spend a week in London.B) We hoped they would rearrange theprogramme to allow us a full week in London.C) Travel arrangements have been made so asto allow us a whole week in London.D) They have arranged for us to travel toLondon and spend a week there.E) They plan to allow us a week in London ifthat’s what we wish.99M 71
    • KEY TO WISH CLAUSESCÜMLE BENZER CÜMLE BU DURUMDATAMAMLAMA 1C SÖYLENEBĐLECEK1E 2B CÜMLE2B 1 E3E4A5E 72
    • Reported Speech• bir konuşmayı aktarmak istediğimizde, Sally says ‘ I like meeting new people.’ Sally says (that) she likes meeting new people. Duke said ‘ I’m learning how to cook.’ Duke said that he was learning how to cook. Not: Eğer aktarma fiili geniş zamansa, geniş zaman olarak kalabilir. Bu bize ifadeninhala doğru olduğunu gösterir. Melina says ‘My new flat is quite small.’ Melina says her new flat is quite small. (halen aynı evde olduğunu gösteriyor) Melina said that her new flat was quite small. tell somebody say to somebody Sevil told me ‘ I will give up smoking.’ Sevil told me that she would give up smoking. Sevil said to me that she would give up smoking.• ifadeleri reported speech’ e çevirirken present past olur. He said ‘ I am teaching at the university.’ He said he was teaching at the university. She said ‘ I painted the room in red.’ She said she had painted the room in red. Fırat said ‘ I will see the dentist.’ He said he would see the dentist. 73
    • Aşağıdaki tabloda tense’in nasıl değiştiğini görebilirsiniz. TENSE DIRECT INDIRECTThe simplepresent Kyle said ‘ I walk slow.’ Kyle said he walked slow.The presentcontinuous Kyle said ‘ I am walking slow.’ Kyle said he was walking slow.The simplepast Kyle said ‘ I walked slow.’ Kyle said he (had) walked slow.The pastcontinuous Kyle said ‘ I was walking slow.’ Kyle said he was (had been) walking slow.The presentperfect Kyle said ‘ I have walked slow.’ Kyle said he had walked slow.The presentperfect cont. Kyle said ‘ I have been walking slow.’ Kyle said he had been walking slow.The pastperfect Kyle said ‘ I had walked slow.’ Kyle said he had walked slow.The pastperfect cont. Kyle said ‘ I had been walking slow.’ Kyle said he had been walking slow.The simplefuture Kyle said ‘ I will walk slow.’ Kyle said he would walk slow.The futureperfect Kyle said ‘ I will have walked slow.’ Kyle said he would have walked slow.Modals Kyle said ‘ I should walk.’ Kyle said he should walk.*** Kyle said ‘ I may walk.’ Kyle said he may walk. Kyle said ‘ I must walk.’ Kyle said he had to walk. Soru sorarken, Rick asked Jane ‘ Where are you going?’ He asked where she was going. Marvin asked Ed ‘ What do you want?’ He asked Ed what he wanted. Not: Eğer yes-no sorusuysa if yada whether yapısı kullanılır. Norah asked Sonia ‘ Are you coming to the party?’ Norah asked her if/ whether she was coming to the party. Judy asked Doris ‘ Do you like rock music?’ She asked him if/ whether he liked rock music. 74
    • • aşağıdaki kelimeler de ifade reported speech’ e çevrilirken değiştirilir.DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECH yesterday the previous day last week, last year the previous week, the previous year ago before today that day tonight that night tomorrow the following day next week, next Saturday the following week, the following Saturday this that here there He said ‘ I am not going to be here next week.’ He said he was not going to be there the following week. Morgan said ‘ I was in the cinema yesterday.’ Morgan said he had been in the cinema the previous day.• aktarırken say yada tell yerine ifadeyi daha iyi tanımlayan bir fiil kullanabiliriz. The officer told the sergeant ‘ Gather the soldiers at the field!’ The officer ordered the sergeant to gather the soldiers. The little boy told his mum ‘ Please mum, I want to go out!’ He begged his mum to go out. The guard said ‘ Don’t touch anything!’ He warned us not to touch anything. My friend said ‘ Why don’t stay here?’ He suggested me to stay there.Bu şekilde kullanabileceğimiz diğer fiiller: advise, agree, boast, claim, command, complain, confirm demand, deny, explain, hope, insist, promise, propose, reply, request, suppose, suspect, think 75
    • REPORTED SPEECHÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları1. For a hundred years or so some critics 4. He is hoping that, by the time he ________ that poetry is dying and all that time for the grant, his book on Egyptian,poets ____ poems that later generations silverwork ____.recognize as great. A) has to apply / will have been publishedA) have maintained / have been writing B) had applied / had been publishedB) maintained / wrote C) was to apply / has been publishedC) had maintained / were writing D) will be applying / would have been publishedD) maintain / are writing E) would have applied / will be publishedE) would maintain / had been writing 04M98M2. The judges of the international tribunal 5. He certainly ____ party members lastat The Hague ____ on 1st February 2002, weekend when he announced that he ____that charges relating to all three wars to regain his party chairmanship.____ together. A) has shocked / had not soughtA) would agree / had been heard B) would have shocked / will not seekB) have agreed / have been heard C) had shocked / would not have soughtC) were agreed / will be heard D) was to shock / is not seekingD) agreed / would be heard E) shocked / would not seekE) had agreed / were heard 06M02M3. Socrates ____ that we ____ with theimprovement of our souls.A) must have said / would be concernedB) had said / had to be concernedC) was saying / should have been concernedD) has said / had been concerned saidE) said / should be concerned04K 76
    • Çeviri soruları1. In his talk he stressed that economic 3. At a press conference today the Primerelationships are complicated and Minister of Yemen announced that hischangeable, since everything happens at Government had been granted a loan by theonce. World Bank to assist the implementation of the Rural Development Project started twoA) Konuşmasında, ekonomik ilişkilerin karmaşık years ago.olduğunu ve sürekli değiştiğini, bunun da herşeyin bir anda olup bitmesine yol açtığını ileri A) Bugün yaptığı bir basın toplantısında Yemensürdü. Başbakanı iki yıldan beri sürdürülen KöyB) Yaptığı konuşmada, her şeyin bir anda olup Kalkınma Projesi için Dünya Bankası’ncabitmesinin nedeninin ekonomik ilişkilerdeki hükümetine kredi sağlanacağını açıkladı.karmaşıklık ve değişkenlik olduğunu iddia etti. B) Bugün yaptığı bir basın toplantısında, YemenC) Olayların bir anda olup bitmesi sonucu Başbakanı iki yıldan beri uygulanmakta olan Köyekonomik ilişkilerin ne denli çapraşık ve farklı Kalkınma Projesi’nin sonuçlandırılması amacıylaolduğunu konuşmasında açıkça ortaya koydu. Dünya Bankası’nın hükümetine kaynakD) Konuşmasında da belirttiği gibi, ekonomik sağladığını söyledi.ilişkiler hem karmaşık hem de değişken, çünkü C) Yemen Başbakanı bugün bir basın toplantısıher şey aniden ortaya çıkıyor. yaparak, iki yıl süreyle uygulanacak olan KöyE) Konuşmasında, her şey bir anda olup bittiği kalkınma Projesi’nin tamamlanabilmesi içiniçin ekonomik ilişkilerin karmaşık ve değişken hükümetin Dünya Bankası’ndan krediolduğunu vurguladı. isteyeceğini belirtti.98K D) Bugün bir basın toplantısında konuşan Yemen Başbakanı, iki yıl önce başlatılan Köy Kalkınma Projesi’nin yürütülebilmesi için hükümetin Dünya Bankası’ndan yeni bir kredi sağladığını bildirdi. E) Bugün bir basın toplantısında, Yemen Başbakanı iki yıl önce başlatılmış olan Köy kalkınma Projesi’nin uygulanmasına katkıda bulunmak amacıyla Dünya Bankası tarafından hükümete kredi verildiğini açıkladı. 98K2. Yönetim kurulu yakın gelecekte hiçbir 4. Adam Smith, bir ülkenin yüksek kaliteliücret artışı yapılmayacağını açıkça belirtti. ürünler üretmede gerekli becerileri kazanması için en az 50 yıllık deneyimeA) The board declared that the question of any ihtiyacı olduğunu iddia etmiştir.wage increase could be brought up again in thenear future. A) The essential skills required for theB) It was openly stated by the board that no production of high-quality goods can, as Adamincrease at all in the wages could be seen in the Smith explained, only be acquired over a periodnear future. of 50 years in any country.C) The board declared that there could be no B) According to Adam Smith, a period of at leastquestion of any wage increase in the near 50 years of experience is essential for thefuture. acquisition of the skills needed for high-qualityD) The board made it clear that there would be production in a country.no wage increase whatsoever in the near future. C) As Adam Smith pointed out, at least 50 yearsE) The board announced that no wage increase of experience is necessary if a country is towas to be expected in the near future. produce high-quality goods.99K D) Adam Smith claimed that at least 50 years of experience were needed for a country to acquire the necessary skills to turn out high-quality products. E) Adam Smith asserted that the production of high-quality goods in a country depended on the acquisition of skills gained over a period of 50 years. 99K 77
    • 5. It has been announced that merger 7. Başkan, son istatistiklere atıftabetween the two banks is set to go ahead bulunarak, Amerika’ nın bazı kentlerindeafter approval from their boards. suç oranının son on yıl içinde hızla artmış olduğunu ifade etti.A) Đki bankanın birleşmesi için gerekli işlemlerinkendi kurullarının onayından sonra başlatılacağı A) The President announced that, according tosöylendi. some recent statistics, the rate of crime in aB) Đki banka arasındaki birleşmenin, kendi number of American cities had clearly risenkurullarının onayından sonra gerçekleşeceği substantially over the past decade.açıklandı. B) Citing recent statistics, the President statedC) Đki banka arasındaki birleşmenin that, over the last decade, the crime rate ingerçekleşebilmesi için kurullardan onay some cities of America had risen rapidly.alındıktan sonra işlem yapılacağı duyuruldu. C) As the President pointed out with reference toD) Açıklandığı üzere, iki banka arasındaki recent statistics, since the last decade, thebirleşme ancak kurulların onayından sonra number of crimes in various major Americanbaşlayacak. cities has risen sharply.E) Duyurulduğuna göre, iki banka arasındaki D) The president argued that, in view of recentbirleşmenin kesin olarak gerçekleşebilmesi, statistical evidence, the rapid rise in the rate ofkurulların onayına bağlı. crime in some American cities during the last99M decade called for serious action. E) As the President has pointed out, it appears from recent statistics that, over the last decade, there has been a considerable rise in the crime rate in some American cities. 99M6. The Serbian justice minister stated that 8. The guest speaker pointed out that bythe Serbians indicted for war crimes would 1880 European powers had access to mostnot be sent to the Hague for trial by the of the markets in Asias coastal regions.war-crimes tribunal. A) Konuk konuşmacının da belirttiği gibi,A) Savaş suçu işlemiş Sırpların yargılamak üzere Avrupalı güçler, 188O’den beri, Asyanın kıyıLahey’ deki savaş suçları mahkemesine bölgelerindeki pazarların pek çoğuna girişgönderilmesine Sırp adalet bakını itiraz etti. imtiyazına sahiptiler.B) Sırp adalet bakanının yaptığı açıklamaya B) Konuk konuşmacı, Avrupalı güçlerin, 1880egöre, savaş suçu işlemiş Sırplar, savaş suçları kadar Asyanın kıyı bölgelerindeki Pazarlarınmahkemesi tarafından yargılanmaları için Lahey’ çoğuna giriş hakkını elde etmiş olduğunu belirtti.e kesinlikle gönderilmeyecek. C) Avrupalı güçlerin çoğunun, Asyanın kıyıC) Sırp adalet bakanı savaş suçları sanığı olan bölgelerindeki pazarlara 1880e kadar ulaşmışSırpların, savaş suçları mahkemesi tarafından olduğunu, konuk konuşmacı açık bir şekilde ifadeyargılanmak üzere Lahey’ e gönderilmeyeceğini etti.ifade etti. D) Konuk konuşmacı, Avrupalı güçlerin AsyanınD) Sırp adalet bakanı savaş suçlarıyla itham kıyı bölgelerindeki pek çok pazara giriş izniniedilen sırpların yargılanmak için Lahey’ deki ancak 1880de aldığını ileri sürdü.savaş suçları mahkemesine kesinlikle E) Avrupalı güçlerin Asyanın kıyı bölgelerindekigönderilmeyeceğini tekrarladı. pek çok pazara serbest giriş hakkını ancakE) Çeşitli savaş suçları işlemiş Sırpların, savaş 1880de elde edebildiği, konuk konuşmacısuçları mahkemesi tarafından yargılanmak için tarafından da belirtildi.Lahey’ e asla gönderilmeyeceği, Sırp adalet 00Mbakanınca ifade edilmiştir.99M 78
    • 9. Bill Clinton, radyo konuşmasında bazı 11. Bu rapor, tıbbi bakım eksikliğiAmerikan okullarında verilen eğitimin sonucunda, gelişmekte olan ülkelerdetoplumun en iyi değerlerini beslemediğini birçok çocuğun bir yaşına bile gelmedensöyledi. öldüğü gerçeğini vurguluyor.A) Bill Clinton, in his radio talk, concentrated on A) It is stressed in this report that the death ofthe various ideals of society and regretted that so many children before the age of one in thesome American schools failed to nourish them. developing countries could be prevented byB) During his radio talk, Bill Clinton explained better health services.how the education given in some American B) According to this report it is definite thatschools failed to uphold the best values of many children in the developing countries diesociety. before they reach the age of one year as healthC) In his radio talk, Bill Clinton said that the facilities are so inadequate.education provided in some American schools C) This report emphasizes the fact that as adid not nourish the best values of society. result of inadequate medical care, many childrenD) Bill Clinton pointed out in his radio talk that it in developing countries die before they reachwas the duty of the American education system even one year old.to ensure that some schools encouraged the D) According to this very emphatic report,best values of society. children under one year old in the developingE) In certain American schools, as Bill Clinton countries die because of the lack of medicalpointed out in his radio talk, the education care.provided was not in accord with the ideals of E) As this report underlines, it is the lack ofsociety. medical care that is responsible for so many00M deaths among children who havent even reached their first birthday in the developing countries. 02M****10. Malthus, öz olarak, eğer nüfus geçim 12. Pek çok iktisatçı, sanayileşme sürecindeimkânlarından daha hızlı artarsa, bunun olan ülkelerde kapitalizm geliştikçe, küçükdaha düşük bir yaşam düzeyine yol işletmelerin zamanla yok olacağını iddiaaçacağını iddia ediyordu. etmektedir.A) In essence, what Malthus claimed was that A) Many economists claim that, as capitalismwhen a population increased faster than the develops in the countries that are in the processmeans of subsistence, living standards dropped. of industrialization, small businesses willB) Malthus claimed in essence that, if a eventually disappear.population increased faster than the means of B) In the opinion of many of these economists,subsistence, this would lead to lower living small businesses will eventually disappear instandards. those countries presently undergoingC) The essence of what Malthus suggested was industrialization and turning to a capitalistthat if a population increased faster than the system.means of subsistence, a lowering of living C) Many economists presume that, with thestandards could be inevitable. development of capitalism in the countries nowD) The claim of Malthus was that a lowering of undergoing industrialization, small businessesliving standards was inevitable as the population are already disappearing.had grown faster than the means of subsistence. D) The process of industrialization in theseE) According to Malthus, living standards would countries, together with developing capitalism,naturally fall as the population was growing will inevitably, according to most economists,faster than the means of subsistence. lead to the closing down of small businesses.01M E) With the spread of industrialization and the growth of capitalism in these countries, many economists feel sure that the small businesses will eventually close down. 02M 79
    • 13. Başkan Bush, bir televizyon 15. Last fall, Tony Blair announced that hekonuşmasında Amerikan halkına , would serve a full five-year term if theterörizme karşı savaşın yüksek maliyetler Labour Party won.ve kişisel özveri gerektiren uzun birmücadele olacağını söyledi. A) Geçen sonbaharda, Tony Blair, Đşçi Partisi kazandığı takdirde, beş yıl tam dönem hizmetA) President Bushs televised speech concerning edeceğini ilan etti.war against terrorism warned the American B) Tony Blair, eğer Đşçi Partisi kazanırsa, beş yılpeople that the struggle would be a long one daha hizmet edeceğini geçen sonbahardaand entail high costs and much personal açıklamıştı.sacrifice. C) Geçen sonbaharda Đşçi Partisi’nin kazanmasıB) In his televised speech President Bush told üzerine, Tony Blair görevini beş yıl dahathe American people that the war against sürdüreceğini ifade etti.terrorism would be a long struggle requiring high D) Tony Blair, Đşçi Partisi’nin kazanmasınıncosts and personal sacrifice. kendisine beş yıl tam dönem hizmet olanağıC) In a speech that was televised, President sağlayacağı yolundaki açıklamasını geçenBush warned the Americans that a war against sonbaharda yaptı.terrorism could prove expensive and entail much E) Geçen sonbaharda Tony Blair, eğer Đşçi Partisipersonal sacrifice. kazanırsa, bir beş yıl daha hizmet etmekD) In his speech, which was televised. President istediğini söyledi.Bush asked the American people to be willing to 06Msacrifice themselves in the cause of the struggleagainst terrorism.E) The people of America were asked byPresident Bush in a speech broadcast ontelevision to be prepared to pay in money andpersonal sacrifice, for war against terrorism.04M14. Hala tartışmalı olsa da gökbilimciler, 16. The Pentagon has estimated that aboutevrenin 40 ile 50 milyar galaksi 25 percent of the military facilities in theiçerebileceğini tahmin etmişlerdir. country are unnecessary.A) Many astronomers are still of the opinion that A) Pentagon’a göre, ülke içinde bulunan askerithe universe contains 40 to 50 billion galaxies tesislerin yüzde 25’i gereksizdir.though these figures are controversial. B) Pentagon, ülke içindeki askeri tesislerinB) Though still controversial, astronomers have hemen hemen yüzde 25’ine gereksinimestimated that the universe could contain 40 to duymadığını belirtmiştir.50 billion galaxies. C) Pentagon’un hesaplarına göre, ülkedeki askeriC) The controversy continues among tesislerin yüzde 25’ine hiç gereksinim yoktur.astronomers as to whether there are 40 or 50 D) Pentagon, ülkedeki askeri tesislerin yaklaşıkbillion galaxies in the universe. yüzde 25’inin gereksiz olduğunu hesaplamıştır.D) Some astronomers have estimated that there E) Ülkedeki askeri tesislerin aşağı yukarı yüzdeare 40 to 50 billion galaxies in the universe, but 25’ine gereksinim olmadığı konusunda Pentagonthe figures remain controversial. kararlıdır.E) It is still a matter of contention, but 06Mastronomers believe there are between 40 and50 billion galaxies in the universe.05K 80
    • Cümle tamamlama soruları1. The speaker from China has pointed out 4. It has only recently been accepted____ . _____.A) so that preserving agricultural land is his A) just as in Huntingtons disease a defectivegovernment’s primary economic policy protein kills brain cellsB) that terracing the soil is one conservation B) why the nerve cells of the adult human brainmethod used widely in his country to control were long thought to be too specialized toerosion regenerateC) since urban renewal has completely changed C) because now it appears that the brain canthe look of the cities in his country greatly increase production in an attempt toD) as regards the fact that a handful of industrial repair damagenations monopolized deep sea fishing until the D) In case the discovery raises the possibility ofearly 1970’s developing drugs to encourage cells toE) while rich tropical forests are vanishing at the regenerate faster and soonerrate of some 11 million hectares a year E) that adult human brains can generate new98K cells 03M***2. People sometimes wonder ____ . 5. ____ that New York City is being badly run and desperately needs to beA) because the richest sources of vitamin A are reorganized.foods of animal origin such as liver, fish oil, milkand eggs A) None of them had admittedB) in case a shortage of vitamin A was not the B) Everybody acknowledgesmain problem C) Many Americans were asking the authoritiesC) that, in the typical western diet, about half of D) Letters of protest had been written to thethe vitamin A was not the main problem Mayors OfficeD) if the eating of liver too frequently can cause E) Many journalists would recommendvitamin A toxicity 04KE) just as most foods with vitamin A activity arebrightly colored, often yellow or orange01K****3. According to the newspapers, the 6. ____ that the reasons for introducinginvestigators, who visited Ukraine over the the new-design dollar bills were thesale of radar-detection equipment to Iraq, persistent reports of high qualitycomplained ____. counterfeits circulating in the Middle East.A) until considerable incriminating evidence has A) Following a US Secret Service probe, the USbeen discovered Federal Reserve has wonderedB) though some officials have admittedly B) Enormous quantities of dollar bills are held incooperated reserve in the US and overseasC) that vital information was being withheld C) All of them are old allegations made by theD) whether other countries ought to come under US Federal Reservetheir scrutiny D) The US government’s currency policy hasE) though effective action would have been been sharply criticizedforthcoming E) It has been claimed, but never confirmed by03M the US Federal Reserve 07M 81
    • Benzer cümle soruları1.When he asked which one I wanted, I 2. The last time I talked to him, he told mesaid I didnt mind. that the business was doing well; but apparently thats not the case now!A) He said I could choose between them, but Isaid it didnt matter to me. A) When we last met, the business was doingB) He said I had to choose, but I didnt want to. well or so he said; but I fear that is hardly theC) It was up to me to choose between them, but case any longer.I really didnt want to. B) The account he gave of the business the lastD) He wanted me to choose for him and I time we spoke, was a favourable one, but nowagreed to do so. Im not too sure,E) I would have done the choosing if they had C) The last time we met he assured me that allasked me to. was going well with the business, but I dont05M know whats happening now. D) When we last spoke he seemed confident that the business was picking up, but obviously its not doing so now! E) When we last spoke together, he said the business was doing fine; but now, it seems, things are rather different. 05M 82
    • KEY TO REPORTED SPEECHBOŞLUK CÜMLEDOLDURMA TAMAMLAMA1A 1B2D 2D3E 3C4A 4E5E 5B 6EÇEVĐRĐ BENZER CÜMLE1E 1A2D 2E3E4D5B6C7B8B9C10 B11 C12 A13 B14 B15 A16 D 83
    • ConjunctionsNeden Sonuç belirtme Karşıtlık Amaç Ek bilgi verme Olumsuzbelirtme belirtme belirtme şartas therefore although in order to except (from)because (of) hence though in order that apart (from) otherwisefor as a result even though so as to in addition to or elsewith for this reason in spite of so that as well assince thus despite (the fact in case (of) besides consequently that) for fear that not only, but also so however moreover nevertheless furthermore nonetheless both…and yet butNeden belirten bağlaçlar-Đki ayrı cümleyi birbirine bağlayanlar,as (için) As he was really hungry, he went for the meal.because (çünkü) He didn’t ring the bell because he didn’t want to disturb anyone.since (çünkü) You didn’t understand me since you didn’t listen. (because)for (için) We set out early, for we wanted to see the open-air concert.with (göre) With the car broken, we can’t go any further. (as our car is broken)-Bir cümle ile yan cümleyi birleştirenler,because of (nedeniyle) Because of the heavy snow, all the flights were cancelled. (as there was a heavy snow…) 85
    • Amaç bildiren bağlaçlar-Đki ayrı cümleyi birbirine bağlayanlar,in order that/ so that (için) The boy started running in order that/ so that he could catch the bus.for fear that (diye, negatif durum) Kerem threw the cigarette for fear that he his father could see.in case (diye) He wrote down the password in case he forgot.-Bir cümle ile yan cümleyi birleştirenler,in order to/ so as to (için) The boy started running in order to/ so as to catch the bus.in case of(diye) They set the alarm in case of a burglary. (…in case there is a burglary.)Karşıtlık bildiren bağlaçlar-Đki ayrı cümleyi birbirine bağlayanlar,although/ though/ even though/ despite the fact that/ in spite of the fact that (rağmen) Although/ though/ even though/ despite the fact that/ in spite of the fact that she didn’t study hard, she passed her exam. She passed her exam, although/ though/ even though/ despite the fact that/ in spite of the fact that she didn’t study hard.nevertheless/ nonetheless/ however/but/ yet (her nasılsa, fakat) She didn’t study hard nevertheless/ nonetheless/ however; /but/ yet, she passed her exam. The rich man gave charities to the poor, however; he is still in popular.-Bir cümle ile yan cümleyi birleştirenler,despite/ in spite of (rağmen) Despite/ in spite of the low prices, there are not much costumers around. (although the prices are low,…)Karşılaştırma-Đki ayrı cümleyi birbirine bağlayanlar,whereas/ while (aksine) He didn’t even finish high school whereas/ while his sister became an engineer. Switzerland doesn’t have an army whereas/ while we have one of the biggest.-Bir cümle ile yan cümleyi birleştirenler,unlike/ in contrast to (aksine) In contrast to/ unlike Antalya, the weather is cooler in Eskişehir. The new mayor is keen on arts, unlike/ in contrast to his predecessor. 86
    • Sonuç bildirme-Đki ayrı cümleyi birbirine bağlayanlar,therefore/ thus/ hence/ so/ for this reason/ as a result/ consequently Mr. Penn is flying to Alaska therefore/ thus/ hence/ so/ for this reason/ as a result/ consequently, he won’t be with us tomorrow. There is a road work on D-600, therefore/ thus/ hence/ so/ for this reason/ as a result/ consequently, we will go on D-400. This summer I will be in Alanya therefore/ thus/ hence/ so/ for this reason/ as a result/ consequently, I can learn diving.Ek bilgi veren bağlaçlar-Đki ayrı cümleyi birbirine bağlayanlar,moreover (dahası) The book they sent wasn’t about geology. Moreover it was in Chinese.furthermore (ayrıca) He showed some evidence to the jury. Furthermore he called a witness of the crime.not only…but also (sadece değil…aynı zamanda) She is not only a good teacher, but also a good mother. Not only can he speak English, but also he can speak German.-Bir cümle ile yan cümleyi birleştirenler,both…and (hem…hem de) She is both a good teacher and a good mother. He can speak both English and German.in addition to/ as well as/ besides/ apart from (bununla birlikte, bunun yanında) In addition to/ as well as/ besides/ apart from history, he studied sociology. The company is sending a catalogue in addition to/ as well as/ besides/ apart from a price list. The doctor advised a good rest in addition to/ as well as/ besides/ apart from prescribing some medicine.except for (haricinde) Don’t bring anything except for your clothes. Nobody stand by me except for my sister.Olumsuz şart belirtmeotherwise/ or else (aksi takdirde) The government has to abolish the law on abortion, otherwise/ or else the public willbe furious. 87
    • CONJUNCTIONSÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları1. His proposals ____ the new social 4. Germany’s weight in the European Unionsecurity policy seems more viable than any is known, ____ what is not known, even toof the others. the Germans themselves, is ____ they are to use it.A) by way ofB) due to A) but / howC) owing to B) in case / becauseD) in case of C) unless / whyE) as regards D) lest / until98K E) otherwise / where 99M2. ____ the recent rise in unemployment 5. Diesel engines are more efficient thanlargely affects eastern Germany, there is gasoline engines ____ the fact that a largerconsiderable unrest in western Germany, proportion of the fuel used is burned.too. A) consequentlyA) Since B) followingB) In case C) owing toC) Although D) contrary toD) Unless E) so thatE) Until 01K98K3. Originally the sonnet was an Italian 6. Lets take the ferry to Bandırma frompoetical form which attained great where its only a short drive to Bursa, ____popularity in the Renaissance, and ____ it driving all the way from Đstanbul to Bursa.was natural, ____ not essential forShakespeare and his contemporaries to use A) as well asit. B) more than C) besidesA) hence / if D) instead ofB) while / though E) except forC) since / however 01KD) furthermore / rather thanE) already / even99K 88
    • 7. ______ the letters written by so many 11. This part of Africa is growing greenerparents, the headmaster agreed not to again ____ that families who fled to wetterexpel the boys. coastal regions are starting to go home.A) In response to A) so farB) With reference to B) to such an extentC) In case of C) even soD) Apart from D) as a resultE) Pertaining to E) even more01M 02K8. ____ the Civil War, those years turned 12. Little is known about life on the oceanout to be a golden era for the magazine floor ____ scientists have only recentlyindustry. developed the technology for exploring it.A) Despite A) yetB) Obviously B) asC) Although C) thoughD) Pertaining to D) whereasE) Nevertheless E) while02K 02M9. Unfortunately, ____ stamping out the 13. ____ providing luxury on everydrugs trade, these programmes are simply imaginable level, a five- star hotel shouldforcing drug growers to move into more also have the ability to take you byinaccessible regions. surprise.A) besides A) with a view toB) rather than B) in excess ofC) in addition to C) consequent onD) due to D) in need ofE) as for E) in addition to02K 04M10. Following four Mars mission losses, an 14. Ancient Peruvian textiles have survivedindependent report paints a very clear in an excellent state of preservation ____picture of ____ what ails the US space the dry conditions of much of the country.programme, ____ what must be done to fixit. A) with regard to B) in comparison withA) whether / though C) in case ofB) either / or D) owing toC) how/and E) in opposition toD) thus/that 04ME) not only / but also02K 89
    • 15. ____ they are accessible by boat only, 19. In pollen analysis the exinesarethese islands are still largely undeveloped. extracted from the soil, studied under aA) Even microscope, and identified ____ theB) As if distinctive exine shape and surfaceC) Although ornamentation of different families andD) Consequently genera of plants.E) Since04K A) according to B) ahead of C) with a view to D) on behalf of E) in place of 06K16. ____ the growth in e-mail and fax 20. ____ little respect the British peopletransmissions, many communications are may feel for the monarchy, they are stillstill best handled by face-to-face or voice- not likely to change to a republic.to-voice contact. A) As far asA) Contrary to B) WhateverB) In spite of C) Such aC) By means of D) HoweverD) Since E) Just asE) As regards 06M06K17. ____ by making an internal analysis 21. All of the world’s major national parkscan a company set the overall rationale for are included on the map, ____ are most ofits international activities. the important reserves of lesser status.A) Still A) asB) While B) as wellC) Only C) suchD) Until D) whichE) Just as E) that06K 06M18. A corporation’s formulation of its 22. His latest novel is about people whointernational strategy will greatly take their work seriously, ____ that’s beingdetermine ____ it will benefit more from a mother, a nurse or a soldier.protectionism or from some other meansfor countering international competition. A) even so B) as ifA) so C) unlessB) as D) besidesC) unless E) whetherD) whether 06ME) whereby06K 90
    • 23. In child development, play and Çeviri sorularıexploration are similar ____ they are bothintrinsically motivated behaviors and notdirected by external goals.A) on the other hand 1. Despite these objections raised in theB) whereas Senate, there are strong arguments inC) otherwise favour of both sanctions and bombing.D) afterE) since A) Senato’da dile getirilen karşıt görüşlere07M karşın, harekatı ve bombardımanı destekleyen yaklaşımların daha güçlü olduğu görülüyor. B) Senato’da yapılan bu itirazlara karşın, hem yaptırımlar hem de bombardıman lehinde güçlü görüşler bulunmaktadır. C) Senato’da tartışmalar devam etse de saldırı ve bombardıman lehindeki görüşler gittikçe artmaktadır.24. At present, the European Union D) Senato’da böyle iddialar ileri sürülse deimports about one quarter of its gas and ortaya konan görüşler hem ablukayı hem deone third of its oil from Russia, ____ bombardımanı kuvvetle destekler niteliktedir.countries such as Slovakia, Finland, Poland, E) Tüm bu itirazlara karşın, senato’da yapılanHungary, the Baltic states and the Ukraine güçlü tartışmalar işgal ve bombardımanınare totally or very heavily dependent on lehinde sonuçlanmıştır.Russian energy. 98MA) even thoughB) sinceC) whetherD) whileE) in case 2. Bugün, gelecek vaat eden pek çok genç07M yeteneğe karşın, Amerikan komedileri düzeyinde komedi ürettiğimizi sanmıyorum. A) Today, despite a lot of promising young talent, I don’t think we are producing comedies of the standard of American ones. B) The comedies we are currently producing are hardly of the same standard as the American ones, though we do have a great deal of young talent.25. Several species of birds in Vietnam C) The standard of the comedies we havevanished during the war, ____ they began produced so far is well below that of Americanto reappear in the 1980s and their gradual comedies, despite the fact that there are plentyreturn has been encouraged by Vietnamese of talented young people today.villagers. D) Though there are plenty of talented young people today, still the standard of the comediesA) but we have produced is below that of the AmericanB) since ones.C) unless E) Even though we have a lot of young talentD) when today, we are producing comedies of a lowerE) if standard than those in America.07M 99M 91
    • 3. Since the British Factories Act of 1961 5. Okyanus sularının ısınarak genişlemesidoes not give an explicit statutory ve buzulların artan bir hızla erimesidefinition of the term accident, the courts nedeniyle, 2100 yılına kadar denizhave defined “accident" as any unintended seviyelerinin yaklaşık yarım metreand unexpected occurrence which produces yükselmesi muhtemeldir.hurt or loss". A) Sea levels are expected to rise by roughlyA) 1961 Đngiliz Fabrikalar Yasası, “kaza" half a meter by the year 2100 if thermalsözcüğünün anlaşılabilir bir yasal tanımını expansion continues and the glaciers continue tovermediği için, “kaza", mahkemelerce, zarara melt at the same speed.veya kayba neden olan kasıtsız ve beklenmedik B) Due to the thermal expansion of ocean waterbir olay olarak tanımlanmıştır. and the constant melting of glaciers, it seemsB) 1961 Đngiliz Fabrikalar Yasası “kaza” likely that sea levels will have risen by at leastsözcüğünün açık bir mevzuat tanımını vermediği half a meter by the year 2100.için, mahkemeler, “kaza”yı, zarara veya kayba C) With the thermal expansion of ocean wateryol açan kasıtsız ve beklenmedik bir olay olarak and the rapid melting of glaciers it seems thattanımlamışlardır. sea levels are set to rise by up to half a meterC) “Kaza” sözcüğünün yeterli bir yasal tanımı by the year 2100.1961 Đngiliz Fabrikalar Yasasıda verilmediğinden, D) Because of the thermal expansion of oceanbu sözcüğünün tanımı, mahkemelerce, “zarar” water and the accelerated melting of glaciers,veya kayıp yaratan kasıtsız ve beklenmeyen bir sea levels are likely to rise by approximately halfolay olarak belirlenmiştir. a meter by the year 2100.D) “Kaza” sözcüğünün tartışmasız yasal bir E) A rise in sea levels of about half a meter willtanımı 1961 Đngiliz Fabrikalar Yasası’nda result by the year 2100 because of the thermalverilmemiş olduğu için, mahkemelere göre, expansion of ocean water and the rapid melting“kaza”, zarara veya kayba neden olan, kasıtsız of the glaciers.ve beklenmeyen her türlü olay olarak 01Mtanımlanmaktadır.E) 1961 Đngiliz Fabrikalar Yasasında, “kaza”sözcüğünün tam bir yasal tanımı verilmemişolmasına rağmen, mahkemeler “kaza”yı, “zararveya kayıp” meydana getiren kasıtsız vebeklenmeyen bir olay olarak anılamayabaşlanmıştır.01K4. Amerikalılar, evlerini ısıtmak için 6. Abu Dhabi may be the largest anddoğalgazdan güneş enerjisine kadar çeşitli wealthiest of the seven emirates thatenerji kaynakları kullanılmaktadırlar. constitute the United Arab Emirates, but it is Dubai that has come to the fore.A) In order to heat their homes, Americansprefer to use different forms of energy, including A) Her ne kadar Dubai çok bilinse de Abu Dabi,natural gas and solar power. Birleşik Arap Emirliklerini kuran yedi emirliğinB) Americans use a variety of energy sources, en büyüğü ve en zengini olarak görülebilir.from natural gas to solar power, to heat their B) Birleşik Arap Emirliklerini oluşturan yedihomes. emirlikten en büyüğü ve en zengini Abu Dabidir,C) Natural gas and solar power are just two of ancak bunlardan en çok bilineni Dubaidir.the energy sources that Americans use to heat C) Birleşik Arap Emirliklerini oluşturan yeditheir homes. emirlikten biri olan Abu Dabi, bunların enD) Americans favour natural gas and solar power büyüğü ve en zenginidir ama Dubai daha çokas the energy sources for heating their homes. bilinir.E) In order to heat their homes, American seem D) Abu Dabi, Birleşik Arap Emirliklerini oluşturanto prefer either natural gas or solar energy over yedi emirliğin en büyüğü ve en zengini olabilir,other energy sources. ancak öne çıkmış olan Dubaidir.03M E) Dubai daha iyi tanınmakla birlikte, Abu Dabinin Birleşik Arap Emirliklerini oluşturan yedi emirliğin en büyüğü ve en zengini olduğu kabul edilebilir. 04M 92
    • 7. Even though there are widespread 9. In contrast to the majority of Americandoubts among EU members about the new astronauts, Valentina Tereshkova, the firstcandidates, no government has been woman cosmonaut who went to space, wasprepared to veto enlargement. a textile factory worker when she entered the Soviet space programme.A) AB üyeleri arasında yeni adaylara ilişkinkuşkular giderek yaygınlaşıyor; ama hiçbir A) Amerikalı astronotların çoğunluğunun tersine,hükümet, genişlemeye yönelik veto hakkını uzaya giden ilk kadın kozmonot Valentinakullanmaya hazırlanmıyor. Tereskhkova, Sovyet uzay programına girdiğindeB) Yeni adaylarla ilgili olarak AB üyeleri arasında bir tekstil fabrikası işçisiydi.güçlü kuşkular bulunmaktadır, ancak AB B) Amerikalı meslektaşlarından farklı olarak,üyelerinden hiçbirinin hükümeti, genişlemeyi Valentina Tereshkova Sovyet uzay programınaveto etmek için hazırlık içinde değildir. girmeden önce bir tekstil fabrikasında isçiydi;C) AB üyeleri arasında yeni adaylara yönelik fakat, uzaya giden ilk kadın kozmonot olmayıbirçok kuşku olmasına rağmen, hükümetlerin başardı.hiçbiri genişlemeyi veto etmeyi istemiyor. C) Uzaya giden ilk kadın kozmonot ValentinaD) Hiçbir hükümet genişlemeyi veto etmek için Tereshkovanin Amerikalı meslektaşlarınınherhangi bir hazırlık içinde olmamasına rağmen, coşkunluğuna benzemeyişinin başlıca nedeni,AB üyeleri arasında yeni adaylara yönelik Sovyet uzay programına girdiğinde bir tekstilkuvvetli kuşkular yaygındır. fabrikası isçisi olmasıdır.E) AB üyeleri arasında yeni adaylara ilişkin D) Uzaya giden ilk kadın kozmonot olanyaygın kuşkular bulunsa da hiçbir hükümet Valentina Tereshkova, Amerikalıgenişlemeyi veto etmeye hazırlıklı değildir. meslektaşlarından çok05K farklıydı ve bir tekstil fabrikası işçisi olmasına karşın, Sovyet uzay programına girebilmişti. E) Bir tekstil fabrikası işçisiyken Sovyet uzay programına giren Valentina Tereshkova, uzaya giden ilk kadın kozmonot olarak Amerikalı astronotların çoğundan farklıydı. 05M8. Despite the explosion of stock-market 10. Farklı konumdaki bireylerin farklıwealth over the last decade, the most özellikleri olduğundan, kaynak ve ödüllerinvaluable asset most Americans own is their nasıl dağıtılacağına ilişkin görüşlerinde dehome. doğal olarak farklılıklar vardır.A) Çoğu Amerikalının, sahip olduğu evi en A) Since individuals in different positions havedeğerli varlık olarak görmesi, geçen on yıl içinde different interests and attributes, they naturallyborsa da servet patlaması yaşanmasını have differences in opinion about how resourcesengellemedi. and rewards should be distributed.B) Gecen on yıl içinde borsadan edinilen servet B) It is only natural that there should bepatlamasından pay alan Amerikaların çoğu için, differences in opinion about how resources andevi hala en değerli varlığıdır. rewards should be distributed, as people inC) Çoğu Amerikalı, son on yılda borsadan different positions have different interests andedindiği büyük servetin yanı sıra, evini de en attributes.değerli varlık olarak görmektedir. C) Obviously, among individuals in differentD) Evlerini en değerli varlıkları olarak kabul eden positions with different interests and attributes,pek çok Amerikalı için son on yılda borsada da there will be differences in opinion about howbir servet patlaması oldu. resources and rewards should be distributed.E) Geçen on yıl içinde borsadan edinilen servet D) Since individuals in different positions havepatlamasına rağmen, çoğu Amerikalının sahip different interests and attributes, it is onlyolduğu en değerli varlık evidir. natural that they should disagree about how05M resources and rewards can be distributed. E) Individuals in different positions, with different interests and attributes, will obviously disagree about what is the fair distribution of resources and rewards 05M 93
    • 11. As we learn from the works of many 13. Elmaslar, muhteşem güzellikleri içinbiologists in the past, since sponges did not çok şiddetle arzu edilir, ancak basit gerçekmove from one place to another, they were şu ki onlar sadece sıkıştırılmış kristalizethought to be plants. karbondur.A) Geçmişteki pek çok biyologun, eserlerinde, A) Because of their wonderful beauty, onesüngerlerden bitki olarak söz etmesinin nedeni, always has a great desire for diamonds, but thebu canlıların bir yerden bir yere hareket truth is that they are no more than justetmemesidir. compressed crystallized carbon.B) Geçmişteki biyologların eserlerinden B) Although diamonds are always desired foröğrendiğimiz kadarıyla, süngerler bir yerden bir their exceptional beauty, in fact they are reallyyere hareket etmemeleri dolayısıyla bitkilerle only compressed crystallized carbon.aynı grupta ele alınıyordu. C) Diamonds are much coveted for theirC) Geçmişteki pek çok biyologun eserlerinden exquisite beauty, but the simple truth is thatöğrendiğimiz kadarıyla, süngerler bir yerden bir they are just compressed crystallized carbon.yere hareket etmediği için onların bitki olduğu D) Invariably one has a strong urge forsanılıyordu. diamonds because of their extreme beauty evenD) Geçmişte, süngerler, bir yerden bir yere though in truth, they are only compressedhareket etmedikleri için bitki olarak kabul crystallized carbon.edildiği halde,pek çok biyolog bu görüşe E) In fact, diamonds are merely compressedeserlerinde yer vermemiştir. crystallized carbon, but there is always aE) Süngerler, bir yerden bir yere hareket widespread desire for them due to theiretmedikleri için, geçmişte bitki olarak magnificent beauty.sınıflanıyordu; fakat birçok biyolog, eserlerinde 07Mbunun yanlış olduğunu belirtmektedir.06K12. Patara’da pek çok pansiyon ve birkaç 14. ABD, Arap petrolünün serbest akışınıgörkemli otel olmasına rağmen, geleneksel sağlamak için askerî güç dahil gerekli herköy yaşamı hâlâ devam etmektedir. vasıtayı kullanmaya kendini resmen bağımlı kılmıştır.A) Patara boasts various pensions and a numberof magnificent hotels even though village life A) In order to secure the free flow of Arab oil,continues here in a traditional way. the USA has officially decided to resort to anyB) Despite a number of pensions and some means imaginable, including military force.excellent hotels, Patara is still a village which B) The USA is officially committed to the use ofhas a traditional way of life. any means necessary, including military force, toC) Though a village where traditional life still ensure the free flow of Arab oil.goes on, Patara has a great number of pensions C) It is a determined policy of the USA to makeand several luxurious hotels. sure, through the official use of any means,D) Although in Patara there are many pensions including military force, that Arab oil flowsand a few splendid hotels, traditional village life freely.still continues. D) The USA is clearly determined to use anyE) Patara, which has several pensions but few means whatsoever, even military force, in annice hotels, is just a village where life goes on in effort to secure the unobstructed flow of Araba traditional manner. oil.06K E) It is the official policy of the USA to ensure the free flow of Arab oil by using all kinds of means except military force. 07M 94
    • Cümle tamamlama soruları1. Since these new printers weigh less 4. ____ she did not turn seriously tothan 900 grams, ____. writing until after her husbands death in 1883.A) they really deserve to be called portableB) their performance is invariably admirable A) Although Kate Chopin had previouslyC) most people have been misled by their price contemplated a literary careerD) they were readily available at all the best B) Since Kate Chopin had been thinking about aretailers literary careerE) the research team has already moved onto a C) As far as Kate Chopins interest in literaturenew project was concerned99K D) Once Kate Chopin had decided to live the rest of her life in New Orleans E) However much interest Kate Chopins short stories have aroused 00K2. ____ , but most of them don’t see a 5. Since the cleaning up of the pollution ofdoctor because they think it’s something the seas is so expensive, ____ .they just have to live with. A) the project had progressed as expectedA) It was reported earlier in this decade that B) large corporations would offer contributionsabout one third of all patients had received C) the question of liability inevitably arisestreatment for impotence D) excessive care provided the answerB) Over 200 thousand men have received proper E) the final result has still to be analyzedmedical treatment 00KC) Impotence is something we have learned todeal withD) Urologists and other doctors have alwaysbeen concerned with impotenceE) Impotence affects over ten million mennationwide99M3. Though free politics and free-market 6. Though the construction of a bridgeeconomics go most happily together, ____ . across the river would doubtless prove popular, ____ .A) no new aid would be approved for six monthsB) they could no longer blame the colonialists, A) the technology to be transferred is quitewho had withdrawn from America two or three suitabledecades before B) eight councils would have been committed toC) five years ago, dictatorships proclaiming arrange itsocialists policies prevailed in Africa C) similar designs are on view everywhereD) one does not necessarily lead to the other, D) it will not be easy to raise enough money tonor guarantee its success do itE) Africans have shown that they want multi- E) it is a German-Japanese consortium thatparty democracy and are beginning to achieve it gives the orders99M 00M 95
    • 7. ____ because students go in then at half 10. Though every industrial developmentprice. project is a potential source of pollution ____ .A) All the tickets had been sold at least a weekbefore the concert took place A) air pollution would clearly have been the mostB) The paintings will be on exhibition for two dangerous of allweeks B) this didnt mean that industrial developmentC) The museum is always crowded on Thursdays had to be radically reducedD) The spectators are expected to applaud C) careful advance planning can minimize thatgenerously pollution and its effects on the populationE) The gates used to be closed at sunset D) such benefits as reductions in crop losses01M would help to offset the costs of pollution control E) the dangers of pollution are everywhere recognized 02M 11. ____, urban farms are usually far more8. Though coral reefs are among the richest productive than their rural counterparts.ecosystems on the planet, ____. A) If city authorities and agricultural researchersA) they grow in crystal-clear waters that contain continue to ignore urban farminghardly any nutrients B) Because they tend to be small and carefullyB) nutrient uptake is closely related to the looked afterdegree of movement in the sea C) Even though most farmers didnt use yield-C) the rough surfaces are what make this boosting chemicalspossible D) While the highest productivity has been onD) they are also skilled at recycling the smallest plotsE) changes in turbulence accurately predicted E) As better child nutrition can be linked to thethe rate of nutrient uptake local production of food in urban areas02K 03M9. Despite the great concern for leadership 12. Since the migratory routes of cranesand the large volume of writings about it, ignore political boundaries, ____.____. A) a species bank of captive cranes has beenA) leadership is a topic of interest to many created to guard against extinctionpeople B) some cranes depend exclusively uponB) this is hardly a comprehensive definition wetlands for nesting and feedingC) it was too vigorous a definition and didnt C) of any effort to protect them requires thereflect the common sense notion of the term participation of several countriesD) older children would actually follow his lead D) an International effort to ensure safe passageE) there is relatively little agreement about what for cranes would have been hardly feasibleit is or how it functions E) this was simply a means to draw global02M attention to cranes and their work 04K 96
    • 13. ____ theres a lot of truth in the saying 16. ____ , they are especially commonthat an orchestra is only as good as its during the spring and early summer.conductor. A) Although tornadoes can happen at any timeA) Though there are exceptions of the yearB) If the orchestra were in better shape B) Since the conditions that lead to theC) Since his abilities as an orchestra builder are formation of tornadoes are most often to bevery impressive found in the central and southern United StatesD) Once they had gained international C) As a tornado is a dark funnel-shaped cloudrecognition made up of violently rotating windsE) Since music critics are involved in a serious D) White tornadoes in the United Statescontroversy generally travel in a northeast direction04K E) Because tornadoes are capable of lifting houses off their foundations and hurling them considerable distances 04M14. Many of Europes museums and 17. ____ America should by local grain andcultural institutions are in financial trouble, distribute that, thus stimulating agriculture____. where it is most needed.A) even though most of Americas cultural A) As soon as aid from European countries tendsinstitutions get little cash from the federal to have fewer stings attachedgovernment B) While remaining one of the worlds stingiestB) since plans by the Italian government to donors of aidprivatize parts of the countrys cultural heritage C) Instead of dumping America Cereal Surpluseshave fallen through as aid on hungry countriesC) as governments find themselves forced to cut D) Because Africa leaders often point outsubsidies E) In case Europe allows the worlds poorestD) because the Italian government has come up countries to export many good tariff-freewith a bold plan to ease the cash crisis facing 05Kthe museumsE) if Frances new culture minister has come outin favour of a plan for more independence fornational museums04K15. Although Japan has one of the worlds 18. ____ that Mars has experienced amost rapidly ageing populations, ____. striking diversity of processes throughout its history.A) Japanese companies will be world leaders incatering for the elderly A) In fact nobody suggestedB) other countries such as China and South B) It is now apparentKorea and most of Western Europe are closing C) The discussion is likely to continuethe gap D) Majority opinions are not necessarily correctC) in 2004 one-fifth of its population will be 6 or E) The evidence they presentedover and there will be more than 20,000 people 05Kover the age of a hundredD) the increasing burden of providing pensionsand health care for the growing number ofelderly will cause Japans public finances toremain by far the worst in the developed worldE) to safeguard the financial assets of itspensioners, the bank of Japan will not be able totake any radical measures04M 97
    • 19. Though people continue to be 22. There has been a decrease in deathsfascinated by the explorer, Livingstone, from motor vehicle crashes over recent____. years, ____ .A) his rival Stanley had been admired more A) since speed limits would be loweredB) the way people regard him has changed B) which is partly due to improved safetydramatically features in carsC) some of his former possessions sold recently C) if there were public intolerance of drinkingfor over a million dollars and drivingD) he was physically brave and morally D) as there has been improved safety design inrighteous occupational machineryE) he made several more Africa expeditions E) in which improved medical care had played a05K part 05M20. This conductor offers an orchestral 23. Although microeconomic theories try tobalance quite unlike ____ . explain how large numbers of firms act in the marketplace, ____.A) as if some string passages almost get lostB) as you simply do not hear the violins as the A) economists faced several unique problems"main line" of the music B) they are quite poor at describing or predictingC) what we are used to the actual behavior of any one particular real-D) that he adds something of his own world firmE) since the work is hardly recognizable C) managers try to minimize inventory costs,05M meet production schedules and devise diverse product mixes D) behavioral theories had been far more descriptive and predictive of the behavior of individual firms and managers E) its primary aim is to promote organizational values and interests 05M21. The building of the Toshka canal in 24. Because energy production expendsEgypt was carefully planned ____. resources and causes pollution, ____ .A) if the inlet starts at a point 8 km north of A) we depend upon nature to provide the basicsToshka bay of life, such as food and oxygenB) as the mistakes made in earlier canals had B) many resources are used once and thenproved costly thrown awayC) as if the desert could become green C) modern technical challenges are seldom metD) until the amount of water required was by scientistsagreed on D) scientists and engineers must work toE) that wealthy investors could easily be found develop energy-efficient processes05M E) engineers must solve problems without even understanding the underlying theory 06K 98
    • 25. Smallpox was once a dreaded human 28. ____ even though she’s still notdisease, ____. prepared to forgive herself.A) while genetic engineering can be used in A) The wrong person got blamedseveral ways to make vaccines B) After all, she committed an error, not a crimeB) although today DNA technology is helping C) Others were also involved in the affairmedical researchers develop vaccines D) A lot of people have forgiven herC) even if artificial-mutant vaccines may cause E) She was wrongly accused Afewer side effects than natural mutants 06MD) but it was eradicated worldwide in the 1970sby widespread vaccinationE) since there has been no effective drugtreatment for many viral diseases06K26. The Welsh language has changed so 29. Though the smell of fumes in an aircraftlittle through the centuries ____. cockpit may not always spell danger, ____.A) whose annual Eisteddfod celebration honors A) a forced landing could have been avoidedits best poets and writers B) even a small sensor can detect a wide rangeB) that an educated Welshman can still read the of chemicalsWelsh of the Middle Ages C) harmless fumes had been caused by a smallC) as more and more English families settle in leak of oilWales, bringing their habits with them D) it is guaranteed to alarm the pilotD) although Wales recently formed its own E) such a detector can easily be fitted into annational assembly aircraftE) unless it embodies the kind, unambitious 07Mnature of the Welsh people06K27. Salmon farms are prohibited in Alaska 30. Because children enjoy the process of____. play, ____ .A) unless salmon actually does protect against A) various other options had been taken intocancer considerationB) because fishermen blame the farms for B) they are not primarily focused on achieving aundercutting their price product or achieving a goalC) since farmed salmon used to be fattier than C) group demands begin to grow steadilywild salmon D) many alternative approaches also had to beD) but they say salmon farms are bad for the testedenvironment E) the acquisition of social skills is a positiveE) once the industry begins to attack some of assetthe problems 07M06M 99
    • Benzer cümle soruları31. Environmentalists are criticizing thepatent office for delaying its decision onsome new measuring instruments ____ .A) while the guidelines have been consistently 1. Though diplomatic efforts to forestall theignored bombardment have been intensified, thereB) if applications for patents on plants are on the is apparently no progress towards anincrease agreement.C) before objections were filed against patentson a herbicide resistant plant A)Every known means of diplomacy has beenD) since they believe that these are urgently tried, but peace seems to recede and theneeded to detect certain problems expected attack to be quickly approaching.E) as if the controversy had actually died down B) Reconciliation remains a remote hope, for07M diplomatic channels apparently lack the necessary authority to check an attack. C) In spite of diplomatic efforts to the contrary, the bombardment was a violent one and all hopes of an agreement were shattered. D) Though they are desperately in need of a truce, they can find no way to achieve one and now await the attack. E) Reconciliation seems no nearer, even though a massive effort is being made to find a diplomatic solution and so avoid a bombardment 98K32. ____ , they operate as effective carriers 2. He got to the top at last because thereand may pass it on to other birds which are was literally nobody standing in his path.more susceptible. A) it was a long, hard grind to the top, but heA) Though many migratory birds are immune to finally made it.the effects of the avian flu virus B) If there had been any serious competition, itsB) Since many residents of outlying villages not likely that hed have made it to the top.have refused to carry out the culling of their C) As there was absolutely no one to preventchickens to prevent the spread of avian flu him from doing so, he finally made it to the top.C) Despite the fact that the avian flu virus is D) As there was no opposition, he quickly rosespread, primarily, by migratory birds to the top.D) As symptoms of bird flu in humans are E) Since he faced no serious competition, it wassimilar to those of common flu inevitable that he should get to the top.E) If the spread of the avian flu virus through 04Kpopulations of wild birds remains unchecked07M 100
    • Paragraf tamamlama soruları3. Although for many individuals, personalethics are rooted in religious beliefs, this isnot true for everyone. 1. Compared to its Balkan neighbors, Greece is a wealthy country, but it remainsA) Each individual has his own ethical standards one of the poorer members of the Europeanand these always reflect his religious beliefs. Union. ____ Nevertheless, with aB) Everyone has his own ethical code which may nominally capitalist orientation, it hasor may not have a religious foundation. overcome its resemblance to pre-1989C) With most people religious beliefs and ethical Eastern Europe. Loss-making statestandards are largely in harmony, at least in enterprises have been sold off, andmost situations. inflation and interest rates have fallen.D) There is a religious basis to the special ethical However, unemployment remains high.code of many people, but not, by any means, ofall people. A) It is still a developing economy, with theE) Ethical standards usually effect religious agriculture and service sectors accounting forbeliefs but there are certain rare exceptions. two-thirds of its GNP.07M B) Still, the Greek islands attract thousands of tourists, many of whom come simply to enjoy the sun and sand and the relaxed pace of life. C) Accordingly, it now seems poised to become a significant regional power. D) Furthermore, it has one of the lowest birth rates in Europe. E) Yet family life and social life are usually one and the same, and tend to revolve around eating out. 06K 2. Elizabeth Barrett Browning, who was to become Victorian England’s most famous woman poet in the nineteenth century, received an unusual education for a woman of her time. Availing herself of her brother’s tutor, she studied Latin and Greek. ____ But as her intellectual and literary powers matured, her personal life became increasingly undermined by ill health. Although, by the age of thirty-nine, she was a prominent woman of letters, she continued to live in semi seclusion as an invalid in her father’s house, where she occasionally received visitors. A) In her later poems, in which she took up the cause of Italian nationalism, she was mostly concerned with the political issues of her time. B) Once in Italy, she regained much health and strength, bearing and raising a son, to whom she was ardently devoted. C) Hence, in her early work, she tended to use the visionary modes of Romantic narrative poetry. D) Moreover, she read voraciously in history, philosophy and literature and began to write poetry from an early age. E) However, her work fell into disrepute with the modernist reaction against the didacticism and rhetorical excess of Victorian poetry. 06K 101
    • 3. No description of embarrassment wouldbe complete without considering the blush.For many of us, it is the hallmark display ofembarrassment. ____. Although thephysiology of the blush is not fullyunderstood, we are getting nearer to abetter understanding of it.A) Their results showed that blushing beginswith a sharp increase of blood flow, which isthen followed by a slower rise in facialtemperatureB) Although smiling occurs duringembarrassment, it has a different appearancefrom that of amusementC) On the other hand, in embarrassment, thelips turn up but without the accompanying actionof the crinkling of the eyesD) Actually, however, blushing does notnecessarily accompany embarrassment, andfacial reddening can occur during other physicaland emotional states as wellE) Generally speaking, heart rate and bloodpressure tend to rise and fall in many emotionalstates such as anger, fear and happiness07M 102
    • KEY TO CONJUNCTIONSBOŞLUK ÇEVĐRĐ 9EDOLDURMA 1B 10 C1 * 2A 11 B2C 3B 12 C3 * 4B 13 A4A 5D 14 C5C 6D 15 B6D 7E 16 A7A 8E 17 C8A 9A 18 B9B 10 A 19 B10 E 11 C 20 C11 B 12 D 21 B12 B 13 C 22 B13 E 14 B 23 B14 D 24 D15 E 25 D16 B CÜMLE 26 B17 C TAMAMLAMA 27 B18 D 1A 28 D19 A 2E 29 D20 D 3D 30 B21 A 4A 31 D22 E 5C 32 A23 E 6D24 D 7C25 A 8A 103
    • Adjectives• Sıfatlar, isimden önce gelerek bize isminniteliği, a sad mother a large houseyaşı, an old building a ten-year old boyyapısı, a leather jacket a stone heartrengi, a red t-shirt a blue skyölçüsü ve boyutu, a narrow gate a huge salonşekli, a triangle room a round tablekalitesi, a nice work a beautiful daykökeni hakkında bilgi verir. a Turkish bath a Celtic song• Sıfatlar, gradable (derecelendirilebilen) ve ungradable (derecelendirilemeyen) olarak ikiye ayrılır. Örnek olarak: gradable ungradableangry important absurd hugebig quiet amazed impossiblebusy rich awful marvelouscheap sad devastated uselesscomfortable strong dreadful terrifiedcommon successful enormous perfecteasy young essential wonderfulhappy furious116
    • Comparatives• iki şeyi birbirleriyle karşılaştırırken comparative adjective kullanırız. Gradable adjective kullanırız. Luxembourg is smaller than Germany. History is more interesting than Geography.• eğer sıfat tek heceli ise –er takısı, daha fazla heceliyse önüne more alır. My dad is busier in winter than in summer. Security is more important than comfort.• bazı sıfatlar her iki şekilde de kullanılabilir. Bunlar: clever, friendly, handsome, simple, tender, yellow Alex is cleverer than Sean. Alex is more clever than Sean.• bazı sıfatlarsa ne –er takısı ne de more alır. Düzensiz sıfat olarak adlandırılan bu sıfatlar, tamamen farklılaşır. bad worse good better far further little less many/ much more Kate is better at Math’s than Jeff. Sugar is less than salt.Dikkat: Comparative formda than mutlaka kullanılırSuperlatives• bir grup içersinde en üst derecedekini gösterirken kullanırız. Russia is the largest country. Maybach is the most expensive car.• eğer sıfat tek heceli ise –est takısı, daha fazla heceliyse önüne most alır. Sony produced the tiniest handy cam. Allison is the most hardworking student in the class. 117
    • • bazı sıfatlar her iki şekilde de kullanılabilir. Bunlar: clever, friendly, handsome, simple, tender, yellow Alex is the cleverest student. Alex is the most clever student.• bazı sıfatlarsa ne –est takısı ne de most alır. Düzensiz sıfat olarak adlandırılan bu sıfatlar, tamamen farklılaşır. bad worst good best far furthest little least many/ much most Australia is the furthest country. Coldplay is the best band of the year.Dikkat: Superlative formda sıfattan önce mutlaka the kullanılır.Position of Adjectives (sıfatlarda sıralama)Bir cümlede birden fazla sıfat varsa sıralama genellikle şu şekilde olur: opinion, size, age, shape, color, origin, material OSASCOM a nice new wooden table a tall blonde French lady an old round glass vase118
    • Adjectives with –ed or –ing• Bazı fiiller hem –ed hem de –ing takısı alarak sıfat olabilirler. Fakat –ed takısı alanlar insanlar için kullanılırken –ing takısı alanlarsa şeyler için kullanılır. a frightening dog ( korkunç köpek ) Betty was frightened of the dog. ( Betty korkmuş.) a surprising event ( şaşırtıcı bir olay ) Wayne was surprised by the event. (olay karşısında şaşırmış.) a tiring job John was tired of the job. a satisfying answer Nevin was satisfied with the answer.• bu şekilde kullanılabilen bazı sıfatlar:alarmed – alarming interested – interestingamazed – amazing pleased – pleasingbored – boring satisfied - satisfyingdepressed - depressing surprised – surprisingexcited – exciting tired - tiringfrightened – frightening worried – worryingNot: Sıfatların önüne the koyarak sıfatın nitelediği grubun genelini kastedebiliriz. Rich people should be considerate about poor people. The rich should be considerate about the poor. Old people can be a sample for young people. The old can be a sample for the young.bkz. prepositions (adj+pre) 119
    • As…as (kadar)• Sıfatlarla eşitlik bildirmek için as…as kalıbı kullanılır. Canada is as large as USA. (Canada, Amerika kadar geniş) Tony is as old as Helen. Gerry isn’t as talkative as Easton.The…the• Đki olay arasındaki sebep-sonuç ilişkisini sıfatlar yoluyla belirtirken kullanırız. The better a product is, the higher the price is. The more interesting a book is, the more entertaining it is. The longer the questions are, the harder the answers.Progressive Adjectives• Gelişimi betimleyen sıfatlardır. Comparative form kullanılarak yapılır. The sun gets brighter and brighter. The sentences are becoming longer and longer. She is getting more and more jealous of her sister.120
    • ADJECTIVESÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları1. Do you really believe that the party 5. Today the expansion of knowledge inprogramme ____ it now stands, is astronomy, physics, chemistry, and biologydemocratic ____ to influence the vote in is ____ vast and complex, and multiplyingour favour? ____ quickly to be mastered fully.A) as / enough A) so / thatB) since / also B) just as / asC) where / as well C) as well / asD) such as / too D) so / soE) that / even E) too / too98K 98M2. Private investments play ____ important 6. The objective of this project is toa part in the country’s long-running increase the depth of awareness andeconomic expansion ____ no government understanding in the world, about thedares to increase taxation on personal causes and consequences of the HIVsavings. epidemic through ____ policies and programmes.A) too / thatB) such / as A) innovativeC) much / so B) decadentD) so / that C) meagerE) as / as D) ambiguous98K E) poignant 99M3. Progress in materials research is ____ to 7. Apparently, the talks held between theovercoming such problems as the finiteness two governments concerning theof the world’s resources and possible prevention of drug-trafficking have notshortages of strategic materials. been constructive ____ to produce any positive results.A) crucialB) inexpensive A) justC) adamant B) as wellD) subversive C) alsoE) subsequent D) enough98M E) so that 99M4. Of all the policies put into effect by the 8. Recent studies have shown that smokersThatcher governments ____controversial are more ____ to common colds and fluwas the economic one. than non-smokers.A) most A) feasibleB) the more B) susceptibleC) the most C) applicableD) more D) reliableE) mostly E) responsible98M 00K 110
    • 9. Anti-lock brakes (ABS) help you to 13. The government has recently made onemaintain steering control of your car even million dollars _____ for research grantswhile braking on ____ roads. concerning the prediction of earthquakes.A) lonesome A) conditionalB) fast B) availableC) reckless C) suitableD) slippery D) considerableE) stagnant E) vulnerable00M 01M 14. Acid rain only became a ____10. Perhaps these people are ____ ignorant environmental issue in the 1980s followingto realize ____ serious a threat these groundbreaking studies in the 1970s.fertilizers are to their health. A) previous B) deceitfulA) more / than C) recklessB) so / why D) destructiveC) as much / as E) prominentD) too / just how 02KE) not only / but also00M11. I would have thought that only ____ 15. Certain new findings suggest thatnaive worker could be deceived by ____ young calves may be more____ than olderassurances. cows to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).A) the more / neither A) reluctantB) a most / each B) hazardousC) the most / such C) intimateD) a much / any D) susceptibleE) most / same E) relative00M 02M12. The motive was ____ aesthetic and 16.The micro air vehicles they are workingsocial ____ they sought to bring good on are____ small that it will be almostdesign within the reach of the ordinary impossible to detect them with radar.man. A) tooA) so / in that B) asB) both / because C) suchC) just as / that D) soD) as much / as E) moreE) too / therefore 02M00M 111
    • 17. Sponsorship is being increasingly 21. Exciting new research is transformingallowed in schools provided it is regarded industrial robotics, offering the promise ofas being ____with educational curricula. whole new generation of ____intelligent machines.A) considerateB) predictable A) moreC) decisive B) muchD) compatible C) anyE) provocative D) mostly03M E) too 04M18. The book is surprisingly lucid and 22. Slow-motion photography can revealmanages to make the controversial field of things that happen ____ fast for the humanevolutionary psychology____ to the eye to see.average intelligent reader. A) moreA) susceptible B) asB) conducive C) thanC) available D) tooD) indulgent E) suchE) exclusive 05M04K19. When the rage for orchids hit Europe in 23. Satellite television transmission nowthe nineteenth century collectors makes it ____for us to watch events asimmediately realized that greenhouses they unfold in other countries.were needed to provide ____ growingconditions. A) worldwide B) substantialA) better C) awareB) best D) commonplaceC) as good E) liableD) the most 06KE) more04K20. It seems strange to us now that miners 24. Pollen grains - the tiny maleand others employed in dangerous work reproductive bodies of flowering plants –should not have demanded the provision have an almost ____outer shell that canof____ Headgear. survive in certain sediments for tens of thousands of years.A) forcefulB) obstructive A) intenseC) relentless B) approachableD) protective C) indestructibleE) intensive D) abundant04M E) unsteady 06K 112
    • Çeviri soruları1. Today the more we learn through science 3. Amerika Birleşik Devletleri ile Kanadaand technology, the farther the limits of arasında olduğu gibi, farklı ekonomileriwhat we dont know spread out towards bütünleştirmede ortak bir dil, ortak parainfinity. biriminden çok daha yararlıdır.A) Bugün bilim ve teknoloji yardımıyla çok şey A) It is the single language that aids theöğreniyor olsak da hala bilmediklerimizin sınırları integration of different economies as in the casesonsuzluğun derinliklerine kadar uzanmaktadır. of the US and Canada, not the monetaryB) Bugünün bilim ve teknolojisiyle system.öğrendiklerimiz, eskisinden çok olsa da B) A common language can be far more usefulbilmediğimiz şeylerin sınırları derin bir than a common currency to integrate differentsonsuzluğa doğru uzanıyor. economies, as is the case between the US andC) Bugün bilim ve teknoloji vasıtasıyla çok şey Canada.öğreniyoruz; ancak, bilmediklerimizin sınırları C) As regards the US and Canada the integrationbüyük bir sonsuzluk içinde kalmaya devam of the different economies is due more to theediyor. single language than to the single monetaryD) Bugün bilim ve teknolojiden yararlanarak çok system.şey öğrenmemize karşın, bilmediklerimiz uçsuz D) The integration of the different economies ofbucaksız bir sonsuzluk oluşturmaktadır. the US and Canada owes more to a singleE) Bugün bilim ve teknoloji vasıtasıyla ne kadar language than to a single monetary system.çok öğreniyorsak, bilmediklerimizin sınırları da o E) A common language rather than a commonkadar çok sonsuzluğa doğru uzanmaktadır. monetary system has made possible the00K integration of the different economies of the US and Canada. 02K2. Sierra Leonedaki iç savaş o kadar 4. Pluto, which is the outermost planet ofvahşiydi ki ve bıraktığı hasarlar o kadar the solar system, has a mass ten timesağır olmuştur ki normal düzene hızlı bir smaller than hitherto supposed.dönüş imkansızdır. A) Bugüne kadar bilinenden on kat daha az birA) One cannot look for a speedy return to kütleye sahip olan Plüton, güneş sisteminin ennormality in Sierra Leone, for the civil war there uç gezegenidir.was horrific and the resulting injuries excessive. B) Güneş sisteminin en uç noktasında bulunanB) Since the civil war in Sierra Leone was so Plüton gezegeninin kütlesi, daha önce bilinendenbarbaric and the injuries that resulted so grave, on kat daha azdır.a speedy return to normality is not to be C) Daha önce kabul edilenden on kat daha az birexpected. kütlesi bulunan Plüton gezegeni, güneşC) The civil war in Sierra Leone was so barbaric, sisteminin en dış noktasındadır.and the injuries it left so grave, that a swift D) Güneş sisteminin en uzak gezegeni olanreturn to normality is out of the question. Plüton bugüne kadar sanıldığından on kat dahaD) The civil war in Sierra Leone was so horrific az bir kütleye sahiptir.and left in its wake so many injured that a E) Güneş sisteminin en uç noktasında bulunanreturn to normality cannot readily be achieved. Plüton, şimdiye kadar düşünülenden on kat dahaE) A quick return to normality in Sierra Leone is az bir kütleden oluşan bir gezegendir.out of the question, for the civil war was a 02Ksavage one and the atrocities committedparticularly injurious02K 113
    • Cümle tamamlama soruları5. Volkan bilimciler, Yellowstonedagelecekteki bir yanardağ patlamasının,bildiğimiz patlamalardan binlerce kat dahagüçlü olacağından korkmaktadır. 1. By 1809, Sweden’s military power had waned to such an extent____.A) Volcanologists fear that a future volcaniceruption at Yellowstone will be thousands of A) as a new constitution transferred power fromtimes more-powerful than the eruptions we are the king to Parliamentfamiliar with. B) so that it could no longer continue as a greatB) Volcanologists suspect that any future powervolcanic eruption at Yellowstone could be far C) that the country was forced to surrender partmore powerful than any eruption we have of its territory to Russiaexperienced to date. D) in that nearly one million Swedes migrated,C) If the volcano at Yellowstone erupts again, mostly to Americathen the eruption could, in the opinion of E) even though the Swedes had contributed toVolcanologists, be a thousand times more Europe’s Age of Enlightenment with advances inpowerful than any we have so far experienced. scienceD) Volcanologists are concerned about the force 06Kof any future volcanic eruption at Yellowstonesince it could be a thousand times morepowerful than earlier ones of our experience.E) Should the volcano at Yellowstone eruptagain, Volcanologists fear the force of theeruption could be thousands of times morepowerful than any earlier one of our experience.05K Benzer cümle sorusu6. Despite the explosion of stock-marketwealth over the last decade, the mostvaluable asset most Americans own is theirhome. 1. Today we are more prosperous and have better relationships across the generationsA) Çoğu Amerikalının, sahip olduğu evi en than ever before.değerli varlık olarak görmesi, geçen on yıl içindeborsa da servet patlaması yaşanmasını A) I think people today have more money thanengellemedi. they used to, but inter-generational relationshipsB) Gecen on yıl içinde borsadan edinilen servet have suffered as a consequence.patlamasından pay alan Amerikalıların çoğu için, B) In the past there used to be more prosperityevi hala en değerli varlığıdır. and better inter-generational communication.C) Çoğu Amerikalı, son on yılda borsadan C) People these days are better off financiallyedindiği büyük servetin yanı sıra, evini de en and there is better communication betweendeğerli varlık olarak görmektedir. different age groups than at any time in theD) Evlerini en değerli varlıkları olarak kabul eden past.pek çok Amerikalı için son on yılda borsada da D) These days we are better at establishing trustbir servet patlaması oldu. between people than we used to be, althoughE) Geçen on yıl içinde borsadan edinilen servet we may lack financial resources.patlamasına rağmen, çoğu Amerikalının sahip E) Nowadays people think that relationships andolduğu en değerli varlık evidir. trust between generations are more important05M than wealth. 06K 114
    • KEY TO ADJECTIVESBOŞLUKDOLDURMA ÇEVĐRĐ1A 1E2B 2C3A 3B4C 4D5 E* 5A6 E* 6E7D 7C8B 8C9D10 D11 C12 * CÜMLE13 B TAMAMLAMA14 E 1C15 D16 D17 D18 C BENZER CÜMLE19 A 1C20 D21 A22 D23 D24 C 115
    • Adverbs• Zarflar, fiilleri He drives the car carefully. She sings softly.• sıfatları, I’m very tired. This book is really outstanding.• veya zarfları niteler. He works extremely hard. You learn very fast.• sıfatlara –ly takısı gelerek oluşan zarflar olduğu gibi,adj advbright brightlyclear clearlyeasy easilyquick quicklyshy shylywarm warmly a quick shower He had a shower quickly a shy look She looked shyly at me.• sıfatla aynı formda olan zarflar da vardır.adj advhard hard *fast fastlate late *long longloud loudnear near *straight straight a fast car She drives the car fast. a loud music He plays the music loud. 117
    • Dikkat: hard, late ,near –ly takısı alırsa anlamları değişir.hardly = rarely She hardly visits us.lately = recently I’ve not seen him lately.nearly = almost I almost forgot!Not: good sıfatı düzensiz olduğu için adverb hali well dir. a good job. He did the job well.Types of AdverbsTYPE ADVERB and EXAMPLEmanner clearly, easily, fast, quickly, softly, well, hard I can easily see him here.place at home, here, there, inside, outside He was sitting here.time all day, for a while, now, since last week, today The children played football all day.degree almost, completely, enough, extremely, fairly, hardly She is extremely selfish.comment certainly, definitely, frankly, in my opinion, luckily Luckily, I wasn’t in that bus.viewpoint biologically, chemically, economically, scientifically, theoretically Theoretically, what you say is right.focus chiefly, especially, mainly, mostly, particularly, primarily, probably We mostly argue about the education.frequency always, ever, never, rarely, seldom, sometimes, usually He sometimes buys computer games.restrictive exclusively, just, merely, only, purely, solely This model is exclusively sold to Middle East.118
    • Comparative Adverbs• Zarflarla karşılaştırma yaparken, sıfat formuyla aynı olan zarflar –er takısı alırken, She worked harder to earn more. I sleep longer in summers.• diğerleri ise önüne more alır. After the accident, he started drive more carefully. I wanted him to speak more clearly.• bazı zarflarsa ne –er takısı ne de more alır. Düzensiz olarak adlandırılan bu zarflar tamamen farklılaşır. badly worse far further little less much more well better She made a better score this time. I’m exhausted. I can’t go further.Superlative Adverbs• En üst seviyedeki zarfı gösterirken, sıfat formuyla aynı olan zarflar –est takısı alırken, My brother drives the fastest in our family. As usual, Jane came the latest.• diğerleriyse önüne most alır. They debated on traffic crimes the most seriously. She worked for the charity the most passionately.• bazı zarflarsa ne –est takısı ne de most alır. Düzensiz olarak adlandırılan bu zarflar tamamen farklılaşır. badly the worst far the furthest little the least much the most well the best He scored the best in Olympics. Jane earns the least among her friends.Dikkat: Superlative form da adverb den önce mutlaka the gelir. 119
    • As…as (kadar)• Zarflarla eşitlik bildirmek için as…as kalıbı kullanılır. She can type as fast as you can. (senin kadar hızlı yazabilir.) Tony speaks as fluently as a French. Karen can’t dive as deep as Lily.The…the• Đki olay arasındaki sebep-sonuç ilişkisini zarflar yoluyla belirtirken kullanırız. The more slowly you speak, the more clearly we understand. ( Ne kadar yavaş konuşursan, o kadar kolay anlıyoruz.) The harder you work, the more you earn. The more you practice, the better you speak.Progressive Adverbs• Gelişimi betimleyen zarflardır. Comparative form kullanılarak yapılır. They ask this question more and more frequently. He started to drive more and more carelessly. Everytime, she skated better and better.120
    • ADVERBSÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları1. Because of their high toxic contents, 4. The new ceramics, which have little innone of these chemicals can ____ be common with the chinaware we use in ourpermitted for export to any country. kitchens everyday, are being used ____ in engines and electronics.A) fruitfullyB) adequately A) depressinglyC) presently B) seeminglyD) notoriously C) increasinglyE) equivocally D) discouragingly98K E) obligingly 98M2. ____ he was campaigning for re-election 5. Today the expansion of knowledge inlast year, he promised that ____ re-elected, astronomy, physics, chemistry, and biologyhe would undertake to restructure the is ____ vast and complex, and multiplyingparty. ____ quickly to be mastered fully.A) Wherever / lest A) so / thatB) Because / while B) just as / asC) As / since C) as well / asD) While / unless D) so / soE) When / if E) too / too98K 98M3. It is ____ ten years since AIDS caught 6. ____ suggestion he may make asthe world’s attention. regards the tax rate, let’s not give any response ____ we have discussed theA) formidably matter thoroughly together.B) generouslyC) pertinently A) However / whenD) roughly B) Whatever / untilE) inevitably C) Why ever / after98M D) Whatsoever / while E) Whenever / before 98M 121
    • 7. The current social security system is 11. ____ populated, rural Northumberland____ popular, partly because its universal is one of the most unspoiled countries inand partly because retirement benefits are England.related to contributions, so most peoplethink the system is fair. A) Sparsely B) NearlyA) extremely C) PrimarilyB) likely D) SuitablyC) eventually E) EfficientlyD) indispensably 00ME) favourably99K8. Launched as the new regulatory 12. I sent an e-mail to everyone in theauthority for the countries banking and department, asking for articles for thisinsurance sector, the National Financial special issue, but ____ there has been noServices Management will extend its response.activities so as ____ to cover more than40% of the national economy. A) so long B) on timeA) exceptionally C) until thenB) ultimately D) even laterC) inherently E) so farD) fluently 00ME) apparently99M9. For the present, the party is expected to 13. In many countries training for industryput its differences aside and campaign has always been considered to be ____ the____ for a victory at the forthcoming concern of industry itself, not of the state.elections. A) sociallyA) vigorously B) primarilyB) awkwardly C) suitablyC) precisely D) firmlyD) distinctly E) reputedlyE) reluctantly 01K00K10. Industry has developed rapidly in 14. The ozone layer may still act like acertain countries as raw materials are ____ protective blanket, but scientists continueavailable there. to worry about the suns _____ lethal effects.A) repeatedlyB) scarcely A) potentiallyC) consequently B) equivalentlyD) abundantly C) indifferentlyE) indefinitely D) approximately00K E) abruptly 01M122
    • 15. Henry VIIs foreign policy was unheroic 19. More than 29 million Africans are nowand unspectacular; ______ did he go to infected with HIV, and the disease is killingwar and that was when he invaded France. ____ Africans ____ all the continents wars combined.A) this onceB) never before A) so many / asC) once again B) either / orD) only once C) more / thanE) once more D) not only / but also01M E) both / and 03M16. Beethovens seventeen string quartets 20. He did ____ better in the interviewhold ______ the same position in chamber ____ any of the other applicants.music ______ his symphonies hold in theorchestral repertoire. A) much / as B) rather / thanA) as / that C) as / forB) much / as D) still / withC) quite / whether E) far / fromD) just / what 03ME) thus / like01M17. The distinction between a language and 21. The quartets rendering of Mozart isa dialect is a ____ difficult one. ____ good, but l have mixed feelings about the Schubert collection.A) preciselyB) notoriously A) exceptionallyC) compulsively B) sensitivelyD) suitably C) preferablyE) flexibly D) impulsively02M E) impartially 04K18. The discovery of a ____ cancer-causing 22. Human activrty has destroyed ____chemical in foods like crisps, chips and plant species that collective action iscereals caused shock waves around the essential for the conservation of those thatworld when it hit the headlines earlier this remain.year. A) moreA) potentially B) so manyB) remarkably C) many moreC) controversially D) the mostD) memorably E) as manyE) concisely 04K03M 123
    • 23. In the past 30 years, our knowledge of 27. Unless you use your computer ____ ,the ancient Maya civilization has increased you cant expect it to function well.____ as a result of the decipherment of anewly discovered script. A) surely B) particularlyA) significantly C) recentlyB) alternatively D) properlyC) suspiciously E) soundlyD) persuasively 05ME) conditionally04M24. ____ helmets had been revived for 28. James Joyce left Ireland for Paris butsoldiers and extended to many workers, returned to Dublin for a short while ____safety head coverings for athletes almost learning that his mother was dying.inevitably followed. A)wheneverA) while B)untilB) before C)afterC) although D)whileD) once E)asE) until 05M04M25. Pharmaceutical firms are wary of 29. Latin American countries on averagedevoting money to new antibiotics whose export only about 10 per cent of theirsales can be ____ limited by the products to other Latin American countriesdevelopment of resistance in the target but ____ 20 percent of them to the US.microbes. A) almostA) accurately B) fairlyB) adequately C) respectivelyC) severely D) initiallyD) complacently E) extensivelyE) confidently 06K05K26. Over this period, according to a report 30. In some parts of Western Europe, ____recently issued by the Hispanic Studies in France, Denmark and Sweden,Center in Los Angeles, Mexicans received cohabitation has become almost as14.5 billon US dollars from relatives common as marriage.working in the United States, which isalmost ____ Mexico earned from foreign oil A) completelysales. B) deceptively C) notablyA) as D) voluntarilyB) just as E) relativelyC) as well as 06MD) as much asE) as far as05K124
    • Çeviri soruları31. In pollen analysis the exinesare 1. 1970’lerdeki büyük petrol bunalımındanextracted from the soil, studied under a beri, Uluslararası Enerji Kurumu alternatifmicroscope, and identified according to the enerji kaynakları bulmak için yapılandistinctive exine shape and surface araştırmaları teşvik etmiş veornamentation of different families and desteklemiştir.genera of plants. ____ quantified, theseidentifications are then plotted as curves A) Since the great oil crisis of the 1970s, theon a pollen diagram. International Energy Agency has encouraged and supported research carried out to discoverA) Before alternative energy sources.B) Whenever B) Since there was a great oil crisis in theC) While 1970s, the International Energy Agency hasD) Until been encouraging and supporting research intoE) Once alternative energy sources.06K C) Following the serious oil crisis of the 1970s, the International Energy Agency has been encouraging and subsidizing any research pertaining to alternative energy resources. D) Following the great oil crisis of the 1970s, the International Energy Agency has encouraged research that might lead to the discovery of alternative energy sources. E) The great oil crisis of the 1970s convinced the32. In the largely closed economies of the International Energy Agency of the need toGulf, private as well as public funds have support research into the development of____ turned to real estate and equity alternative energy resources.markets, fuelling a dangerous speculative 98Kboom.A) unlikelyB) nominallyC) rapidlyD) stillE) tightly07M 2. Sonunda ormanın kenarına ulaştığımızda, uzun süre orada durduk ve önümüzde uzayıp giden manzarayı seyrettik. A) With the forest finally behind us, we stood for a long time looking at the countryside ahead of us. B) On finally getting through to the edge of the forest we paused for a while, to look at the landscape that stretched out before us.33. Britain’s history has shaped a great C) Once we had got through the forest, wediversity of musical traditions, many of paused to look at the landscape that lay aheadwhich ____ flourish. of us. D) When we finally got to the edge of the forest,A) then we stood there for a long while and looked atB) still the landscape that stretched out before us.C) thus E) When we finally came out of the forest weD) almost stood there, gazing for a long time at theE) too countryside in front of us.07M 01M 125
    • 3. Ten years ago there was not enough 5. During the 4th century B.C., Aristotleelectricity available in the region to support studied almost every aspect of science andthe extraordinary growth we have summed up each as best he could.experienced over the last two years. A) M.Ö. 4. yüzyılda, Aristoteles, bilimin hemenA) Son iki yılda gözlediğimiz hızlı büyümeyi hemen her yönünü araştırmış ve her birinidestekleyecek kadar elektrik, son on yıl içinde elinden geldiğince özetlemiştir.bile üretilmemişti. B) M.Ö.4. yüzyılda, Aristoteles, tüm bilimleriB) Son iki yılda gördüğümüz muazzam büyümeyi araştırmış ve her birini ayrı ayrı özetlemiştir.desteklemek için on yıl öncesinde bölgede yeterli C) M.Ö. 4. yüzyılda her bir bilimi ayrı ayrıelektrik bulunması gerekiyordu. inceleyen Aristoteles, elde ettiği sonuçtan birC) On yıl önce, bölgede son iki yılda yaşadığımız araya toplamıştır.olağanüstü büyümeyi destekleyecek yeterli D) Aristotelesin M.Ö. 4. yüzyılda yaptığı bilimselelektrik mevcut değildi. çalışmalar, tek bir eser halinde toplanmıştır.D) On yıl öncesi gibi, son iki yılda görülen E) Aristotelesin M.Ö, 4. yüzyılda bir arayaolağanüstü büyümeyi desteklemeye yetecek toplayabildiği bilimsel çalışmalar, aslında ayrıelektrik yoktu. ayrı yapılmış araştırmalardı.E) On yıl önce bölgede elektrik bulunmadığı için 02Mson iki yıldan beri görülen muazzam büyümeyidesteklemek çok zor oldu.01M4. Devletler çökünce, sadece teröristlere ve 6. Whenever governments use globalizationuyuşturucu kaçakçılarına sığınak olmaz, to deny responsibility, democracy suffersaynı zamanda mülteci yığınlarının zengin another blow and prospects for growth inülkelere yönelmesini teşvik ederler. the developing countries are set back a little further.A) When states collapse, they not only becomehavens for terrorists and drug smugglers but A) Hükümetler sorumluluklarından kaçmak içinalso prompt multitudes of refugees to head for küreselleşmeyi bahane ederlerse gelişmekte olanricher countries. ülkelerdeki demokrasi yeni bir darbe alır veB) When states collapse terrorists and drug büyüme ümitleri çok daha derinlere gömülür.smugglers can safely move in and multitudes of B) Ne zaman ki hükümetler sorumluluktanrefugees leave for richer countries. kaçınmak için küreselleşmeyi kullanır, demokrasiC) When states collapse, this provides terrorists bir darbe daha alır ve kalkınmakta olanand drug peddlers with a safe haven while ülkelerdeki büyüme ümitleri biraz daha geriyemasses of refugees escape to richer countries. atılır.D) Terrorists and drug peddlers find a haven for C) Sorumluluktan kaçınmak isteyenthemselves when states collapse, but others flee hükümetlerin küreselleşmeyi bahane etmeleri,the country in search of a richer world. kalkınmakta olan ülkelerin demokrasisine darbeE) Masses of refugees flee to richer countries vurmakla kalmaz, büyüme ümitlerini de yokwhen states collapse, but terrorists and drug eder.dealers move in to safety. D) Sorumluluktan kaçmak için küreselleşmeye02K sığınan hükümetler, demokrasiye darbe vurduklarını ve gelişmekte olan ülkelerin ümitlerini boşa çıkardıklarım bilmelidirler. E) Sorumluluktan kaçmak için küreselleşmeyi kullanan hükümetler, demokrasiye darbe vurmakta ve gelişmekte olan ülkelerdeki büyüme ümitlerini ortadan kaldırmaktadırlar. 02M126
    • 7. Atmosferdeki oksijenin yaklaşık % 20sl Cümle tamamlama sorularıAmazon yağmur ormanlarındaki devağaçlar tarafından üretilir ve bu miktar,aynı alan kadar çimenin üreteceğinden çok 1. ____ a greet many alarming theories aredaha fazladır. sure to spring to the fore.A) Because of the giant trees, the Amazonian A) Before the truth had been verifiedrain forests can produce 20% of the oxygen in B) Even though his death had almost certainlythe atmosphere, which is a great deal more than been from natural causesa similar area of grassland can produce. C) If several perfectly natural explanations hadB) The giant trees of the Amazonian rain forests been put forwardactually produce 20% of the oxygen in the D) Whenever there are anonymous terroristatmosphere; the same area of grass could not attacksproduce quite so much. E) As soon as this admittedly unpleasantC) On their own, the Amazonian rain forests, incident got forgottenwith their giant trees, are responsible for at least 00K20% of the oxygen in the atmosphere, which isa far greater amount than a similar area ofgrassland could produce.D) About 20% of the oxygen in the atmosphereis produced by the giant trees of the Amazonianrain forests, and this amount is much more thanthe same area of grass would produce.E) While the giant trees of the Amazon rain 2. ____ , a committee will be set up toforests produce more than 20% of the oxygen in determine just how to turn the museumthe atmosphere, the same area of grassland into private non-profit corporation.could not produce nearly as much as this.05M A) As long as there were no rival claims B) As soon as the board has approved the project C) However much disappointment it would have caused them D) If such a crisis could have been avoided E) Whoever managed to deceive you 00M 3. Whenever we pick up a newspaper or turn on the TV, ____ . A) there are, of course, numerous non-economic forces that determine and mould our decision- making process B) there are clear lines of demarcation between economics and politics C) it is natural that economics constitutes a significant percentage of our media coverage D) generally politics is defined as the art of government and, as such, is seriously concerned with economics E) we are likely to be bombarded with facts and figures on such subjects as pollution, unemployment and inflation 01K 127
    • 4. ____ , when Eveready introduced the Benzer cümle sorusualkaline battery.A) Their technological success is still beingquestionedB) Many new materials have been adapted for 1.The sooner we get the new system intobattery use action, the better.C) Mercury, too, has recently been eliminatedfrom batteries on account of its toxicity A) Once the new system is working, theD) The lifespan of these batteries are expected situation will improve.to improve B) We should get the new system working asE) The first major advance in flashlight batteries soon as possible.came in 1959 C) Sooner or later well have to install a new04K system. D) At some future date a new system is going to be necessary. E) We are going to get a new system installed without delay. 05M5. Before the 21st century has run itscourse, ____ .A) the powers of computers have expandedvastly due to advanced researchB) countless technologies not envisioned yet willbe available to usC) a great deal of scientific effort is being madeto find solutions to complex problemsD) most people in developed countries enjoy astate of true health throughout their livesE) our knowledge of the world around us hasimproved to a great extent06K6. The United Nations officially recognizedthe greenhouse effect in 1995, ____.A) when its International Panel on Climate notedthat human activity had a discernible influenceon global temperaturesB) as the economies of developing nations willgrow over the next few decadesC) if developing nations were exempted from theKyoto AgreementD) since the US government announced that itwould not participate in Kyoto AgreementE) that the participating nations must makelarge and costly changes in their energy systems07M128
    • KEY TO ADVERBSBOŞLUK 26 D CÜMLEDOLDURMA 27 D TAMAMLAMA1C 28 C 1D2E 29 A 2B3D 30 E 3E4C 31 C 4E5 * 32 C 5B6B 33 B 6A7A8 *9A10 D ÇEVĐRĐ BENZER CÜMLE11 A 1A 1B12 E 2D13 B 3C14 A 4A15 D 5A16 B 6B17 A* 7D18 A19 C20 B21 A22 B23 A24 D25 C 129
    • Prepositionsin geniş bir alan yada zaman içersinde: in Paris, in a bank, in the picture, in hospital, in a newspaper, in the morning, in 1690, in a minute, in two years timeat bir alan yada zaman içersinde bir nokta: at midnight, at 7 PM, at the end of the year, at the same time, at universityon bir düzlem üzerinde bir nokta: on my way home, on the wall, on a bus, on a plane(in a car), on an island, on TV, on E-5, on Sunday, on Valentines Daywith – by (ile) I went to the chemist with Helen. I went to the chemist by Helen’s car.among – between (arasında) The little girl was standing between her mum and dad. (iki şey arasında) The little girl was standing among her relatives. (bir grup arasında)above – over (üzerinde) Tyler was a county above Dallas. The bird flew over us to south.below – under (altında) It is hot in Adana. The temperature didn’t fall below 35 degrees Celsius. All the night, she stayed under the blanket.along (bir düzlem boyunca) She talked about her nephew all along the way. I used to walk along the beach when ı lived in Alanya.during (bir süre boyunca) During the time we were in France, I’ve never been to Disneyland. He didn’t utter a word during the lesson.through (üç boyutlu bir düzlem içersinden) You can go through the forest to cut short. Switch on your headlights when you pass through the tunnel.by/ beside/ next to (yanında) Stand by/ beside/ next to the structure and I’ll take your photo. There is a moll by/ beside/ next to hotel.near or next to He lives near our house. (evi bizimkinin yakınında) He lives next to our house. (evlerimiz bitişik) 131
    • across (karşısında) He passed across the street and looked at me. They will sail across the Pacific to go to Australia.against (karşı) Do you think the students are against the administration? I think I’ll vote against him.around (etrafında) I would like to travel all around the world. When the new rock star got off his car, the journalists gathered around him.behind (arkasında) There is a man hiding behind the tree. Can you see the car signaling behind us?beyond (ötesinde) Don’t try to understand. It is beyond your comprehension. It is beyond me to train you as an artist.from (-den) Are there any flights from here to Amsterdam?to (-e) I saw her going to the cinema yesterday.throughout (bir zaman dilimi boyunca) Throughout its history, Britain has always cared for her interests Throughout the history, humankind has tried to explain the nightmares.132
    • Belli fiiller, sıfatlar ve isimlerden sonra belli preposition lar gelir. Bunlarınöğrenilmesinde fayda var.Preposition after verbabout provide in on withagree register believe act acquaintask (sb) reserve collaborate bet alternateboast search confide centre arguecare send delight comment bargaindream suffer differ compliment beginhear thank dress concentrate chargeinquire vote end depend coincidejoke wait enroll dwell combinelaugh wish implicate embark communicatequarrel (sth) indulge experiment conferspeak from insert feed endtalk abstain persist gain fitthink ban result impose identify benefit specialize insist infectat borrow succeed live interactarrive date operate issueestimate deduce of rely negotiategaze deduct accuse spend paintglance depart approve spy quarrelguess derive beware reasonhint deter complain to supplylaugh diverge dispose admit threatenlook eliminate repent adjust trustpeep emerge relieve adaptpeer escape suspect appealpoint excuse(sb) think ascendshoot hinder ascribesmile infer assignstare prevent attachwonder prohibit attend protect belongfor recover changeaccount refrain compareallow release complain (sb)apply request dedicatearrest rescue devotebeg resign explainblame remove introducecompensate refer lendexcuse save objecthead separate referhope steal respondprepare suffer restrict 133
    • Preposition after adjectiveabout in onanxious different based submitconcerned included dependent subscribeconfused interested intent withconfident involved keen acquaintedcurious lacking reliant angrydoubtful latest associatedenthusiastic limited to busyglad negligent accountable consistentmad occupied accustomed contentoptimistic poor applicable crowdedparticular prompt appropriate delightedsorry (sb) rich beneficial disgustedupset successful committed honestworried congenial inconsistent of contrary levelat afraid cruel moistastonished ashamed dedicated patientbad aware detrimental pleasedgood capable devoted popularlucky certain equal satisfiedslow composed essential strict conscious faithfulfor convinced fatalanxious critical foreignavailable deprived grateful (sb)bound deserving indifferentconvenient devoid inferioreager envious kindeligible fond liablefamous free loyalfit full marriedqualified guilty opposedready ignorant peculiarsorry independent politesuitable jealous prior proud pronefrom relieved relativeabsent scared relevantdifferent short restricteddistant suspicious sensitivedistinct tired subjectexempt tolerant superiorfree suspectsafe used134
    • Preposition after nounabout experience toargument failure accesscomplaint faith commitmentconcern fall comparisonconfusion increase devotiondoubt interest indifferenceidea participation objectioninformation pleasure reactionnews reduction reference result responseat rise solutionattempt satisfaction skill withfor success comparisonadmiration difficultyaffection of familiaritycompensation advent troubledisregard approvalexcuse causefondness choicehope disadvantageneed divisionpermission fearplan hopereason intentionremedy knowledgerespect lackroom meanssearch needsubstitution possession shortagefrom usedivorceescape onexpulsion attackprotection authorityresignation effect expertin influenceability insistencebelief reliancecompetenceconfidencedrop 135
    • PREPOSITIONSÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları1. ____ the terms of the forthcoming trade 4. The Hollywood studio system in filmagreement, Japan wins parity ____ the making, which began ____ 1920 andUnited States. flourished from the early 1930s ____ the 1950s is unique in Western culture.A) Through / aboveB) By / of A) throughout / intoC) From / from B) around / throughD) Under / with C) by / untilE) After / over D) within / over98K E) along / till 98M2. We have yet to take ____ consideration 5. Although the American writer Katherinethe problem of how large future national Anne Porter used a variety of places ____armies should eventually be, regardless the setting of her short stories and novels,____ their current size. she frequently came ____ to the scenes of her early days.A) onto / atB) in / in A) through / overC) for / with B) within / inD) under / from C) for / backE) into / of D) without / for98K E) under / up 99K3. We are prevented ____ completing the 6. British TV is still stuck ____ a regulatoryproject ____ time due to unforeseen structure designed ____ a bygone age.circumstances. A) off / withinA) from / on B) up / inB) in / by C) away / byC) by / in D) through / overD) at / over E) with / forE) for / about 99K98M136
    • 7. In their discussions concerning the 11. I did manage to keep my temper but Iproposed defense strategies, NATO couldnt refrain ____ pointing ____ thatdiplomats found they could not agree ____ what he had done was wrong.what the alliance was ____ , what weaponsit would threaten to use and in what A) in / atcircumstances. B) at / to C) by / awayA) on / for D) for / offB) about / into E) from / outC) with / over 00KD) by / aboutE) before / through99K8. They claim that their aim is to establish 12. The arrival of Europeans in Americalong term cooperation ____ their dislocated traditional ways of life andcustomers, ____ a basis of partnership and altered the world ____ recognition.mutual trust. A) forA) for / over B) beyondB) with / on C) atC) by / through D) offD) from / in E) fromE) among / for 00M99M9. The collapse of Rome left ____ its wake 13. ____ the past few decades Southa large variety of ethnic communities ____ Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kongwhich modern European states emerged. have achieved the fastest rates ____ economic growth the world has ever seen.A) before / ofB) at / through A) Within / atC) over / by B) During / ofD) in / from C) In / overE) within / with D) After / in99M E) Over / about 01K10. Infectious diseases are those which are 14. The works of the ancient Greekcaused ____ an invasion of the body ____ physician Hippocrates commonly known asorganisms from outside. the "Hippocratic Collection", consist ____ about 70 works, ___ which only a relativelyA) through / with small number are possible by him.B) by / byC) over / through A) of / ofD) in / without B) in / forE) upon / within C) for / in00K D) at / about E) by / within 01K 137
    • 15. ____ the computerized Dutch auction 19. The biggest accounting issuesystem, the flower industry gets flowers raised____ the energy company is____into our homes when they are still ____ accounting standards.their best. A) by / overA) under / at B) to / toB) at / in C) for / underC) from / with D) through / withinD) until / to E) from / intoE) within / for 02K01K16. Post offices dont have enough space to 20. Crying, which starts ____ birth, is ancope ______ the tremendous increase alarm system that attracts the parent and it______ demand for PO boxes. can be switched off ____ parental attention.A) with / inB) on / of A) with / afterC) upon / within B) at / byD) for / upon C) for / withE) through / from D) from / for01M E) by / through 02K17. Even prior to the 1930s, Swedish banks 21. Since 1998, the US federal governmentplayed an important role _____ the has more than doubled its spending____financing _____ long-term industrial defence ____ biological and chemicalprojects. weapons.A) at / for A) for / withB) for / in B) of / toC) in / of C) on / againstD) by / with D) in / fromE) into / over E) with / over01M 02K18. In Belgium, compensation ______ 22. Items____ display in this museum wereaccidents at work and occupational obtained ____ mosques, Turkish baths,illnesses is exclusively the concern ______ fountains and caravansary dating back toemployers. the Ottoman period.A) over / from A) on / fromB) in / by B) in / byC) from / for C) for / out ofD) for / of D) within / ofE) of / with E) with / at01M 02K138
    • 23. The traditional idea that Asia was the 27. _____ the surprise of thecradle ____ primeval man has had to be archaeologists, the structures turned out tomodified____ the light of the discovery of be the remains ____ two domed tombs,human fossils of great antiquity in Africa. each over a thousand years old.A) to / over A) To / ofB) for / from B) At / fromC) by / under C) For / byD) from / within D) With / overE) of / in E) By / through02M 03M24. Naturally I was rather 28. ____ its vast forests, Myanmar wasdisappointed____ the results of the thought to possess the largest number ofexperiment, but actually I wasnt really tigers ____ India.surprised____ them. A) For / withA) by / to B) In / forB) over / for C) At / toC) for / by D) With / afterD) with / at E) Through / byE) of / with 04K02M25. When the personnel manager 29. Though the most important factors inannounced that everybody had to do pricing decisions are production costs andovertime because they were____ schedule, the level ____ demand, broader companythis caused a great deal of ill will ____ the objectives must also be takenstaff. ____consideration.A) near / for A) in / out ofB) off / in B) of / intoC) back / from C) with / forD) below / between D) between / byE) behind / among E) on / under02M 04K26. The essays taken together tell the story 30. The software has been designed to helpof how the US became an economic power detectives solve complex cases _________ a scale unprecedented _____ prompting them to explore lines ____history. enquity other than the obvious ones.A) for / with A) through / toB) at / by B) by / ofC) with / from C) from / intoD) thought / at D) over / withE) on / in E) into / for03M 04M 139
    • 31. Recent findings have suggested that, in 35. The analysis of a story____ its centralancient times too, man was capable ____ conflict is likely to be especially fruitful, forcausing rapid and decisive changes____ it rapidly takes us to what is truly____the genetic make-up of staple crops. issue in the story.A) in / for A) by / overB) to / of B) from / withC) of / in C) through / atD) from / over D) with / aboutE) with / into E) towards / above04M 05M32. Whats really ____ issue is the political 36. An Indian drug company has offered tostructure ____ which Soviet communism supply an anti-AIDS drug____ sufferers inwas erected. developing countries____ less than one- twentieth of the standard cost in the west.A) at / onB) for / from A) in / toC) to / through B) at / overD) by / in C) with / forE) over / with D) to / at05K E) on / with 07M33. Provincial governments play a big role 37. The main attention at the Worldin the lives of Canadians ____ primary Economic Forum, when it was not focusedresponsibility _____ health, education and ____ China, centered on Africa’swelfare. remarkable economic growth ____ the past couple of years.A) through / overB) at / about A) in / withC) from / to B) on / overD) by / of C) of / towardsE) with / for D) by / at05K E) from / through 07M34. The Gulf countries have achieved 38. The patchwork of Anglo-Saxon andsubstantial progress ____ regional Celtic nations, the myths of a rural idyllintegration____ the past 20 years. created ____ rapid urbanization, have contributed to the wealth of musicA) through / of literature and recordings.B) into / withC) for / on A) ofD) over / by B) inE) towards / over C) at05M D) with E) by 07M140
    • 39. As far as an employee is concerned, 43. He found remains of structures foryour educational qualification is a means turning blubber ____ whale-oil.____ filtering where there is keencompetition for a post. A) by B) aboutA) of C) next toB) by D) uponC) over E) intoD) with 06KE) through07M40. Severity of autism ranges____ those 44. Philosophers have debated the relationwho are mute and have no functional ____ thought and emotions ____ at leastbehavior ____ individuals with high IQ two millennia.scores. A) from / overA) into / among B) over / inB) in / about C) between / forC) between / of D) in / byD) through / for E) through / toE) from / to 06M06K41. Most companies would prefer to 45. The concept developed ____ a growingconcentrate ____ domestic rather than emphasis on research into the interactionforeign markets because of their great of emotion and thought.familiarity ____ their own environments. A) offA) in / of B) againstB) on / with C) withoutC) over / by D) out ofD) at / from E) underE) for / to 06M06K42. Fluctuations in the curve____ eachplant category may then be studied forsigns of climatic fluctuation.A) acrossB) onC) forD) aboutE) at06K 141
    • KEY TO PREPOSITIONSBOŞLUK 26 EDOLDURMA 27 A1D 28 D2E 29 B3A 30 B4B 31 C5C 32 A6E 33 E7A 34 E8B 35 C9 D* 36 D10 B 37 B11 E 38 E12 * 39 A13 A* 40 E14 A 41 B15 A* 42 C16 A 43 E17 C 44 C18 D 45 D19 A20 B21 C22 A23 B24 D25 E142
    • Relative Clauses Bir kişi yada şeyi tanımlayan veya hakkında ekstra bilgi veren cümleciklerdir. Definingve Non-defining relative clauses olarak ikiye ayrılır.Defining relative clauses• başka benzerleri bulunan, kişi yada şey hakkında tanımlayıcı bilgi verir.who/ that (kişi) This is the girl who won the gold medal. ( This is the girl. She won the gold medal.)which/ that (şey) I bought a washing machine which cost too much. (I bought a washing machine. It cost too much.)where/ / in which (yer) The county where I worked as a nurse was very small. ( This is a very small county. I worked there as a nurse.)whose (aitlik) I met a man whose son studies in Harvard. ( I met a man. His son studies in Harvard.)when/ at which/ in which (zaman) He remembers the day when he first drove a car. ( He remembers the day. He first drove a car.)why/ for which (neden) I was tired this is why I took a nap.******** ( I was tired. This is the reason I took a nap.)Not: who/ which yerine that kullanılabilir. I learnt a secret that nobody knows. (which) The girl that won the beauty contest wasn’t so charming. (who)• tanımlanan object (nesne) ise, who/ which/ that kullanılmayabilir.Ayrıca who yerine whom kullanılabilir. This is the actor (who/ whom/ that) I admire. He found the necklace (which/ that) her sister lost. I saw her in a cafe (which) she goes very often.**** 143
    • Non-defining relative clauses• kişi yada şey hakkında ekstra bilgi verir. Mutlaka ana cümleden virgülle ayrılır. Mr. Penn, who was a counselor, died yesterday. The Prince, who was known for his justice, ruled seventeen years.• özel isimlerde kullanılır. Dr. Hedrick, who was rewarded the Nobel prize, lives in our neighborhood. Belgrad Forest, where you can see deer, is situated on the North-west.• türünün tek örneğiyse kullanılır. The Sun, which is 4.6 billion years old, revolves around itself. WHO, which was founded in 1948, Works to improve health conditions.Not: non-defining relative clause da that kullanamayız. Evanesance, which makes gothic music, took stage on Harbiye.Dikkat: Bazı durumlarda hem defining hem de non-defining clause kullanabiliriz. Fakatanlamda değişme olur. My sister who is a teacher works in Nevşehir. (başka kız kardeşim de var.) My sister, who is a teacher, works in Nevşehir. (tek kız kardeşim var.)• non-defining clause kullanabileceğimiz diğer kalıplar: All of None of WHOM Some of WHICH Each of WHOSE Most of The biggest, the best of There were seven questions in the exam. I couldn’t answer any of them. There were seven questions in the exam, none of which I could answer. I met his sons. One of them was a writer. I met his sons, one of whom was a writer. Sarah looked after the children. Their mothers worked. Sarah looked after the children, all of whose mother worked.144
    • RELATIVE CLAUSESÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları1. There are situations ____ the best way 4. Bennetts novel The Old Wives’ Tale isto heal the patient is to help him die the one _____ he is likely to be best knownpeacefully. by posterity.A) from where A) of whichB) in that B) for whomC) whence C) by whichD) for whom D) in whichE) in which E) that98K 01M2. David Dickinson’s new play is a fairy-tale 5. Several important ports, _____ exportromance, ____ a pregnant woman searches timber, are situated on the shores of thefor the father of her child during a White Sea.torrential rainstorm. A) most of whichA) who B) that many of themB) by whom C) those whichC) that D) whichever of themD) in which E) some of whomE) whose 01M00K3. Galileo originated the method of 6. The members of the special commissioncontrolled experiment ____ now forms the on crime, some of ____ were appointed bybasis of scientific investigation. the mayor, still meet on a regular basis.A) what A) thatB) who B) whoseC) where C) whomD) whom D) whoE) which E) which01K 02K 145
    • 7. The young sociologist ____ article was 11. The nautical archaeologist Robertpublished in the "National Geographic" had Grenier led a Parks Canada team in searchtraveled 1700 miles across Australias of the Basque galleon San Juan, ____ thewestern wilderness. archives said had sunk in the harbor in 1565.A) whoseB) who A) whoseC) that B) whenD) which C) whomE) whom D) who02M E) which 06K8. Photosynthesis is the process _____ 12. Héviz is Europe’s largest warm-watergreen plants manufacture carbohydrates, lake and visitors can swim there even inusing the energy of sunlight. winter, ____ helps extend the tourist season.A) as whenB) on which A) thusC) where B) whichD) by which C) norE) since D) too03M E) so 06M9. The most devastating human impact on 13. Music educators give us many goodenvironments can be seen on islands ____ reasons for playing. It is said to feed oursettlers have introduced new animals and intelligence and raise our self-esteem. Itplants. removes us from the anxieties of daily life, placing us in the curious world of self-A) which expression, ____ the linear passage ofB) to whom time seems to vanish.C) whatD) to which A) whereverE) whom B) which04K C) where D) how E) whom 07M10. Management must learn to determinemarket conditions in the countries ____ itis doing business.A) whereB) whatC) as forD) of whichE) so that06K146
    • Çeviri soruları1. In Latin America and Eastern Europe, 2. Our company, a partner in anwhere interventional methods in the past international consortium andwere put into effect most austerely, it is headquartered in Istanbul, is looking forgovernments, not outside economists, that water resources engineers who have attoday speak most favourably in support of least ten years of experience in irrigationmarket economics. engineering and land development.A) Geçmişte devlet müdahalesini esas alan ve A) Uluslararası bir konsorsiyumun ortağı olan vebizzat uygulayan Latin Amerika ve Doğu Avrupa merkezi Đstanbul’da bulunan şirketimiz, sulamahükümetleri, yabancı uzmanlardan daha istekli mühendisliği ve arazi ıslahında en az on yılbir şekilde pazar ekonomisini destekleyici tecrübesi olan su kaynakları mühendislerikonuşmalar yapmaktadır. aramaktadır.B) Bugün Latin Amerika’da ve Doğu Avrupa’da B) Merkezi Đstanbul’da bulunan şirketimizpazar ekonomisini destekleyenler, yabancı uluslararası bir konsorsiyumun ortağıdır veekonomistlerden çok, geçmişte aşırı müdahaleci sulama mühendisliği ile toprak ıslahında en azyöntemler uygulamış olan hükümetlerin bizzat on yıl çalışmış olan su mühendislerini istihdamkendileridir. etmektedir.C) Geçmişte müdahaleci yöntemlerin en sert C) Sulama yöntemleri ve bölge kalkınmasında enşekilde uygulamaya konulduğu Latin Amerika’da az on yıllık tecrübe sahibi olan su mühendislerive doğu Avrupa’da, bugün pazar ekonomisi arayan şirketimiz uluslararası bir konsorsiyumunlehinde en olumlu konuşanlar yabancı üyesidir.ekonomistler değil, hükümetlerdir. D) Đstanbul’da kurulmuş ve sulama işleri ileD) Bugün Latin Amerika’da ve Doğu Avrupa’da toprak ıslahında en az on yıllık tecrübeye sahippazar ekonomisinin yararlarından söz edenler, su mühendisleri arayan şirketimiz uluslararası birsadece yabancı uzmanlar değil, geçmişte aşırı konsorsiyum üyesidir.devlet müdahalesini benimsemiş olan E) Uluslararası bir konsorsiyuma dahil olan vehükümetlerin kendileridir. ana merkezi Đstanbul’da bulunan şirketimiz,E) Eskiden aşırı müdahaleci uygulamaların sulama işlerinde ve arazi ıslahında çalıştırılmakolduğu Latin Amerika’da ve Doğu Avrupa’da üzere su kaynaklarında en az on yıllık tecrübeyebugünkü hükümetler pazar ekonomisini yabancı sahip su mühendislerine ihtiyaç duymaktadır.ekonomistlerden daha fazla övmeye 98Kyönelmektedir.98K 3. Britain’s newspaper market, which is one of the world’s most diverse, continues to prosper with relatively stable prices. A) Dünyanın en çeşitlilerinden biri olan Đngiliz gazete piyasası, nispeten istikrarlı fiyatlarla gelişmeye devam ediyor. B) Dünyanın en karmaşık basın piyasasına sahip olan Đngiltere’de gazete fiyatlarındaki istikrar kısmen devam etmektedir. C) Kısmen istikrarlı fiyatlara sahip olan Đngiliz basın piyasası, dünyanın en çok farklılık gösteren piyasalarından biridir ve gelişmesini sürdürmektedir. D) Dünyanın en güvenilir basın piyasasına sahip olan Đngiltere’de gazete fiyatlarının istikrarlı durumu devam etmektedir. E) Dünyanın en farklı piyasalarından biri olan Đngiliz gazete piyasası kısmen istikrarlı fiyatlar sayesinde olumlu gelişmesini sürdürmektedir. 98M 147
    • 4. There was much documentary evidence 6. Aqueducts are conduits in which waterabout the case, which was subjected to flows or is conveyed from its source to therigorous testing by the forensic specialists place where it is to be used.and found to be authentic. A) Su kemerleri, suyun içinde aktığı veyaA) Davaya ilişkin bir sürü kanıt ve belge bu kaynağından kullanılacağı yere taşındığı sualanın uzmanlarınca köklü bir incelemeye alınmış yollarıdır.ve bunların doğruluğu ispatlanmıştır. B) Đçinde su akan, veya suyu kaynağındanB) Güvenlik uzmanları, dava ile ilgili pek çok kullanılacağı yere kadar taşıyan su yollarına subelge ve kanıtı yoğun bir incelemeye almış ve kemerleri adı verilir.bunların gerçek olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. C) Đçinde suyun aktığı su kemerleri, aynıC) Dava hakkında, adli tıp uzmanlarınca sıkı zamanda suyu kaynağından kullanılacağı yereincelemeye tabi tutulan ve gerçek olduğu taşıyan su yollarıdır.anlaşılan pek çok belgesel kanıt bulunmaktaydı. D) Su kemerleri, içinde su akan veya suyuD) Parmak izi uzmanlarınca ayrıntılı bir kaynağından alarak kullanılacağı yere kadarincelemeye tabi tutulan belgesel kanıtlar, davaya taşıyan su yollarından oluşur.ilişkin gerçekleri kesin olarak ortaya koymuştur. E) Birer su yolu olan su kemerleri, içinden akanE) Davaya ilişkin o kadar çok belge ve kanıt suyu kaynağından alarak kullanılacağı yerebulunmaktaydı ki bunların gizli uzmanlarca kadar taşır.incelenmesi ve doğruluklarının saptanması çok 99Kuzun süre almıştır.98M5. Today there are some political scientists 7. Martin Scorsese’s controversial filmwho would date the beginning of the cold takes its story from Edith Warton’s novel,war back to the early 1920s when the which appeared in 1920 and made her theSoviets declared ideological war on first woman to receive the Pulitzer Prize forwestern capital societies. literature.A) Bugün bazı siyaset bilimciler, Sovyetlerin A) Martin Scorsese’nin tartışmalı filmi, öyküsünü,kapitalist batı ülkelerine karşı ideolojik bir savaş Edith Warton’nun 1920’de yayımlanan ve onuaçtığı 1920’li yılların, soğuk savaşın başlangıç Pulitzer Edebiyat Ödülü’nü alan ilk kadın yapantarihi olarak kabul edilmesine karşılar. romanından almaktadır.B) Bugün, soğuk savaşın başlangıcını, B) Martin Scorsese’nin çok tartışılan filmi,Sovyetlerin kapitalist batı toplumlarına karşı 1920’de yayımladığı romanıyla Pulitzer Edebiyatideolojik savaş ilan ettiği 1920’lerin ilk yıllarına Ödülü’nü alan ilk kadın Edith Warton’nundayandıran bazı siyaset bilimciler bulunmaktadır. öyküsünü anlatmaktadır.C) Bugün bazı siyaset bilimcilere göre, C) Edith Warton 1920’de yazdığı ve kendisiniSovyetlerin 1920’li yılların başında kapitalist batı Pulitzer Edebiyat Ödülü’nü alan ilk kadın yapanülkelerine karşı ideolojik bir savaş açması, soğuk romanı, Martin Scorsese’nin tartışmalı filmine desavaşın başlangıcını oluşturan ilk gelişmedir. konu olmuştur.D) Bugün bazı siyaset bilimciler soğuk savaşın D) Martin Scorsese’nin tartışmaya açık filmininbaşlangıç tarihini 1920’li yıllar olarak kabul öyküsü, 1920’de yayımlandığında Edithederler, çünkü bu dönemde Sovyetler kapitalist Warton’nun Pulitzer Edebiyat Ödülü’nü alan ilkbatı ülkelerine karşı ideolojik bir savaş ilan kadın olmasını sağlayan romanını anlatmaktadır.etmişlerdir. E) Martin Scorsese’nin çok tartışılan filmininE) 1920’li yılların başında Sovyetlerin bazı öyküsünü, Pulitzer Edebiyat Ödülü’nü alan ilkkapitalist batı toplumlarına karşı ideolojik bir kadın olan Edith Warton’nun 1920’desavaş başlatmaları, bugün bazı siyaset uzmanları yayımlanmış bir romanından alınmıştır.tarafından soğuk savaş olarak kabul 99Kedilmektedir.98M148
    • 8. The rigid and hierarchical corporate 10. Pasifik Okyanusunun Atlantikstructure that provided the basis for Okyanusundan ayrı olduğunu ilk fark edenbusiness growth until the 1980s has now Avrupalı, Đspanyol kaşif Vasco de Balboabecome a thing of the past. idi.A) 1980’lerde iş dünyasında oluşturan katı ve A) Even so, it was the Spanish explorer Vasco dehiyerarşik kurumsal yapılanma, bugün artık Balboa who was the first European to notice thatgeçmişe ait bir olgu olarak görülmektedir. the Pacific and the Atlantic were separateB) 1980’lere kadar şirketlerin büyümesini oceans.sağlayan sağlam ve hiyerarşik yapılanma, bugün B) The Spanish explorer Vasco de Balboa wasartık eski önemini yitirmiştir. the first European to realize that the PacificC) Đşlerin büyümesi için 1980’lere kadar temel Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean were separated.oluşturan katı ve hiyerarşik şirket yapısı, bugün C) The first European to recognize the Pacificartık geçmişte kalmıştır. Ocean as distinct from the Atlantic Ocean wasD) 1980’li yıllara kadar büyüme sürecinin the Spanish explorer Vasco de Balboa.temelini oluşturan katı hiyerarşik kurumsal D) Vasco de Balboa of Spain was the firstyapının önemi, bugün artık yok olmuştur. European to discover that the Pacific and theE) Geçmişten günümüze kadar uzanan sağlam Atlantic oceans were separate.ve hiyerarşik kurumsal yapı, 1980’lere kadar E) Until the Spanish explorer Vasco de Balboabüyümenin temelini oluşturmuştur. made the discovery, Europeans did not realize99M that the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean were distinct. 00K9. The European Molecular Biology Council, 11. In his article, the author, who is awhich represents the member states of the noted economist, describes why theEuropean Union, will co-ordinate advanced economic decline in South America in theresearch into genetics. 1980s was inevitable.A) Genetik alanında ileri araştırmaların A) Bu makalede, yazar, ünlü bir iktisatçı olarak,eşgüdümünü sağlayacak olan Avrupa Moleküler 1980’li yıllarda Güney Amerika’da yaşananBiyoloji Konseyi, Avrupa Birliğine üye devletlerin ekonomik çöküşün niçin durdurulamadığınıtemsilcilerinden oluşmaktadır. ayrıntılarla anlatmaktadır.B) Avrupa Birliğine üye devletlerin oluşturduğu B) Bu makalede. önemli bir iktisatçı olan yazar,Avrupa Moleküler Biyoloji Konseyi, genetik Güney Amerika’da 1980’lerde görülen ekonomikalanındaki araştırmaları destekleyecektir. gerilemenin kaçınılmaz sonuçlarını ortayaC) Genetik alanında ileri araştırmaların koymaktadır.eşgüdümü, Avrupa Birliğine üye devletlerin C) Bu makalede, 1980li yıllarda Güneyoluşturduğu Avrupa Moleküler Biyoloji Konseyi Amerika’da görülen ekonomik bunalımıntarafından sağlanabilir. nedenleri ünlü bir iktisatçı tarafındanD) Avrupa Birliğine üye devletleri temsil eden açıklanmaktadır.Avrupa Moleküler Biyoloji Konseyi, genetik D) Bu makalede, 1980’lerde Güney Amerika’daalanındaki ileri araştırmaların eşgüdümünü ortaya çıkan ekonomik durgunluğun niçinsağlayacak. önlenemediği saygın bir iktisatçı yazar tarafındanE) Avrupa Moleküler Biyoloji Konseyi, Avrupa anlatılmaktadır.Birliğine üye devletlerin genetik alanında E) Bu makalede, tanınmış bir iktisatçı olan yazar,yürüttüğü yoğun araştırmaların eşgüdümünü 1980lerde Güney Amerika’da ekonomiksağlayacak. gerilemenin niçin kaçınılmaz olduğunu00K anlatmaktadır. 00M 149
    • 12. The Beni-Israel is a Jewish community 14. Đsrail devletinin ilk başbakanı olanof some thousands, known as the White David Ben-Gurion, sadece ünlü bir hatip veJews and found chiefly in Bombay and the verimli bir yazar değil, aynı zamanda ciddicostal towns of south-west India. bir Đncil ve felsefe araştırmacısıydı.A) Birkaç bin kişiden oluşan Beni-Đsrail Yahudi A) David Ben-Gurion, besides being the firsttopluluğu, genellikle Beyaz Yahudilerden oluşur prime minister of the state of Israel, was ave bunlar Güneybatı Hindistanın Bombay ve notable orator and a prolific writer as well as aöteki kıyı kentlerinde toplanmıştır. knowledgeable student of the Bible andB) Bombay ve Güneybatı Hindistanın kıyı philosophy.kentlerinde yaşayan birkaç bin nüfuslu Beni- B) David Ben-Gurion, the first prime minister ofĐsrail Yahudi topluluğu, genellikle Beyaz the state of Israel, was not only a notable oratorYahudiler olarak bilinmektedir. and prolific writer but also a serious student ofC) Birkaç bin nüfuslu bir Yahudi topluluğu olan the Bible and philosophy.Beni-Đsrail içinde Beyaz Yahudiler olarak C) In addition to being Israels first primebilinenler, Bombay dahil Güneybatı Hindistanın minister, David Ben-Gurion, was also ankıyı kentlerinde bulunmaktadır. excellent orator and a prolific writer as well asD) Beni-Đsrail olarak bilinen ve nüfusu birkaç bini being an avid student of the Bible andgeçmeyen Beyaz Yahudi topluluğu, Bombay philosophy.dahil Güneybatı Hindistanın kıyı kentlerinde D) Israels first prime minister, David Ben-yaşar. Gurion, was not only a much admired orator andE) Beni-Đsrail, Beyaz Yahudiler olarak bilinen ve prolific author but was also interested in thegenellikle Bombay ve Güneybatı Hindistanın kıyı Bible and philosophy.kentlerinde bulunan birkaç bin nüfuslu bir Yahudi E) David Ben-Gurion, who was the first primetopluluğudur. minister of the state of Israel, was a brilliant01M orator and prolific author, besides being an authority on the Bible and philosophy. 01M13. The German poet Gottfried Benn, who 15. Pluto, which is the outermost planet ofwas born in Prussia, spent most of his life the solar system, has a mass ten timesin Berlin as a medical specialist. smaller than hitherto supposed.A) Prusyada doğmuş olan Alman şair Gottfried A) Bugüne kadar bilinenden on kat daha az birBenn, yaşamının büyük bir bölümünü Berlinde kütleye sahip olan Plüton, güneş sisteminin entıp uzmanı olarak geçirdi. uç gezegenidir.B) Prusya doğumlu olan Alman şair Gottfried B) Güneş sisteminin en uç noktasında bulunanBenn, bir tıp uzmanı olarak tüm yaşamını Plüton gezegeninin kütlesi, daha önce bilinendenBerlinde geçirdi. on kat daha azdır.C) Prusyada doğan Alman şair Gottfried Benn, C) Daha önce kabul edilenden on kat daha az birBerlindeki yaşamını hep tıp alanındaki kütlesi bulunan Plüton gezegeni, güneşçalışmalarla geçirmiştir. sisteminin en dış noktasındadır.D) Prusyada doğan ve bir tıp uzmanı olan Alman D) Güneş sisteminin en uzak gezegeni olanşair Gottfried Benn, yaşamının hemen hemen Plüton bugüne kadar sanıldığından on kat dahatümünü Berlinde geçirmiştir. az bir kütleye sahiptir.E) Yaşamının önemli bir bölümünü Berlinde E) Güneş sisteminin en uç noktasında bulunangeçiren Alman şair Gottfried Benn, Prusyada Plüton, şimdiye kadar düşünülenden on kat dahadoğmuş bir tıp uzmanıydı. az bir kütleden oluşan bir gezegendir.01M 02K150
    • 16. One of the issues covered by the 18. The Celts, who were later called "Gauls"Maastricht Treaty, which took effect on 1 by the Romans, migrated from the RhineNovember 1993, is the European Unions valley into the region that is now France.decision-making process. A) Geçmişte Romalıların "Salyalılar" dediğiA) 1 Kasım 1993te yürürlüğe giren Maastricht Keltiler, Ren vadisinden göç ederek bugünküAntlaşması ile Avrupa Birliğinin karar alma Fransaya yerleşmişlerdir.sürecine ilişkin sorunlarından biri çözülmüştür. B) Romalıların "Salyalılar" olarak adlandırdığıB) Avrupa Birliğinin karar alma süreciyle ilgili Keltiler, bugünkü Fransanın yakınlarına, Renkonuları kapsayan Maastricht Antlaşması, 1 vadisinden göç ederek gelmişlerdir.Kasım 1993te yürürlüğe girmiştir. C) Bugün Fransa olan bölgeye Ren vadisindenC) 1 Kasım 1993te yürürlüğe giren Maastricht göç etmiş olan Keltlere, Romalılar "Salyalılar"Antlaşması, Avrupa Birliğinin karar alma adını vermişti.sürecinin konu edildiği düzenlemelerden biridir. D) Daha sonra Romalılar tarafından "Salyalılar"D) Avrupa Birliğinin karar alma sürecine ilişkin olarak adlandırılan Keltiler, bugün Fransa olansorunların, 1 Kasım 1993te yürürlüğe giren bölgeye, Ren vadisinden göç etmişlerdir.Maastricht Antlaşmasıyla çözülmesi E) Romalılarca uzun yıllar boyunca "Salyalılar"amaçlanmıştır. olarak adlandırılan Keltiler, Ren vadisinden göçE) 1 Kasım 1993te yürürlüğe giren Maastricht edip bugünkü Fransaya yerleşmişlerdir.Antlaşmasında kapsanan konulardan biri, 04KAvrupa Birliğinin karar alma sürecidir.03M17. At a UN conference held in Rome in July 19. Osmanlı imparatorluğu döneminde,1998, an agreement was reached to set up Selanik şehrinde ilk futbol maçınıa permanent international criminal court to düzenleyenler, Đngiliz tütün ve pamuktry individuals accused of war crimes and tüccarlarıydı.crimes against humanity. A) It was during the period of the OttomanA) Temmuz 1998de Romada yapılan BM Empire that the first football match in the city ofkonferansında alınan bir kararla kurulan Salonika was organized by British tobacco anduluslararası daimi ceza mahkemesi, savaş suçu cotton traders.ve insanlığa karşı diğer suçları işleyen kişilerin B) It was British tobacco and cotton traders whoyargılanmasıyla görevlendirilmiştir. organized the first football match in the city ofB) Savaş suçları ve insanlığa karşı suçlarla itham Salonika during the period of the Ottomanedilen kişilerin yargılanmasıyla amacıyla bir Empire.uluslararası daimi ceza mahkemesinin kurulması C) The first football match to be organized byancak Temmuz 1998de Romada yapılan bir BM British tobacco and cotton traders was in the citykonferansında alınan kararla mümkün olmuştur. of Salonika during the period of the OttomanC) Temmuz 1998de Romada yapılan bir BM Empire.konferansında, savaş suçları ve insanlığa karşı D) British tobacco and cotton traders held theirsuçlarla itham edilen kişileri yargılamak amacıyla first football match in Salonika during the timebir uluslararası daimi ceza mahkemesinin of the Ottoman Empire.kurulması için anlaşmaya varıldı. E) The first football match to be held in SalonikaD) temmuz 1998de Romada yapılan BM was during the time of the Ottoman Empire andkonferansında bir uluslararası daimi ceza was organized by British tobacco and cottonmahkemesinin kurulmasına karar verilince, traders.savaş suçları gibi insanlık suçu işleyen kişilerin 04Kyargılanması mümkün olmuştur.E) Savaş suçları gibi insanlık suçu işlemiş kişileriyargılayacak uluslararası bir daimi cezamahkemesinin kurulması konusunda Temmuz1998de Romada yapılan bir BM konferansındaanlaşmaya varıldı.03M 151
    • 20. The strategic importance of Malta was 22. Ünlü "Aynalı Salon"nun bulunduğufirst recognized by the Phoenicians, who Versailles Sarayı, XIV. Louisninoccupied it and established a trade colony hükümdarlığı sırasında inşa edilmiş vethere. 1793e kadar kraliyet sarayı olarak hizmet vermiştir.A) Maltanın stratejik önemini ilk anlayanFenikeliler, burayı işgal ettiler ve burada bir A) From the time it was built in the reign ofticaret Louis XIV, until 1793, Versailles, with its famouskolonisi kurdular. "Hall of Mirrors" served as the royal palace.B) Maltanın stratejik önemi nedeniyle burayı B) The Palace of Versailles, with its famous "Hallişgal eden Fenikeliler, ilk önce bir ticaret kolonisi of Mirrors", was built at the request of Louis XIVkurdular. and served as the royal palace until 1793.C) Maltanın stratejik önemi, ilk kez, arayı işgal C) The Palace of Versailles, containing theeden ve orada bir ticaret kolonisi kuran famous "Hall of Mirrors", was built during theFenikelilerce anlaşılmıştır. reign of Louis XIV and served as the royal palaceD) Đlk kez Fenikeliler tarafından işgal edilen until 1793.Maltanın stratejik önemi hemen anlaşıldı ve D) The Palace of Versailles, famous for its "Hallburada bir ticaret kolonisi kuruldu. of Mirrors", was built for Louis XIV and continuedE) Maltanın stratejik önemini anlayarak burayı to be the royal palace until 1793.işgal eden Fenikeliler, ilk ticaret kolonisini E) The Palace of Versailles, best known for itsburada kurdular. "Hall of Mirrors", was the royal palace of Louis04M XIV and others right up to the year 1793. 05K21. Analysis of the reddish surface soil of 23. The Aryans who invaded India from theMars points to the presence of oxidized northwest in about 1500 B.C. found a landiron, indicating that at the planets surface there that was already home to anis rusting. advanced civilization.A) Marsın kızılımsı yüzey toprağının analizi, A) Đleri bir uygarlığı zaten barındırmakta olangezegenin yüzeyinin paslanmakta olduğunu Hindistan’ı, M.Ö. 1500 yıllarında Arilergösteren oksitlenmiş demirin varlığına işaret kuzeybatıdan istila etmişlerdir.etmektedir. B) Ariler, ileri bir uygarlığa çok önceden beri evB) Marsın kızılımsı yüzey toprağı analiz sahipliği yapan bir ülke olarak bulduklarıedildiğinde, oksitlenmiş demirin varlığı nedeniyle Hindistanı, M.Ö. 1500 yıllarında kuzeybatıdangezegen yüzeyinin paslanmakta olduğu görülür. işgal ettiler.C) Marsın kızılımsı yüzey toprağının analizi, C) Zaten ileri bir uygarlığın vatanı olanoksitlenmiş demirin varlığını göstermektedir ve Hindistan, M.Ö. 1500lerde kuzeybatısından Arigezegen yüzeyinin paslanmasının nedeni de istilasına uğramıştır.budur. D) Ariler, Hindistan’ı M.Ö. 1500 dolayında işgalD) Marsın kızılımsı yüzey toprağının analizinden, etmişler ve orayı ileri bir uygarlığın vatanı olarakoksitlenmiş demir varlığının, gezegen yüzeyinin görmüşlerdir.paslanmasına yol açtığı anlaşılmaktadır E) Hindistan’ı M.Ö. 1500 dolayında kuzeybatıdanE) Marsın kızılımsı yüzey toprağının analizi ile, istila eden Ariler, orada, ileri bir uygarlığı zatenoksitlenmiş demir varlığına bağlı olarak gezegen barındırmakta olan bir ülke buldular.yüzeyinin paslanmakta olduğu belirlenmiştir 05M04M152
    • 24. James Joyce, whom Samuel Beckett 27. Dilbilimi, son zamanlarda hemen tümknew in Paris in the 1920s, had a great alanlarda muazzam bir genişleme sağlayan,impact on Beckett’s thinking regarding the genç bir sosyal bilimdir.art of writing. A) Linguistics, which is, in a sense, a youngA) Samuel Beckett’in 1920’lerde Paris’te tanıdığı social science, has expanded in every area inJames Joyce’un, Beckett’in yazma sanatıyla ilgili recent times.düşünceleri üzerinde büyük bir etkisi oldu. B) Linguistics is a young social science, whichB) James Joyce’un yazma sanatı konusundaki has recently had a massive expansion in almostdüşüncelerinden çok etkilenen Samuel Beckett, all areas.onu 1920’lerde Paris’te tanımıştı. C) As a young social science, linguistics hasC) Samuel Beckett 1920’lerde James Joyce’la expanded enormously in all areas in recentParis’te tanıştıktan sonra, yazma sanatı years.konusundaki düşünceleri bir ölçüde değişti. D) Although linguistics is in fact a somewhatD) James Joyce 1920’lerde Paris’te tanıdığı young social science, its recent expansion inSamuel Beckett’in yazma sanatı konusundaki almost all fields has been remarkable.düşüncelerini büyük ölçüde etkiledi. E) Linguistics, which has expanded rapidly in allE) 1920’lerde Paris’te yaşayan Samuel Beckett’in areas in recent years, is in fact a young socialyazma sanatı konusundaki düşünceleri James science.Joyce sayesinde tamamıyla değişti. 07M06K25. The European Union is engaged in a 28. Shakspeare’in ailesi, idamı, 13. yüzyılvariety of programmes all around the world ortasında kayda geçmiş olanto promote and protect the rights of Warwickshire’lı eşkıya Williamchildren, particularly in countries where Shakspeare’e dayanmaktadır.children are affected by war. A) It is to William Shakespeare, a WarwickshireA) Tüm dünyada özellikle savaşan ülkelerdeki robber in the mid-13th century, whose hangingçocuklar için çocuk haklarını desteklemek ve is recorded, that Shakespeare’s family is related.korumak için Avrupa Birliği birçok programa izin B) William Shakespeare was a mid-13th centuryveriyor. Warwickshire robber whose hanging wasB) Avrupa Birliği dünyada savaşan ülkelerin recorded and to whom Shakespeare’s family cançocuklarının haklarını desteklemek ve korumak be traced.için çeşitli programları destekliyor. C) Shakespeare’s family can be traced back to aC) Avrupa Birliği tüm dünyada, özellikle Warwickshire robber, William Shakespeare, whoçocukların savaştan etkilendiği ülkelerde, çocuk was hung some time in the mid-13th century.haklarını desteklemek ve korumak için çeşitli D) Shakespeare’s family goes back to theprogramlarla ilgileniyor. Warwickshire robber William Shakespeare,D) Avrupa Birliği özellikle savaştan etkilenen whose hanging was recorded in the mid-13thülkelerin çocuklarını desteklemek ve korumak century.için tüm dünyada çeşitli programlar düzenliyor. E) Shakespeare’s family has been traced back toE) Özellikle çocukların savaştan etkilendiği William Shakespeare, a Warwickshire robber,ülkelerdeki çocuk haklarını destekleyen ve whose hanging in the mid-13th century waskoruyan Avrupa Birliği tüm dünyada çeşitli recorded.programlarla ilgilidir. 07M06M 153
    • Cümle tamamlama soruları 4. In 1922 Hemingway settled in Paris1. Many Egypt’s ruins are unfortunately ____ .being destroyed by the very people ____ . A) whether he would be awarded the Nobel PrizeA) whose living habits had been depicted in the in Literature in 1954monuments B) if the life of a journalist hadnt attracted himB) that actually aren’t trained conservationists even more than the life of a novelistC) who will ask for international funding C) that he wrote stories and novels about theD) that is the result of faculty renovation Americans living there just as Henry James hadE) who were hired to fix them done99K D) since he soon gave up journalism for fiction E) where he moved in a circle of American expatriates that included Ezra Pound and Scott Fitzgerald 00K2. A new generation of business leaders is 5. The doctor has prescribed some new pillscoming to the fore, ____ . ____ .A) whether the state continues to meddle in A) which really do bring relief from paincorporate affairs B) if we could afforded themB) whose methods are more vital, more C) even though she requires them regularlyinternational and more aggressive D) why the others had ceased to be effectiveC) who aimed to impress international investors E) that had just come onto the marketD) which was realistic about the importance of 01Keconomic growthE) so that they work to gratify not politicians buttheir own shareholders99K3. The elderly gentleman sitting over there 6. At concert halls, the centre of the stageis an artist ____ . is increasingly being taken over by percussionists _____.A) whose many articles about their commitmentto the cause of human welfare and happiness in A) who were trying out a wide range of newAfrica would be controversial instrumentsB) that he shares the vision of young people for B) that there is now a vast array of instrumentsa peaceful and prosperous world in the next C) whose performance showed amazingcentury virtuosityC) whose work has been exhibited widely in D) who used to stand at the back of themany countries in Europe orchestra tapping out the rhythmD) since his awards include gold and silver E) in order that a great range of new musicalmedals presented by various organizations sound was being developedE) whereby he had unanimously been elected an 01Mhonorary member by the Society of Modern Arts99M154
    • 7. Japan has produced two hi-tech 10. We are determined to give the contractstadiums ____. to an architect ____ .A) that has been designed to serve several A) since a great many problems had alreadypurposes arisenB) which display the sort of innovation for fun B) whose handling of the interiors wastreatment we expect from that country outstandingC) neither of them is designed with the fans in C) who is committed to environmentallymind responsible designD) whenever there is novelty for the sake of D) until we learn the kind of garden that isnovelty possibleE) as there is provision for novel waterproofing E) if their requirements were even slightlysystems which are highly effective unusual03M 05M8. ____ where farmers benefit from legal 11. Neanderthals were a recentopium cultivation for the production of evolutionary human relative ____ .painkillers. A) who lived in Europe and became extinctA) Turkey is one of several countries 30,000-40,000 years agoB) The UNs drug control agency admits that B) as researchers studying human originscrop substitution projects are inadequate debated this question for decadesC) Total opium elimination in these countries is C) which are muscular and robust, with a brainhardly feasible similar to ours in sizeD) Until recently, only the trafficking of opium D) while the relationship between humans andwas prohibited in Laos, not the cultivation of it Neanderthals may best be described as sisterE) Opium is one of the oldest painkillers known species04K E) despite the fact that they had hands as nimble as those of present-day humans, with a thumb and fingers 06K9. Celebrities ____ cause 14 times as many 12. Road and rail connections in Italy arepeople to copy them as do other suicides. generally better in the north, ____.A) whose suicide was reported in newspapers A) because between the snowy peaks of the AlpsB) who kill themselves and the rugged shores of Sicily lies a wholeC) whom journalists try to interview series of regions, each with its distinctive cultureD) as the impact of their suicide on society is B) but there are many other attractive historicstudied towns and citiesE) when they are reported in the media C) but people speak of two Italies: the rich05K industrial North and the poorer agricultural South D) just as the government has allocated extra funds for road repairs E) where Milan, Bologna and Verona are the key transport centers 06K 155
    • 13. He has focused on moving the 15. The stereotype of woman as the morecomplexity of computing from the desktop “emotional” sex is the one ____.to the network, ____. A) that still persists todayA) where it can be managed more easily B) as emotions are so unpredictableB) if computers could communicate more easily C) but it had been encouraged by the Stoicswith one another D) until overruled by 20th century psychologyC) that his improvements actually caught the E) which a more sophisticated mode of thinkingeye of the Pentagon will have deniedD) though it became the most widely used 06Moperating system of its dayE) which would have been the greatest challengeof his career06M14. The Bermuda Triangle, ____, is noted 16. Africa Report is a weekly TVfor a high incidence of unexplained losses programme ____ .of ships, small boats and aircraft.A) that an entire squadron of planes vanished A) unless it showcases the very best in Africashortly after takeoff B) that focuses on business and investment inB) as local environmental conditions could be Africathe cause C) though it covers everything from economicC) since the sea here is particularly fast moving reform to rewarding investment opportunitiesD) when there is an almost unique magnetic D) so it has 250 million viewers in Africa aloneeffect on compasses E) as it is brought to you by the world’s leadingE) which is off the southeastern Atlantic coast of business channelthe US 07M06M156
    • Benzer cümle soruları1. In a country such as Russia, where 2. Hes one of those people who is alwaysmuch power is vested in one man, that man ready to promise help but rarely keeps hiscan make quite a difference. promise.A) Should one man be given unlimited power, A) Hes often promised to help one, but neveras in Russia, it would make a difference to the once done so.country. B) Hes like lots of other people; he promises toB) When, as in Russia, one man unconditionally help but rarely does.wields enormous power, he can affect many C) Its easy for him to promise to help, but hechanges. never actually does help.C) If much power were invested in one man, in D) Like so many others, he often promises toa country such as Russia, he could bring about help but then forgets to do so.great changes. E) Hes the sort of person who is good atD) It would make a terrific difference in Russia, promising help, but almost always fails to do sofor instance, if a great deal of power were 04Kvested in one man.E) In a country such as Russia, there would bea notable difference if complete power werevested in such a man as that.99M 157
    • KEY TO RELATIVE CLAUSESBOŞLUK 6A CÜMLE BENZER CÜMLEDOLDURMA 7A TAMAMLAMA 1C1 E 8C 1 E* 2E2D 9D 2B3 E 10 C 3C4C 11 E 4E5A 12 A 5A6C 13 A 6D7A 14 B 7B8D 15 D 8A9D 16 E 9B10 A 17 C 10 C11 E 18 D 11 A12 B 19 B 12 E13 C 20 C 13 A 21 A 14 E 22 C 15 A 23 E 16 BÇEVĐRĐ 24 A1C 25 C2A 26 B3A 27 B4C 28 D5B 157
    • Gerund – InfinitiveGerund• isim olarak kullanılır, I like watching horror films, Smoking is forbidden here.• sıfat olarak kullanılır, Can you hear the mocking bird? She hates the working class.• bazı kalıplardan sonra kullanılır,be accustomed to it’s no goodbe used to it’s no usecan’t help it’s worthget accustomed to look forward toget used to there is no point in It’s no use talking to the boss. We look forward to visiting Egypt. I can’t help buying expensive clothes. He got used to driving on the right in Britain.• aşağıdaki fiillerden sonra kullanılır:acknowledge dread keep reportadmit endanger mean resentadvocate enjoy mention resistanticipate envisage mind resumeappreciate escape miss riskavoid excuse necessitate stopconsider fancy pardon suffercontemplate favor postpone suggestdefer finish practicedelay foresee preventdeny forgive prohibitdislike imagine proposedetest include recalldiscuss involve recollectdispute justify repent I hate eating frozen meat. She imagines living in a house with a pool. 159
    • Not: Olayın bittiğini vurgulamak için having + ing kullanılabilir. The man recalled that he had seen the thief. The man recalled seeing the thief. The man recalled having seen the thief.Infinitive• isim olarak kullanılır, To find the right person is hard. They decided to buy a new house. It’s sad to hear war news.• sıfat olarak kullanılır, The first driver to finish the race was Alonso. The latest student to attend the class is Cengiz. Angela was the ugliest girl to join the competition.• amaç bildiren belirteç olarak kullanılır, I went to the Office to fetch my suitcase. They opened the window to let some air in.• aşağıda verilen yapılardan sonra kullanılır, too…enough She is too fat to run fast. adj + infinitive It is hard to believe him. be able to He is not able to swim. be supposed to You were supposed to be here at ten. be going to She is going to study in the US. used to I used to join art clubs when ı was at university. be about to The roof is about to collapse. be to You are to hand in your homework on time.160
    • • aşağıdaki fiillerden sonra kullanılır: O + infinitive*agree hesitate seek advise inviteaim hope seem allow notifyappear learn tend believe orderarrange know threaten cause permitbother manage undertake challenge recommendcan afford offer volunteer command remindcare plan compel requireclaim pledge dare selectdecide prepare drive teachdemand pretend enable telldeserve proceed encourage temptendeavour promise find trustfail refuse force urgehappen resolve hire warn The man threatened to kill the baby. Four thousand males volunteer to join the army. The security warned us not to take any photos. The cold weather forced the birds to immigrate early.* Bu fiillerden hemen sonra nesne gelir. ‘warned us not to’ gibi 161
    • Önemli Bazı fiiller hem gerund hem de infinitive alabilirler. Fakat anlam farkı oluşur. Aşağıda bazı fiiller ve anlam farklılıkları verilmiştir.come + gerund She came to be known as a photographer. (olarak tanınmaya başladı)come + infinitive He came murmuring about the day. (söylenerek geldi)forget + gerund He forgets leaving the lights on. (açık bıraktığını unutuyor)forget + infinitive He forgot to leave the light on. (açık bırakmayı unuttu)go on + gerund They went on complaining about the weather.go on + infinitive The army went on after they camped in Barbua. (ara verip devam ettiler)mean + gerund To be successful means to work hard. (çok çalışmak anlamına geliyor)mean + infinitive I meant to visit Jordan. (ziyaret etmeye niyetlendim)regret + gerund I regret telling you that you are fired. (atıldığını söylediğime pişmanım)regret + infinitive I regret to tell you that you are fired. (üzgünüm ama atıldın)remember + gerund I remember visiting my aunt. (ziyaret ettiğimi hatırlıyorum)remember + infinitive I remembered to visit my aunt. (ziyaret etmeyi unutmadım)stop + gerund He stopped drinking coke. (kola içmeyi bıraktı)stop + infinitive He stopped to drink coke. (kola içmek için durdu)try + gerund He tried phoning the company, but they didn’t help. (aradı, işe yaramadı)try + infinitive He tried to phone the company, but he couldn’t contact. (ulaşmaya çalıştı) Not: notice, make, feel, hear, observe, overhear, see, watch, have, let gibi fiiller hem –ing hem de bare infinitive* alabilirler. Fakat anlamda değişme olur. I watched him racing in the WRC. (yarışın bir kısmını, tamamını değil) I watched him race in the WRC. (yarışın tamamını seyrettim) I saw him watering the garden. (bir ara sularken gördüm) I saw him water the garden. (sulayıp bitirinceye kadar baktım) * -to eki almayan infinitive ‘watch him race’ gibi 162
    • GERUNDS AND INFINITIVESÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları1. An acorn, left to itself becomes an oak, 4. He ____ that the forests ____ to theirand a geneticist ____ its DNA to make it natural inhabitants, that is, to all varietiesgrow into an elm may justly be said ____ of living things.with its natural course. A) suggests / be returnedA) altering / to have interfered B) suggested / to be returnedB) having altered / to interfere C) has suggested / to have been returnedC) to alter / having interfered D) had suggested / are being returnedD) being altered / interfered E) would have suggested / returnE) to have altered / to be interfering 00M98K2. The book of "a thousand and one nights" 5. When I ____ as a fully licensedis a collection of fascinating tales of the geneticist in 1961, I thought I knewOrient, of Mixed Indian, Persian, Arabic, everything there was ____ about genetics.and Egyptian origination, and first ____ inEurope by Antoine Gallands French A) had been graduated / to be knowntranslation in the early eighteenth century. B) graduated / to know C) was graduated / to have knownA) having known D) have been graduated / knownB) to know E) have graduated / to have been knownC) to be known 00MD) made knownE) to be made known99K****3. This poem is generally supposed ____ in 6. It is not unusual for advertisingthe fifteenth century, but some people date campaigns ____ even before the newit even earlier. products ____ onto the market.A) being composed A) to have been launched / have comeB) to be composed B) being launched / will comeC) having been composed C) to be launched / comeD) to have composed D) having been launched / are comingE) to have been composed E) to have been launched / will have come00K 01K 163
    • 7. Soon, customs officers____ to use X-ray 10. The 1980s____ a surge of new interesttechnology____ cavities in vehicles for ____ the definition of intelligence.drugs. A) have brought / to be expandingA) have been able / having scanned B) had brought / having expandedB) are able / scanning C) were bringing / to have expandedC) were able / to be scanned D) brought / in expandingD) will be able / to scan E) would have brought / to expandE) would have been able / to have scanned 06M02K8. They hope that by surrounding city 11. The British government ____ details ofcentres and likely terrorist targets with the next stage of its genetically modified"soft walls", they____ it impossible for crop field trials, thus____ off a nowhijacked planes____ anywhere near them. familiar cycle of debate and demonstration.A) will make / to get A) has released / settingB) make / having got B) will release / to setC) make / to have got C) would have released / having setD) have made / to be got D) is releasing / to have setE) are making / getting E) released / to be set04K 07M****9. Following World War II, job prospectsfor young people ____ greatly whichallowed them ____ more prosperous thantheir parents.A) had improved / to have feltB) have improved / feelingC) improved / to feelD) were improving / having feltE) would have improved / having to feel05K164
    • Çeviri soruları1. But it has become increasingly hard to 3. The first colonial immigrants began tosustain the idea that Britain has the best arrive in Britain in the early 1950s to worktelevision in the world. in the manufacturing industry.A) Ne var ki, dünyada en iyi televizyona A) 1950’lerin başlarında Đngiltere’ye gelen ilkĐngilterenin sahip olduğu görüşünün kabul sömürge göçmenleri, öncelikle imalat sanayindegörmesi kesinlikle imkansızdır. çalışmaya başladılar.B) Ama Đngilterenin dünyada en iyi televizyona B) Sömürgelerden Đngiltere’ye gelen ilksahip olduğu savı gittikçe daha güçlü destek göçmenler, 1950’lerin başlarında imalatbulmaktadır. sanayinde çalışmaya başladılar.C) Nitekim, dünyanın en iyi televizyonunun C) 1950’lerin başlarından itibaren pek çokĐngilterede olduğu görüşü gittikçe anlamını göçmen, imalat sanayinde çalışmak amacıyla, ilkyitirmektedir. kez sömürgelerden Đngiltere’ye gelmeye başladı.D) Fakat dünyada en iyi televizyon yayıncılığının D) Đlk kez 1950’lerde Đngiltere’ye gelmeyeĐngilterede olduğu düşüncesi, bugün daha da başlayan sömürge göçmenleri, öncelikle imalatgüçlenmiştir. sanayinde çalıştılar.E) Ancak, Đngilterenin dünyada en iyi E) Đlk sömürge göçmenleri, Đngiltere’ye, imalattelevizyona sahip olduğu görüşünü sürdürmek sanayinde çalışmak amacıyla, 1950’leringiderek zorlaşmıştır. başlarında gelmeye başlamıştır.99K 99M 4. Greenpeace activists failed to stop a ship2. Martin Scorsese’s controversial film carrying reprocessed nuclear fuel throughtakes its story from Edith Warton’s novel, the Panama Canal.which appeared in 1920 and made her thefirst woman to receive the Pulitzer Prize for A) Yeşilbarış eylemcileri, yeniden işlenmişliterature. nükleer yakıt taşıyan bir gemiyi Panama Kanalı’nda durdurmayı amaçlıyordu.A) Martin Scorsese’nin tartışmalı filmi, öyküsünü, B) Yeşilbarış eylemcileri, yeniden işlenmişEdith Warton’nun 1920’de yayımlanan ve onu nükleer yakıt taşımakta olan bir gemiyi PanamaPulitzer Edebiyat Ödülü’nü alan ilk kadın yapan Kanalı’nda durdurmaya çalıştılar.romanından almaktadır. C) Yeşilbarış eylemcileri, Panama Kanalı’ndanB) Martin Scorsese’nin çok tartışılan filmi, yeniden işlenmiş nükleer yakıt taşıyan bir gemiyi1920’de yayımladığı romanıyla Pulitzer Edebiyat durdurmayı başaramadılar.Ödülü’nü alan ilk kadın Edith Warton’nun D) Yeşilbarış eylemcileri, işlenmiş nükleer yakıtöyküsünü anlatmaktadır. taşıyan bir gemiyi Panama Kanalı’nda durdurmaC) Edith Warton 1920’de yazdığı ve kendisini girişiminde yetersiz kaldılar.Pulitzer Edebiyat Ödülü’nü alan ilk kadın yapan E) Yeşilbarış eylemcilerinin, yeniden işlenmişromanı, Martin Scorsese’nin tartışmalı filmine de nükleer yakıt taşıyan bir gemiyi Panamakonu olmuştur. Kanalı’nda durdurma çabaları boşa gitti.D) Martin Scorsese’nin tartışmaya açık filminin 99Möyküsü, 1920’de yayımlandığında EdithWarton’nun Pulitzer Edebiyat Ödülü’nü alan ilkkadın olmasını sağlayan romanını anlatmaktadır.E) Martin Scorsese’nin çok tartışılan filmininöyküsünü, Pulitzer Edebiyat Ödülü’nü alan ilkkadın olan Edith Warton’nun 1920’deyayımlanmış bir romanından alınmıştır.99K 165
    • 5. Hükümet giriş ücretlerini kaldırır 7. lraq is making efforts to rebuild itskaldırmaz, çok daha fazla kişi müzeleri ve shattered financial system by grantingsanat galerilerini ziyaret etmeye başladı. three foreign banks permission to operate in the country.A) Following the governments ruling for noentrance charges for museums and art galleries, A) Yok olmuş mali sistemini yeniden kurabilmekmore and more people will start to visit them. için çalışmalara başlamış olan Irak, sadece üçB) An increasing number of people had begun to yabancı bankanın ülkede faaliyet göstermesinevisit the museums and art galleries even before izin veriyor.the government abolished entrance fees. B) Irak, yıkılmış olan mali sistemini yenidenC) If the government decides to stop charging yapılandırmak amacıyla çalışmalara başlamış veentrance fees for museums and art galleries, üç yabancı bankanın ülkede faaliyete geçmesinemany more people will start to visit them izin vermiştir.D) As soon as the government had abolished C) Dağılmış olan mali sistemini yenidenentrance charges, many more people started to düzenlemek için gayret içine giren Irak, ülkedevisit the museums and art galleries. üç yabancı bankanın faaliyet göstermesine onayE) Now, as there are no admission charges for vermiştir.museums and art galleries, following a D) Irakın yabancı bankalardan üçünün ülkedegovernment ruling, an increasing number of faaliyete geçmesine onay vermesi, yıkılan malipeople are visiting them. sistemini yeniden kurmaya çalıştığının03M göstergesidir. E) Irak, ülkede faaliyet göstermeleri için üç yabancı bankaya izin vererek, paramparça olmuş mali sistemini yeniden kurmaya çaba gösteriyor. 04K6. Ağlama, yalnızca insana özgü olan 8. In some parts of the world, manygülmenin tersine, insanın başka birçok believe that politics is not a suitable job forhayvanla paylaştığı bir özelliktir. women, but eventually such opposition seems likely to disappear.A) In common with many other animals, humanbeings laugh but do not cry. A) Dünyanın çeşitli bölgelerinde birçok insanB) Humans, like many other animals, cry, but siyaseti kadınlar için uygun bir uğraş olaraklaughing seems to be reserved for them alone. görmemektedir; ancak bu tür muhalefetC) Animals and humans can cry, but it is only zamanla yok olacaktır.humans, who laugh. B) Dünyanın bazı bölgelerinde pek çok kişiD) The ability to cry is shared by humans and all siyasetin kadınlar için uygun bir uğraşother animal, but no laughter; that is uniquely olmadığına inanmaktadır; ancak bu türhuman. muhalefet zamanla ortadan kalkacak gibiE) Crying, as opposed to laughing which is görünmektedir.uniquely human, is a characteristics that C) Birçok insan siyasetin kadınlara uygun bir işhumans share with many other animals. olmadığını düşünmektedir; ancak dünyanın pek03M çok yerinde bu muhalefetin zamanla yok olacağına inanılmaktadır. D) Dünyanın çeşitli bölgelerinde çoğu insan siyasetin kadınlara uygun bir uğraş olduğuna kesinlikle inanmamaktadır; ancak bu muhalefet zamanla önemini yitirecektir. E) Pek çok kişi siyaseti dünyanın bazı bölgelerinde, kadınların yapabileceği bir uğraş olarak görmemektedir; ancak bu tür muhalefetin zamanla önemini yitireceğine inanılmaktadır. 04M166
    • 9. During the Gulf War in 1991, the Iraqi 10. Germany’s far-right Nationaltroops caused the worst ever man-made Democratic Party upset the other parties byenvironmental disaster by setting fire to winning nearly 10 per cent of the votes in650 of Kuwaits 950 oil wells. the economically depressed state of Saxony last year.A) Đnsan tarafından şimdiye kadar oluşturulmuşçevre felaketlerinden biri, 1991deki Körfez A) Almanya’nın aşırı sağ Ulusal DemokratikSavaşı sırasında Irak birliklerinin Kuveytin 950 Partisi, geçen yıl, ekonomik olarak geri kalmışpetrol kuyusundan 650sini ateşe vermesiyle Saksonya eyaletinde, oyların hemen hemenmeydana gelmiştir. yüzde onunu kazanarak diğer partilerin canınıB) 1991deki Körfez Savaşı sırasında, Irak sıktı.birliklerinin Kuveyte ait 950 petrol kuyusundan B) Geçen yıl, daha büyük ekonomik sıkıntılar650sini yakması, şimdiye kadar insandan içinde olan Saksonya eyaletinde, oyların yüzdekaynaklanan en korkunç cevre felaketlerinden onunu alan aşırı sağ Ulusal Demokratik Partisi,biriyle sonuçlandı. Almanya’daki diğer partileri telaşlandırmıştır.C) 1991deki Körfez Savaşı sırasında, Irak C) Almanya’nın aşırı sağ Ulusal Demokratikbirlikleri Kuveytin 950 petrol kuyusundan Partisi, geçen yıl, ekonomik sıkıntılar içinde olan650sini ateşe vererek insan tarafından şimdiye Saksonya eyaletinde oyların aşağı yukarı yüzdekadar oluşturulmuş en kötü çevre felaketine onunu kazanmış ve diğer partilerin çoğununeden oldular. sıkıntıya sokmuştur.D) Đnsandan kaynaklanmış en korkunç cevre D) Almanya’daki diğer partilerin canını sıkan aşırıfelaketi 1991deki Körfez Savaşı sırasında sağ Ulusal Demokratik Partisi, geçen yıl,meydana gelmiştir; çünkü bu savaşta Irak ekonomik durgunluk içinde olan Saksonyagüçleri Kuveytin 950 petrol kuyusundan en az eyaletindeki oyların yüzde onunu kazanmıştır.650sini ateşe vermiştir. E)Almanya’nın aşırı sağ Ulusal DemokratikE) 1991 yılında yalnız Körfez Savaşından dolayı Partisi, geçen yıl, ekonomik sıkıntı içindekideğil, bu savaş sırasında Irak güçlerinin Kuveyte Saksonya eyaletindeki oyların yüzde onunuait 950 petrol kuyusundan 650sini ateşe alınca, diğer partiler telaşa kapılmıştır.vermesi yüzünden de insan tarafından şimdiye 06Mkadar oluşturulmuş en korkunç cevre felaketiyaşanmıştır.05M 167
    • Benzer cümle soruları1. The normal school obviously doesnt 3. Chinas determination to put people inhave the resources necessary to cope with space dates back to the 1960s.badly handicapped children. A) It was only in the 1960s that China couldA) When children are seriously handicapped, the contemplate travel in spaceordinary school has to find ways of answering B) China has been resolutely sending people intotheir needs. space ever since the early 1960s.B) The needs of such handicapped children are C) As far back as the 1960s, China alsobeyond the range of any ordinary school recognized the need to send people into space.programme. D) From the 1960s onwards, China has beenC) Seriously handicapped children cannot fit into captivated by space travel.the routine of ordinary school life. E) China has been set on getting people intoD) In an ordinary school, the needs of seriously space ever since the 1960s.handicapped children tend to get forgotten. 04KE) When its a case of seriously handicappedchildren, the average school simply cannot meettheir needs.02M2. I can’t help feeling that he’s not 4. Getting a law passed is one thing butexperienced enough to be given a position getting it enforced is quite another thing.of such responsibility. A) The law has already been passed, but IA) With a little more experience I’m sure he will suspect it won’t be easy to implement it.develop into a highly efficient manager. B) Once the law has been passed, it will be easyB) It’s inevitable that one should ask oneself enough to put it into effect.whether he really is the right man for the job. C) If the law has been passed, it will soon comeC) A job of that description requires someone into effect.with a great deal of experience. D) The law has been passed and will soon beD) It’s a very demanding position and I’m not at enforced.all sure that he has the experience needed for it. E) The passing of a law and the implementing ofE) In my experience, men of his type rarely it are two very different things.function well in positions of authority. 06M98M168
    • KEY TO GERUND - INFINITIVEBOŞLUK ÇEVĐRĐ BENZER CÜMLEDOLDURMA 1E 1E1A 2A 2D2D 3E 3E3 B* 4C 4E4 A* 5D5 A* 6E6C 7E7D 8B8A 9C9C 10 A10 D11 A 169
    • Participles• Relative yada Adverbial clause cümlelerinin kısaltılmasını sağlayan kalıplardır.Relative ClauseActive -ing The boy who is speaking with Alice is an architect. The boy speaking with Alice is an architect. The lamp which illuminates our street is broken. The lamp illuminating our street is broken.Passive V3 The book which was written by G. Nielson is on auroras. The book written by G. Nielson is on auroras. The officer who was attained for the information department speaks three languages. The officer attained for the information department speaks three languages.Adverbial ClausesActive• aynı anda olan olaylar –ing When I entered the room, I found her crying. Entering the room, I found her crying. While she was driving to work, she saw her high-school friend. Driving to work, she saw her high-school friend. As Jack is a calm man, he won’t get furious about it. Being a calm man, Jack won’t get furious about it.• biri tamamlandıktan sonra diğeri meydana gelen olaylar having V3 After she cooked the dinner, she made a pie. Having cooked the dinner, she made a pie. After Kenan painted the house, he moved his furniture. Having painted the house, Kenan moved his furniture.Passive• aynı anda olan olaylar V3 When the car was stolen in Vegas, it was brand new. When stolen in Vegas, the car was brand new. When it is switched on, the AC cools the room in five minutes. When switched on, the AC cools the room in five minutes. 171
    • As he is sent to jail, he can’t harm anyone. Being sent to jail, he can’t harm anyone.• farklı zamanlarda olan olaylar having been V3 After Judy was rejected, she didn’t apply for the job again. Having been rejected, Judy didn’t apply for the job again.Not: Eğer iki cümlenin öznesi de aynı değilse, özneyi belirtmek gerekir. After Judy was rejected, they found somebody else. Judy having been rejected, they found somebody else.172
    • PARTICIPLESÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları1. An acorn, left to itself becomes an oak, 4. Until the middle of the nineteenthand a geneticist ____ its DNA to make it century, most Americans were indifferentgrow into an elm may justly be said ____ to paint. Wood was plentiful and cheapwith its natural course. especially on the frontier; in fact most settlers had to chop down trees to dearA) altering / to have interfered their land. ____ eager to start farming,B) having altered / to interfere they used their wood to build their cabinsC) to alter / having interfered as cheaply and quickly as possible.D) being altered / interferedE) to have altered / to be interfering A) Having been98K B) To be C) To have been D) Being E) Having to be 04K2. Once the occupying forces ______ many 5. Seafarers records ____ back to 1590seemingly innocent people were accused of ____ it possible to visualize the behavior of______ with the enemy. one of the planets most mysterious phenomena : its magnetic field.A) are leaving / to have been collaboratedB) were leaving / to have collaborated A) dating / have madeC) have left / being collaborated B) to date / would makeD) will leave / collaborating C) being dated/ had madeE) had left / having collaborated D) to be dated / are making01M E) to have been dated / will make 04M3. One oil company particular claims______ its best to balance economicprogress with environmental care andsocial responsibility.A) to be doneB) having doneC) doingD) having been doneE) to have done01M 173
    • Çeviri soruları1. Đngiltere tarafından halen uygulanmakta 3. The project we have undertaken willolan ve iyileştirilmesine acilen ihtiyaç explore the political, social, and economicduyulan sığınma politikasına göre, consequences of new information andmülteciler ülkeye varışlarında gözetim communication technologies, particularlyaltına alınmakta ve yasal işlemlerin relating to issues such as the changing roletamamlanması oldukça uzun sürmektedir. of the state and new security threats.A) Due to the requirements of the asylum policy A) Üstlendiğimiz proje, özellikle devletin değişenrecently adopted by Britain but still in need of rolü ve yeni güvenlik tehditleri gibi konularaimprovement, every refugee who arrives in the ilişkin olarak, yeni bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerinincountry has to be detained until legal matters siyasal, toplumsal ve ekonomik sonuçlarınıare settled, and this usually takes a long time. araştıracaktır.B) The current asylum policy followed by the B) Yürütmekte olduğumuz projeyle, yeni bilgi veBritain urgently needs to be improved since it iletişim teknolojilerinin, özellikle devletin değişenrequires that all the refugees arriving in the rolü ve yeni güvenlik tehditleri üzerindekicountry are to be held in custody until the siyasal, toplumsal ve ekonomik etkilericompletion of legal procedures which takes some araştırılacaktır.time. C) Devletin değişen rolü ve yeni güvenlikC) According to the asylum policy currently tehditleri gibi konuları inceleyen projemizle,practiced by Britain and urgently in need of özellikle yeni bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerininimprovement, refugees are detained on arrival siyasal, toplumsal ve ekonomik etkileriniin the country, and the completion of legal araştıracağız.procedures takes quite a long time. D) Üzerinde çalıştığımız proje, özellikle devletinD) The asylum policy currently practiced in değişen işlevleri ve yeni güvenlik tehditleri gibiBritain is in urgent need of reform as, on arrival, çeşitli konularla yeni bilgi ve iletişimall refugees are taken into detention until legal teknolojilerinin siyasal, toplumsal ve ekonomikprocedures are finalized which may take a long yararlarını incelemektedir.time. E) Ele aldığımız proje, özellikle devletin değişenE) Britain’s current asylum policy, which is in işlevini ve ortaya çıkan yeni tehditleri, yeni bilgidire need of revision requires that all refugees ve iletişim teknolojilerinin siyasal, toplumsal veare to be detained upon their arrival in the ekonomik sonuçları çerçevesinde araştıracaktır.country and wait for the completion of lengthy 99Mlegal procedures.98M2. A new stamp, issued by the United 4. The question we have to answer is howNations for use on its mail, features the the 60 trillion cells composing the humantyphoon Abby as it traveled over the Pacific body communicate with each other andtowards China in September 1986. keep the body as a whole in balance.A) Yeni çıkarılan ve üzerinde Eylül 1986’da A) Bizce ilk önce cevaplanması gereken soru, 60Pasifik’te oluşarak Çin’e kadar ilerleyen Abby trilyon hücreden oluşan insan vücudunun nasıltayfununun resmi olan pul, yalnızca Birleşmiş iletişim sağladığı ve bir bütün olarak nasılMilletlerin kendi postasına kullanılacaktır. dengede kaldığıdır.B) Eylül 1986’da Pasifik üzerinden Çin’e doğru B) Cevaplamamız gereken soru, insan vücudunuyol alan Abby tayfununu gösteren ve Birleşmiş oluşturan 60 trilyon hücrenin birbiriyle nasılMilletler tarafından çıkarılan yeni pul, postada iletişim kurduğu ve vücudu bir bütün olarak nasılkullanılmaya başlamıştır. dengede tuttuğudur.C) Eylül 1986’da, Birleşmiş Milletler, kendi C) Bizce, insan vücudunda yer alan 60 trilyonpostasında kullanmak için üzerinde Abby hücrenin birbirleriyle nasıl iletişim kurduğu vetayfununun Pasifik’ten Çin’e doğru ilerleyişinin vücudu genel olarak nasıl dengede tuttuğu hâlâgösterildiği bir pul çıkarılmıştır. cevap bekleyen bir sorudur.D) Birleşmiş Milletler tarafından, kendi D) Đnsan vücudunu oluşturan ve vücutpostasında kullanılmak üzere çıkarılan yeni bir bütünlüğünü dengede tutan 60 trilyon hücreninpul, Abby tayfununun Eylül 1986’da Pasifik birbiriyle nasıl iletişim kurduğu sorusuüzerinde Çin’e doğru yol alışını göstermektedir. cevaplanmalıdır.E) Kendi postasında kullanılmak için Birleşmiş E) Öncelikle cevaplanması gereken soru insanMilletlerin Eylül 1986’dan beri çıkardığı pulların vücudundaki 60 trilyon hücrenin, vücutsonuncusunda, Abby tayfununun Pasifik dengesini sağlamak için birbiriyle nasıl iletişimüzerinden Çin’e yönelişi gösterilmektedir. kurduğudur.99K 00K174
    • 5. According to the "capitulations" 7. Alsace is one of the most denselygenerously granted by the Ottoman populated regions of France, the ruralsultans, the foreigners operating within the population being particularly high in theEmpire could import and sell goods at any Rhine plain.price they chose and were largely exemptfrom taxes. A) Alsas, Ren Ovasında özellikle yüksek olan kırsal nüfusla, Fransanın en yoğun nüfusluA) Osmanlı padişahlarınca cömertçe verilen bölgelerinden biridir.kapitülasyonlara göre, imparatorluk içinde B) Alsas, Fransanın en kalabalık yerleşimfaaliyet gösteren yabancılar, malları, tercih bölgelerinden biridir ve kırsal nüfus yoğunluğuettikleri herhangi bir fiyattan ithal edip özellikle Ren Ovasında yüksektir.satabiliyorlardı ve büyük ölçüde vergiden C) Özellikle Ren Ovasındaki yoğun kırsal nüfusumuaftılar. ile Alsas, Fransada yerleşimin en yoğun olduğuB) Osmanlı padişahlarının cömertçe verdiği bölgedir.kapitülasyonlara göre, imparatorluk içinde D) Ren Ovasında kırsal nüfusun çok yüksekticaretle uğraşan yabancılar, istedikleri malı olması, Alsası, Fransanın en yoğun nüfusluistedikleri fiyattan alıp satabiliyor ve tüm bölgesi haline getirmiştir.vergilerden muaf tutuluyorlardı. E) Fransanın en yoğun nüfuslu bölgelerinden biriC) Osmanlı padişahlarınca cömertçe verilen olan Alsasın, kırsal kesim nüfusu özellikle Renkapitülasyonlar sayesinde, imparatorluk içinde iş Ovası’nda çok yüksektir.sahibi yabancılar, mallarını istedikleri fiyattan 02Mithal ediyor ve satıyor, üstelik çoğu hiç vergivermiyordu.D) Osmanlı padişahlarınca cömertçe verdiklerikapitülasyonlarla, imparatorlukta yaşayanyabancılara, her türlü malı uygun gördüklerifiyattan ithal edip satma ve vergilerintamamından muaf olma hakkı tanımışlardı.E) Osmanlı padişahlarınca cömertçe verilenkapitülasyonlar sayesinde, imparatorluk içindeyerleşmiş olan yabancılar, istedikleri malı, tercihettikleri fiyattan ithal edip pazarlıyor ve geniş birvergi muafiyetinden yararlanıyorlardı. 8. At the 1994 Brussels NATO summit a00M "partnership for peace" programme was formally launched, enabling the old Warsaw Pact members and former Soviet republics to take part in a wide range of military6. The Beni-Israel is a Jewish community of cooperation with NATO.some thousands, known as the White Jewsand found chiefly in Bombay and the costal A) Eski Varşova Paktı üyeleri ve önceki Sovyettowns of south-west India. cumhuriyetleri, 1994 Brüksel NATO zirvesinde kabul edilen "barış için ortaklık" programıA) Birkaç bin kişiden oluşan Beni-Đsrail Yahudi sayesinde NATO ile askeri alanda çok kapsamlıtopluluğu, genellikle Beyaz Yahudilerden oluşur işbirliği yapma olanağı buldular.ve bunlar Güneybatı Hindistanın Bombay ve B) Eski Varşova Paktı üyelerinin ve öncekiöteki kıyı kentlerinde toplanmıştır. Sovyet cumhuriyetlerinin NATO ile genişB) Bombay ve Güneybatı Hindistanın kıyı kapsamlı askeri işbirliği yapmalarını sağlamayakentlerinde yaşayan birkaç bin nüfuslu Beni- yönelik "barış için ortaklık" programı, ancakĐsrail Yahudi topluluğu, genellikle Beyaz 1994 Brüksel NATO zirvesinde resmen hayataYahudiler olarak bilinmektedir. geçirilme olanağı buldu.C) Birkaç bin nüfuslu bir Yahudi topluluğu olan C) 1994 Brüksel NATO zirvesinde ilk kez önerilenBeni-Đsrail içinde Beyaz Yahudiler olarak "barış için ortaklık" programı, eski Varşova Paktıbilinenler, Bombay dahil Güneybatı Hindistanın üyelerine ve önceki Sovyet cumhuriyetlerinekıyı kentlerinde bulunmaktadır. NATO ile askeri alanda sıkı bir işbirliği yapmaD) Beni-Đsrail olarak bilinen ve nüfusu birkaç bini olanağı sağlamayı amaçlıyordu.geçmeyen Beyaz Yahudi topluluğu, Bombay D) 1994 Brüksel NATO zirvesinde, eski Varşovadahil Güneybatı Hindistanın kıyı kentlerinde Paktı üyelerine ve önceki Sovyetyaşar. cumhuriyetlerine NATO ile geniş kapsamlı birE) Beni-Đsrail, Beyaz Yahudiler olarak bilinen ve askeri işbirliği yapma olanağı sağlayan "barış içingenellikle Bombay ve Güneybatı Hindistanın kıyı ortaklık" programı resmen yürürlüğe kondu.kentlerinde bulunan birkaç bin nüfuslu bir Yahudi E) "Barış için ortaklık", ilk kez 1994 Brükseltopluluğudur. NATO zirvesinde resmen kararlaştırılıp yürürlüğe01M konan ve eski Varşova Paktı üyeleri ile önceki Sovyet cumhuriyetlerine NATO ile askeri işbirliği olanağı sağlayan geniş kapsamlı bir programdır. 03M 175
    • 9. When the Mongol invasion started, the 11. Analysis of the reddish surface soil ofUygurs, realizing that resistance was futile, Mars points to the presence of oxidizedsubmitted willingly to Genghis Khan. iron, indicating that the planets surface is rusting.A) Moğol istilası yaygınlaşınca, direnişin iseyaramayacağını anlayan Uygurlar, Cengiz Hana A) Marsın kızılımsı yüzey toprağının analizi,gönüllü teslim oldular. gezegenin yüzeyinin paslanmakta olduğunuB) Moğol istilası başlayınca, direnişin boşuna gösteren oksitlenmiş demirin varlığına işaretolduğunu anlayan Uygurlar, Cengiz Hana etmektedir.isteyerek teslim oldular. B) Marsın kızılımsı yüzey toprağı analizC) Direnişin boşuna olduğuna inanan Uygurlar, edildiğinde, oksitlenmiş demirin varlığı nedeniyleMoğol istilası başlar başlamaz Cengiz Hana gezegen yüzeyinin paslanmakta olduğu görülür.teslim oldular. C) Marsın kızılımsı yüzey toprağının analizi,D) Moğolların istilası başlayınca direnmenin oksitlenmiş demirin varlığını göstermektedir veboşuna olduğunu fark eden Uygurlar, Cengiz gezegen yüzeyinin paslanmasının nedeni deHanın isteklerini kabul ettiler. budur.E) Moğol istilası, Uygurların direnişin boşuna D) Marsın kızılımsı yüzey toprağının analizinden,olduğuna inanmalarına yol açtı ve Uygurlar, oksitlenmiş demir varlığının, gezegen yüzeyininCengiz Hana isteyerek teslim oldular. paslanmasına yol açtığı anlaşılmaktadır04K E) Marsın kızılımsı yüzey toprağının analizi ile, oksitlenmiş demir varlığına bağlı olarak gezegen yüzeyinin paslanmakta olduğu belirlenmiştir 04M10. According to the UN observers in the 12. 1958de başlatılan ve 1963teregion, Rwandan troops have reentered tamamlanan "Mercury Projesi", ABDnin ilkCongo in violation of the peace treaty "uzayda insan" programıydı.signed between the two countries last year. A) The US was the first country to set up aA) Bölgedeki BM gözlemcilerine göre, Ruanda "human-in-space" programme, known as theaskerleri, geçen yıl iki ülke arasında imzalanan "Mercury Project", and covering the years 1958barış antlaşmasına aykırı olarak, yeniden to 1963.Kongoya girmiştir. B) The "Mercury Project", which was begun inB) Bölgedeki BM görevlilerine göre, geçen yıl iki 1958 and came to an end in 1963, was the firstülke arasında yapılan barış antlaşmasını "human-in-s pace" programme to be sponsoredçiğneyen Ruanda askerleri, Kongoya tekrar by the US.girmiştir. C) The first "human-in-space" programme,C) Bölgede bulunan BM görevlilerine göre, known as the "Mercury Project", was set up inRuanda askerleri Kongoya tekrar girerek geçen the US in 1958 and only ended in 1963.yıl yapılan barış antlaşmasını bozmuştur. D) The "Mercury Project" initiated in 1958 andD) Bölgede görev yapan BM sorumlularına göre, completed in 1963, was the USs first "human-Ruanda askerleri Kongoya yeniden girmiş ve in- space" programme.böylelikle geçen yıl iki ülke arasında imzalanmış E) Often referred to as the "Mercury Project",olan barış antlaşmasını ihlal etmiştir. the USs first "human-in-space" programme wasE) Bölgede bulunan BM gözlemcilerine göre, set up in 1958 and continued until 1963.geçen yıl iki ülke arasında imzalanan barış 05Kantlaşmasına rağmen, Ruanda askerlerinin çoğuKongoya bir kez daha girmiştir.04K176
    • Benzer cümle soruları13. Yaklaşık olarak M.Ö. 8. yüzyılda Homer 1. You would do well to wait a little beforetarafından kaleme alınan Truva Savaşı buying a car.hakkındaki destanlar, birkaç yüzyıl boyuncasözlü olarak korunmuş olabilir. A) If you are thinking of buying a car, this is the right time.A) Homer’s epics about the Trojan War were B) You must realize that this is not the rightwritten down, probably in the 8th century B.C., time to change old car.but may have been around for centuries in oral C) Dont buy now; car prices are expected toform. fall.B) Homer apparently wrote down the epics of D) It would be better if you didnt buy a car justthe Trojan War sometime in the 8th century yet.B.C., but they had already existed in oral form E) Buy a car now and you wont regret it later.for centuries. 00MC) The Trojan War epics had probably existed forcenturies in oral form before they were finallytranscribed by Homer sometime in the 8thcentury B.C.D) The epics about the Trojan War written downby Homer in about the 8th century B.C. mayhave been preserved orally for several centuries.E) Homer transcribed the Trojan War epicssometime during the 8th century B.C., but theirorigins go back to an earlier oral tradition.06M14. When the Sirkeci train station went into 2. The new range of products launched lastservice on November 3, 1890, the waiting Autumn is already selling well.room was heated with stoves brought fromAustria and lit by coal-gas lamps. A) The market for the new goods has improved greatly since last Autumn.A) 3 Kasım 1890’da hizmete giren Sirkeci tren B) Sales of the new products that appeared onistasyonunun hava gazı lambalarıyla aydınlatılan the market in the Autumn, are at last doing well.bekleme salonu, çoğu Avusturya’dan ithal edilen C) Articles on sale for the first time in thesobalarla ısıtılıyordu. Autumn are finally selling well.B) Sirkeci tren istasyonu 3 Kasım 1890’da D) The goods put onto the market for the firsthizmete girdiğinde, bekleme salonu time last Autumn have already found plenty ofAvusturya’dan getirtilen sobalarla ısıtılıyor ve buyers.hava gazı lambalarıyla aydınlatılıyordu. E) The are still few buyers for the new range ofC) 3 Kasım 1890’da, bekleme salonu hava gazı goods that first made an appearance lastlambalarıyla aydınlatılan ve Avusturya’dan ithal Autumn.edilen sobalarla ısıtılan Sirkeci tren istasyonu 03Mhizmete girdi.D) Sirkeci tren istasyonu 3 Kasım 1890’dahizmete girdiğinde, hava gazı lambalarıylaaydınlatılan bekleme salonunu ısıtmak içinAvusturya’dan soba ithal edilmişti.E) Sirkeci tren istasyonunun Avusturyasobalarıyla ısıtılan ve hava gazı lambalarıylaaydınlatılan bekleme salonu, 3 Kasım 1890’dahizmete girmişti.06K 177
    • 3. He should have known better than to 6. A recent survey regarding newhave left his son in charge of the factory if engineering graduates revealed that theseonly for a week. graduates lack communication skills.A) Though it was only for a week, it was foolish A) New engineering graduates are not as goodof him to make his son responsible for the at communicating as their predecessors,running of the factory. according to the results of a recent survey.B) it was quite wrong of him to leave his son to B) A deficiency in communicative skills was therun the factory for as long as a week. most common complaint about new engineeringC) it was foolish of the boy to imagine he could graduates, according to a recent survey.take his fathers place in the factory for a week. C) The fact that recent engineering graduates doD) He must have known that he couldnt leave not have the ability to make themselveshis son in charge of the factory for a whole understood was made clear by a new survey.week. D) The results of a new survey on engineeringE) He was mistaken in thinking that his son was graduates suggest that the most recent of theseup to the responsibility of running the factory for graduates are only average communicators.a week. E) Good communication skills were rated in a04M recent survey as the most sought-after quality in new engineering graduates. 06K5. On seeing the new shopping centre forthe first time I wondered whether it wouldsucceed, with all the other shops already inthe neighborhood.A) I’m sure the new shopping centre will make aprofit, because it is much nicer than the othershops nearby.B) Because there were already many shops inthe area, when I first noticed it I wasn’t sure ifthe new shopping centre would do well.C) Due to the lack of shops in the area, Icouldn’t understand why the new shoppingcentre wasn’t successful from the beginning.D) There are quite a few shops in theneighborhood, so the new shopping centre willface stiff competition.E) I don’t know why they built a new shoppingcentre in our neighborhood; there was certainlyno need for one.06K178
    • KEY TO PARTICIPLESBOŞLUK ÇEVĐRĐ BENZER CÜMLEDOLDURMA 1C 1D1A 2D 2D2B 3A 3A3E 4B 4B4D 5A 5C5A 6E 7A 8D 9B 10 A 11 A 12 D 13 D 14 B 179
    • Passive VoiceActive cümlelerde öznenin ne yaptığı anlatılırken, passive cümlelerde özneye ne yapıldığıanlatılır. They took the children to the park. The children were taken to the park.(by them) *• Passive voice, vurgulamak istediğimiz olayın kendisi olduğunda, This mosque was built in the 16th century. (by the Ottoman Empire) The arid lands are forested.• Eylemi yapan önemli olmadığında, The garden is cleaned and the trees are trimmed. Are the exam papers distributed?• Yada eylemi yapan bilinmediğinde, My uncle’s house was burglarized yesterday. All the street lamps were damaged.• Eylemi yapan açıkça belli olduğunda, Seven suspects have been arrested. (polis tarafından) The trash bins are picked up every day. (belediye tarafından)• Herkese hitap eden cümlelerde passive voice kullanılır. More explanation can be found on page 110. Borrowed books must be returned on time.* by eki ile eylemin kimin tarafından yapıldığını bildirebiliriz. Buna agent denir. 181
    • TENSE ACTIVE PASSIVEThe simplepresent The birds eat the seed. The seeds is eaten.The presentcontinuous The birds are eating the seeds. The seeds are being eaten.The simplepast The birds ate the seeds. The seeds were eaten.The pastcontinuous The birds were eating the seeds. The seeds were being eaten.The presentperfect The birds have eaten the seeds. The seeds have been eaten.The presentperfect cont. The birds have been eating the seeds. The seeds have been being eaten.*The pastperfect The birds had eaten the seeds. The seeds had been eaten.The pastperfect cont. The birds had been eating the seeds. The seeds had been being eaten.†The simplefuture The birds will eat the seeds. The seeds will be eaten.The futureperfect The birds will have eaten the seeds. The seeds will have been eaten.Modals The birds should eat the seeds. The seeds should be eaten. The birds may eat the seeds. The seeds may be eaten. The birds must eat the seeds. The seeds must be eaten * Nadiren kullanılır. † Nadiren kullanılır. 182
    • Gerund and infinitive in passive voiceVerb -ing I remember my grandparents giving me pocket money. I remember being given pocket money. I don’t like people watching me. I don’t like being watched. The teacher caught Jenny cheating. Jenny was caught cheating.bkz. gerund (verbs with gerunds)Verb to infinitive James started to write the report. The report was started to be written. Teresa is trying to open the jar. The jar is being tried to open. The guards allowed us to enter the building. We were allowed to enter the building.bkz. infinitives (verbs with infinitives)Not: Đki nesne bulunduran cümleler iki şekilde passive yapılabilir. Đki nesne alabilen fiiller: acknowledge, assume, believe, claim, consider, declare, estimate, expect, feel, find, know, prove, report, say, suppose, suspect, think, understand The boy claimed that he saw the accident. It’s claimed that the accident was seen. The accident was claimed to be seen. People believe that famous people are happy. It’s believed that famous people are happy. Famous people are believed to be happy. 183
    • PASSIVE VOICEÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları 4. The history of the Venetian Republic1. Of the many attempts that ____ to ____ to an end in 1797 when Venice ____regulate language one way or another, very over to Austria by Napoleon.few ____ . A) was coming / would have been handedA) were made / had succeeded B) had come / has been handedB) have been made / have succeeded C) comes / had been handedC) are made / succeeded D) came / was handedD) could have been made / will succeed E) would come / was being handedE) are being made / may have succeeded 99M98K 5. More than half of the 850 asylum seekers2. When the Italian astronomer Giovanni currently detained in Britain ____ in prisonSchiaparelli ____ a map of Mars in 1877, he with no right of appeal, even though the____ a large number of straight linear vast majority ____ with any offence, letfeatures, which he called “canali” that is alone convicted.“channels”. A) were held / are not chargedA) publishes / has noted B) are being held / have not been chargedB) had published / was noting C) have been held / would not be chargedC) has published / notes D) being held / had not been chargedD) published / noted E) will be held / were not being chargedE) would have published / had noted 99M98M 6. For observers of international politics,3. The report presents a general overview March 1998 ____ as a month when theof the problems that ____ when a disaster world’s superpower relations ____ a____ nation. hopeful new turn.A) would have been encountered / will hit A) will be remembered / may have takenB) are encountered / will hit B) had been remembered / would have takenC) have been encountered / had hit C) may be remembered / tookD) had been encountered / was being hit D) has been remembered / would takeE) will be encountered / hits E) would be remembered / will have taken99K 99M184
    • 7. Thesigers passionate belief that 11. Much health education in recent yearstraditional societies around the world ____ ____ towards the view that heavy drinkeragainst the modern onslaught ____ fierce ____ subject for amusement but forcriticism. practical help.A) were protected / will attract A) has been directed / is notB) have been protected / had attracted B) had been directed / was notC) are being protected / was attracting C) was being directed / wouldnt beD) ought to be protected / has attracted D) is directed / wont beE) would have been protected / would attract E) is being directed / hasnt been00K 01K8. All the reports ____ handed in last week, 12. Although the metropolitan theatresbut some of them still ____ me. ______ a monopoly there for a long time, recently several private theatres ______.A) should have been / havent reachedB) were / didnt reach A) would hold / are being openedC) have been / wont reach B) had held / had been openedD) had been / didnt reach C) were holding / will be openedE) would have been / dont reach D) held / have been opened00K E) have held / were opened 01M9. With the help of satellite images, the 13. In 1906 at Boğazköy several thousandIndonesian government ____ that it is the cuneiform tablets ______ and most of themtimber companies which ____ the mass ______ now on exhibit in the Anatoliandestruction of their rain forests. Civilizations Museum in Ankara.A) will show / would have caused A) have been discovered / wereB) would have shown / had caused B) were discovered / areC) had shown / were causing C) had been discovered / had beenD) shows / had been causing D) would have been discovered / are beingE) has shown / are causing E) had discovered / have been00M 01M10. Physics, as it ____ at the end of the 14. Though we still ____ a long way to go,nineteenth century ____ to as classical a lot ____ in developing new medicalphysics. procedures to deal with diseased tissue.A) has been known / might be referred A) had had / had been accomplishedB) is known / has been B) had / has been accomplishedC) had been known / had been referred C) have had / was accomplishedD) was known / is referred D) are having / was being accomplishedE) might have been known / was referred E) have / is being accomplished01K 02K 185
    • 15. As acquisition opportunities within the 19. He is hoping that, by the time heEU ____less, western European energy ____for the grant, his book on Egyptian,companies____ to turn eastwards in the silverwork ____.hunt for expansion opportunities. A) has to apply / will have been publishedA) grow / are being forced B) had applied / had been publishedB) will grow / would have been forced C) was to apply / has been publishedC) are growing / would be forced D) will be applying / would have been publishedD) have grown / had been forced E) would have applied / will be publishedE) grew / have been forced 04M02K16. The judges of the international tribunal 20. The big test ____ over the next fewat The Hague____, on 1st February 2002, weeks when the government____ tothat charges relating to all three wars introduce a plan to include drug coverage____together. in Medicare.A) would agree / had been heard A) is coming / will be expectedB) have agreed / have been heard B) comes / was expectedC) were agreed / will be heard C) has come / is expectingD) agreed / would be heard D) will come / is expectedE) had agreed / were heard E) would come / would be expected02M 04M17. Professional tennis, which got its start 21. The choices we make and the lives wein 1926 when the French player Suzanne lead _____ by the values we _____ .Lenglen _____ 50,000 US dollars for a tour,only _____ full recognition in 1968. A) would be influenced / are holding B) are influenced / holdA) had been paid / has received C) had been influenced / were holdingB) was paid / received D) must have influenced / had holdC) has been paid / would receive E) have been influenced / were holdingD) is paid / receives 05KE) would be paid / had received03M18. Throughout his term in office, President 22. The auditing of accounts means theClinton _____ by allegations relating to the official inspection of a companys accountsWhitewater real estate deal in which he by a qualified accountant, and this____ byand his wife, Hillary Clinton, _____ prior to law each year.the 1992 election. A) had been requiredA) is dogged / are involved B) requiresB) had been dogged / were involved C) is requiredC) was dogged / had been involved D) requiredD) has been dogged / have been involved E) would have been requiredE) was being dogged / may have been involved 05M03M186
    • 23. He ____ in a line of work that was 26. The term emotional intelligence wasdependent solely on his ability to win the probably first used in an unpublishedtrust of others, and one in which very close dissertation in 1986. In 1990 it ____ intorelationships ____ necessary. the field of scientific psychology.A) was engaged / were A) was being introducedB) would have been engaged / will be B) had been introducedC) will be engaged / could be C) would be introducedD) had been engaged / are D) has been introducedE) is engaged / would be E) was introduced05M 06M24. Joyce attended Clongowes Wood 27. Training schemes in the UnitedCollege for several years, but ____to leave Kingdom ____ by the government aswhen his family fell upon increasing unemployment ____.economic hardship. A) were encouraged / will have worsenedA) was forced B) would be encouraged / had been worsenedB) is forced C) have been encouraged / has worsenedC) has been forced D) had been encouraged / may worsenD) would have forced E) are encouraged / would have worsenedE) would be forced 07M25. Having read so many contemporary 28. After the Germanic invasions, CelticAmerican writers, I____ to feel impatient cultures, which in pre-roman timeswith the kind of fiction that ____ in ____most of Western Europe, ____almostEngland. entirely to the British Isles.A) was beginning / will have been written A) had covered / were confinedB) had begun / has been written B) have been covering / have bee confinedC) have begun / would have been written C) had been covering / would be confinedD) would begin / is being written D) have covered / could have been confinedE) began / was being written E) were covering / had been confined06M 07M 187
    • Çeviri soruları1. The German government and the 3. Avrupa tarihindeki savaşların çoğu, güçopposition are expected to agree on a new dengesinin yeniden kurulmasını sağladıklarılaw to make it easier for qualified gerekçesiyle haklı gösterilmiştir.foreigners to settle in Germany. A) Most of the wars in European history areA) Alman hükümeti ve muhalefetin üzerinde regarded as justifiable since the alleged purposeuzlaştığı yeni yasanın nitelikli yabancıların was to maintain the balance of power.Almanyaya yerleşmelerini kolaylaştırması B) In the course of European history, thebekleniyor. majority of the wars were fought to maintain theB) Alman hükümeti nitelikli yabancıların balance of power and so they were said to beAlmanyaya yerleşmelerini kolaylaştıran yeni bir justified.yasa üzerinde muhalefetle anlaşmayı umuyor. C) The need to maintain the balance of powerC) Alman hükümeti ile muhalefetin, nitelikli was the alleged reason for the majority of theyabancıların Almanyaya yerleşmelerini wars fought in Europe and this justified them.kolaylaştırmak için yeni bir yasa üzerinde D) Most of the wars fought in Europe haveanlaşmaya varmaları bekleniyor. sought to restore the balance of power and soD) Alman muhalefetinin nitelikli yabancıların they have been regarded as justifiable.Almanyaya daha kolay yerleşmelerini E) Most of the wars in European history havesağlayacak yeni bir yasa üzerinde hükümetle been justified on the grounds that they helped toanlaştığı belirtiliyor. restore the balance of power.E) Alman hükümeti ve muhalefetinin uzlaşarak, 01Mnitelikli yabancıların Almanyada çalışmalarınıkolaylaştıracak yeni yasayı yakında çıkarmalarıbekleniyor.04K2. New Deal sözüyle 1929un sonunda 4. Bugün Batı, Üçüncü Dünya ülkelerinepatlak veren büyük ekonomik bunalımı borç para verme tekniğini, onları kontrolaşmak için 1933te Amerika Birleşik altında tutma aracı olarakDevletlerinde Başkan Rooseveltin aldığı mükemmelleştirmiş bulunmaktadır.önlemler ifade edilmektedir. A) The technique of lending money to the ThirdA) In order to deal with the great economic crisis World countries has today been improved by thethat had broken out in the United States of West so that it can control them.America at the end of 1929, President Roosevelt B) Today, the West has perfected the techniqueimplemented the measures known as the New of lending money to the Third World countries asDeal in 1933. a means of controlling them.B) In 1929 and again in 1933, President C) In order to control the Third World countriesRoosevelt introduced the New Deal, a series of today, the West has developed certain money-measures designed to put an end to the great lending techniques.economic crisis which had broken out in the D) Today, the money-lending techniquesUnited States of America. perfected by the West have become a means forC) The measures known as the New Deal were controlling the Third World countries.designed by President Roosevelt in 1933 to put E) Today, the Third World countries are perfectlyan end to the great economic crisis that broke controlled by the West by means of money-out in the United States of America at the end of lending techniques.1929. 00MD) By the term New Deal is meant the measurestaken by President Roosevelt in the UnitedStates of America in 1933 to overcome the greateconomic crisis which broke out at the end of1929.E) The measures known by the term New Deal,implemented by President Roosevelt in theUnited States of America in 1933, succeeded inovercoming the great economic crisis that brokeout in 1929.02M188
    • 5. According to a report published last 7. Observer gazetesinin genel yayınweek, annual stipends for British graduate yönetmeni Will Hutton, Đngiliz basınınınstudents should be increased by more than durumunu izlemek üzere kurulan bağımsıza third. bir kurulun başkanlığına atandı.A) Geçen hafta yayımlanan bir rapora göre, A) Will Hutton, presently editor-in-chief of TheĐngiliz lisansüstü öğrencilerinin yıllık bursları üçte Observer, has been approached to chair abirden daha fazla artırılmalıdır. special commission which will look into theB) Geçen hafta açıklanan rapora göre, Đngiliz issues facing the British press.lisansüstü öğrencileri harçlarının yıllık olarak B) In order to study the efficiency of the Britishüçte birden daha fazla artması gerekir. press, Will Hutton, editor-in-chief of TheC) Geçen hafta yayımlanan bir rapora göre, Observer, was selected to chair an independentĐngiliz lisansüstü öğrencilerinin üçte birinden commission.daha fazlasının yıllık burslarının artırılması C) Will Hutton, former editor-in-chief of Theşarttır. Observer, has been designated as the chairmanD) Geçen hafta yayımlanan bir rapor of a free commission to report on the state ofdoğrultusunda, Đngiliz lisansüstü öğrenci the British press.harçlarının her yıl üçte bir oranından daha fazla D) Will Hutton, editor-in-chief of The Observer,artırılmasına karar verildi. was appointed chair of an independentE) Geçen hafta açıklanmış olan bir rapora commission set up to monitor the state of thedayanarak, Đngiliz lisansüstü öğrencilerine British press.yapılan yıllık ödemeler üçte birden daha fazla E) Will Hutton, who is currently the editor-in-artırıldı. chief of The Observer, has been chosen as the00K chair of an autonomous commission established to study the progress of the British press. 99M6. Kızılderililer arasında din, bireyle tanrı 8. William Carlos Williams is knownarasındaki bir ilişki olarak değil, daha çok primarily as a poet, but he occasionallybelli bir tanrıyla bir toplum arasındaki wrote prose in the form of short stories,sözleşme olarak görülür. novels and essays.A) Religion, among American-Indian people, is A) Kısa öykü, roman ve deneme biçiminde düznot regarded as a personal relationship between yazılar da yazmış olmasına karşın, William Carlosthe deity and each individual, but rather as a Williams, öncelikle bir şair olarak tanınmakcovenant between a particular deity and a istemiştir.community. B) William Carlos Williams’ı asıl tanıtan, zamanB) Religion, for the American-Indian people, zaman yazdığı kısa öykü, roman ve denemelermeans an agreement between some special biçimindeki düzyazıları değil, şiirleri olmuştur.deity and the community, there is no concept of C) Her ne kadar kısa öyküler, romanlar vea personal relationship between the deity and an denemeler düzyazılar yazmışsa da William Carlosindividual. Williams önde gelen bir şair olarak tanınır.C) For the American-Indian people, there is no D) Önde gelen bir şair olarak tanınan Williamconcept of a personal relationship between a Carlos Williams’ın yazdığı az sayıdaki düz yazılar,deity and an individual but only between a genelde kısa öykü, roman ve denemespecific deity and a community. biçimindedir.D) The American-Indian people believe that each E) William Carlos Williams öncelikle bir şaircommunity has a special deity, but that there olarak tanınmaktadır; ancak zaman zaman kısacan never be a personal relationship between a öyküler, romanlar ve denemeler biçimindedeity and an individual. düzyazılar da yazmıştır.E) The concept of a personal relationship 99Kbetween an individual and a deity has no placein the religion of the American-Indian people,who regard their deity as common to thecommunity.00K 189
    • 9. When slave ships took thousands of 11. The strategic importance of Malta wasAfricans to the Caribbean, these people first recognized by the Phoenicians, whowere deprived of a link with their own occupied it and established a trade colonynative history. there.A) Binlerce Afrikalı, köle gemileriyle Karayiplere A) Maltanın stratejik önemini ilk anlayantaşındığı zaman, bu insanların kendi yerel Fenikeliler, burayı işgal ettiler ve burada birtarihleriyle bağları yok edildi. ticaret kolonisi kurdular.B) Köle gemilerinin binlerce Afrikalıyı Karayiplere B) Maltanın stratejik önemi nedeniyle burayıtaşıması bu insanların kendi yerel tarihleriyle işgal eden Fenikeliler, ilk önce bir ticaret kolonisibağlarının kopmasına neden oldu. kurdular.C) Köle gemilerinin binlerce Afrikalıyı Karayiplere C) Maltanın stratejik önemi, ilk kez, orayı işgaltaşıması sonucu, bütün bu insanların kendi yerel eden ve orada bir ticaret kolonisi kurantarihleriyle bağları tamamen koptu. Fenikelilerce anlaşılmıştır.D) Köle gemileri binlerce Afrikalıyı Karayiplere D) Đlk kez Fenikeliler tarafından işgal edilentaşıyınca, bu insanlar kendi yerel tarihleriyle bir Maltanın stratejik önemi hemen anlaşıldı vebağ kurmaktan yoksun kaldılar. burada bir ticaret kolonisi kuruldu.E) Köle gemilerinin binlerce Afrikalıyı Karayiplere E) Maltanın stratejik önemini anlayarak burayıtaşıması üzerine, bu insanlar kendi yerel işgal eden Fenikeliler, ilk ticaret kolonisinitarihleriyle olan bağlarından koparılıp atıldılar. burada kurdular.05K 04M10. 1942de gerçekleşen ve 3 Hazirandan 6 12. Overrun by the Austro-German armiesHazirana kadar süren Midway Savaşı, in World War I, Poland declared itstarihçiler tarafından 2.Dünya Savaşının bir independence on November 11, 1918, anddönüm noktası olarak görülmüştür. on June 20, 1919, was recognized as an independent state by the Treaty ofA) Historians insist that the Battle of Midway, Versailles.Which took place between June 3rd and June6th 1942, should be regarded as a turning point A) I. Dünya Savaşı’nda Avusturya-Almanin World War II. orduları tarafından işgal edilmiş olan Polonya,B) According to many Historians, the Battle of bağımsızlığını 11 Kasım 1918’de ilân etmiş olsaMidway, Which took place in 1942 between June da bağımsız bir devlet olarak tanınması, 203rd and June 6th, can be regarded as a turning Haziran 1919’da imzalanan Versaillespoint in World War II. Antlaşması’yla gerçekleşmiştir.C) The Battle of Midway, Which took place in B) Avusturya-Alman ordularınca I. Dünya1942 and lasted from June 3 rd to June 6th, has Savaşı’nda işgal edilmiş olan Polonya, 11 Kasımbeen regarded by historians as a turning point in 1918’de bağımsızlığını ilân etmiştir; ancak birWorld War II. devlet olarak bağımsızlığı VersaillesD) In the opinion of historians, the turning point Antlaşması’yla 20 Haziran 1919’daof World War II came with the Battle of Midway, kesinleşmiştir.June 3rd-6th, 1942. C) Polonya, I. Dünya Savaşı’nda Avusturya-E) Historians tend to regard the Battle of Alman ordularının işgaline uğrasa da 11 KasımMidway, June 3rd-6th, 1942, as the turning 1918’de bağımsızlığını ilân etmiş ve bir devletpoint of World War II. olarak bağımsızlığı, 20 Haziran 1919’da04M Versailles Antlaşması’yla kesinleşmiştir. D) I. Dünya Savaşı sırasında Avusturya-Alman ordularının işgaline uğrayan Polonya, Versailles Antlaşması’na göre, bağımsızlığını 11 Kasım 1918’de ilân etmiş ve 20 Haziran 1919’da da bağımsız bir devlet olarak tanınmıştır. E) Avusturya-Alman ordularınca I. Dünya Savaşı’nda işgal edilmiş olan Polonya, 11 Kasım 1918’de bağımsızlığını ilân etmiş ve Versailles Antlaşması’yla 20 Haziran 1919’da bağımsız bir devlet olarak tanınmıştır. 06K190
    • 13. Minority representatives in any political 15. In the last century, much attention wasestablishment must be made to feel that given to the language of literature and thetheir interests are sufficiently protected. question of whether there was in fact a separate literary language.A) Herhangi bir siyasal kuruluşta, azınlıktemsilcileri, çıkarlarının tam olarak korunduğunu A) Geçen yüzyılda, edebiyat dili çok ilgi çekmişhissetmelidirler. ve gerçekte apayrı bir edebî dil olup olmadığıB) Herhangi bir siyasal kuruluştaki azınlık sorusu üzerinde önemle durulmuştur.temsilcilerine, çıkarlarının yeterince korunduğu B) Geçen yüzyılda, edebiyat dili çok ilgi çekmişhissettirilmelidir. ve apayrı bir edebî dil olup olmadığı sorusu hepC) Herhangi bir siyasal kuruluşun azınlık tartışılmıştır.temsilcileri, çıkarlarının olabildiğince C) Geçen yüzyılda, edebiyat diline ve gerçektekorunduğunu hissedebilmelidirler. ayrı bir edebî dil olup olmadığı sorusuna çok ilgiD) Azınlık temsilcileri, bir siyasal kuruluştaki gösterilmiştir.çıkarlarının tamamen korunduğunu D) Edebiyat dilinin ne olduğu ve apayrı bir edebîhissetmelidirler. dilin gerçekten var olup olmadığı sorusu, geçenE) Bir siyasal kuruluş, azınlık temsilcilerine, yüzyılda çok ilgi çekmiştir.çıkarlarının tamamen korunduğunu E) Edebiyat dili geçen yüzyılda çok tartışılmıştırhissettirmelidir. ve gerçekte ayrı bir edebî dilin olup olmadığı06M sorusu ele alınmıştır. 07M14. Ortaçağ haritaları Hollanda’nın 16. As we learn from the works of manyneredeyse yarısını su altında gösterir, ama biologists in the past, since sponges did noto zamandan beri denizden geniş alanlar move from one place to another, they werekazanılmıştır. thought to be plants.A) In medieval maps nearly half of the A) Geçmişteki pek çok biyologun, eserlerinde,Netherlands is under water, but since then the süngerlerden bitki olarak söz etmesinin nedeni,sea has withdrawn from large areas. bu canlıların bir yerden bir yere hareketB) Large areas of what is now the Netherlands etmemesidir.have often been claimed from the sea, but in B) Geçmişteki biyologların eserlerindenmedieval maps they were under water. öğrendiğimiz kadarıyla, süngerler bir yerden birC) Nearly half of the Netherlands does not exist yere hareket etmemeleri dolayısıyla bitkilerleon medieval maps but later large areas were aynı grupta ele alınıyordu.recovered from the sea. C) Geçmişteki pek çok biyologun eserlerindenD) Medieval maps show that large areas of the öğrendiğimiz kadarıyla, süngerler bir yerden birNetherlands used to be under the sea, but they yere hareket etmediği için onların bitki olduğuhave since been reclaimed. sanılıyordu.E) Medieval maps show nearly half of the D) Geçmişte, süngerler, bir yerden bir yereNetherlands under water, but since then large hareket etmedikleri için bitki olarak kabulareas have been claimed from the sea. edildiği halde,pek çok biyolog bu görüşe06M eserlerinde yer vermemiştir. E) Süngerler, bir yerden bir yere hareket etmedikleri için, geçmişte bitki olarak sınıflanıyordu; fakat birçok biyolog, eserlerinde bunun yanlış olduğunu belirtmektedir. 06K 191
    • KEY TO PASSIVE VOICEBOŞLUK ÇEVĐRĐDOLDURMA 1C1B 2D2 B* 3E3E 4B4D 5A5B 6A6C 7D7D 8E8A 9D9E 10 C10 D 11 C11 A 12 E12 D 13 B13 B 14 E14 C 15 C15 C 16 C16 D*17 B18 C19 A20 D21 B22 C23 A24 A25 E26 E27 C28 A192
    • Causatives• Bir işi başkasına yaptırdığımızı gösterirken kullanırız. have sth done I had my car painted. (arabamı boyattım.) She will have her house cleaned. He is having his office decorated. have sb do sth I had Terry paint my car. (arabamı Terry’e boyattım.) She will have the maid clean the house. He is having an architect decorate his office.• have yerine informal olan get de kullanılabilir. Fakat get sb to do sth şeklinde kullanılır. I got Terry to paint my car. (arabamı Terry’e boyattım.) She will get the maid to clean the house. He is getting an architect to decorate his office.• ayrıca olumsuz veya istenmeyen bir olaydan bahsederken de have sth done kalıbını kullanabiliriz. My dad had his wallet stolen. (cüzdanını çaldırmış) Kate has had her glasses broken again.• benzer şekilde kullanılabilen diğer bazı filler:make The little boy made us laugh. (bizi güldürdü) The teacher made us finish our homework.let Their mother let them play outside. (oynamalarına izin verdi) They didn’t let her enter the building.force to He forced me to say it. (söylemeye zorladı) Cold weather forced them to stop. 193
    • CAUSATIVESÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları Çeviri soruları1. The book of "a thousand and one nights" 1. Martin Scorsese’s controversial filmis a collection of fascinating tales of the takes its story from Edith Warton’s novel,Orient, of Mixed Indian, Persian, Arabic, which appeared in 1920 and made her theand Egyptian origination, and first ____ in first woman to receive the Pulitzer Prize forEurope by Antoine Gallands French literature.translation in the early eighteenth century. A) Martin Scorsese’nin tartışmalı filmi, öyküsünü,A) having known Edith Warton’nun 1920’de yayımlanan ve onuB) to know Pulitzer Edebiyat Ödülü’nü alan ilk kadın yapanC) to be known romanından almaktadır.D) made known B) Martin Scorsese’nin çok tartışılan filmi,E) to be made known 1920’de yayımladığı romanıyla Pulitzer Edebiyat99K Ödülü’nü alan ilk kadın Edith Warton’nun öyküsünü anlatmaktadır. C) Edith Warton 1920’de yazdığı ve kendisini Pulitzer Edebiyat Ödülü’nü alan ilk kadın yapan romanı, Martin Scorsese’nin tartışmalı filmine de konu olmuştur. D) Martin Scorsese’nin tartışmaya açık filminin öyküsü, 1920’de yayımlandığında Edith Warton’nun Pulitzer Edebiyat Ödülü’nü alan ilk kadın olmasını sağlayan romanını anlatmaktadır. E) Martin Scorsese’nin çok tartışılan filminin öyküsünü, Pulitzer Edebiyat Ödülü’nü alan ilk kadın olan Edith Warton’nun 1920’de yayımlanmış bir romanından alınmıştır. 99K 2. Minority representatives in any political establishment must be made to feel that their interests are sufficiently protected. A) Herhangi bir siyasal kuruluşta, azınlık temsilcileri, çıkarlarının tam olarak korunduğunu hissetmelidirler. B) Herhangi bir siyasal kuruluştaki azınlık temsilcilerine, çıkarlarının yeterince korunduğu hissettirilmelidir. C) Herhangi bir siyasal kuruluşun azınlık temsilcileri, çıkarlarının olabildiğince korunduğunu hissedebilmelidirler. D) Azınlık temsilcileri, bir siyasal kuruluştaki çıkarlarının tamamen korunduğunu hissetmelidirler. E) Bir siyasal kuruluş, azınlık temsilcilerine, çıkarlarının tamamen korunduğunu hissettirmelidir. 06M194
    • Benzer cümle soruları1. A good book review lets you know 3. I just couldnt make him understand thatwhether its the sort of book you want to good planning is essential to success.read or not. A) Ive failed to convince him that the secret toA) To be good, a book review has to establish success lies in a sound plan.who would enjoy reading it. B) Apparently he cant grasp the fact thatB) One ought to be able to understand from a without a sound plan, success is hard to comebook review which books are worth reading. by.C) The prime function of any book review should C) He refuses to believe that the plan will turnbe to establish whether or not a book is worth out to be successful.reading. D) Hes convinced that the scheme is bound toD) According to book reviews, all books are succeed.worth reading. E) Ill convince him in the end that no amount ofE) You can understand from a good book review planning can guarantee success.whether or not its the kind of book you enjoy. 02K00K2. I suppose most criminals do get caught 4. Get Jim to give the speech of welcome;in the end because they believe their luck hes quite the best person for the job.will hold just one more time. A) Try to persuade Jim to give the speech ofA) In most cases, so long as a criminal avoids welcome: hes good at such things.taking risks he is not likely to be suspected. B) Jim will give a far better speech of welcomeB) It seems that the majority of criminals start than anyone else would; get him do it.to take greater risks and so get arrested. C) As hes good at things like that, why dontC) Apparently, by trusting their luck just once you get Jim to give the speech of welcome?too often, most criminals do eventually get D) One person who is good at speechmaking isarrested. Jim; ask him to do it.D) Once the average criminal has fallen under E) Jim will make as good a speech of welcomesuspicion he can no longer trust his luck. as anyone l know; see if hell agree to do it.E) In my opinion, however hard he may try, no 04Kcriminal can ever escape arrest.98M 195
    • KEY TO CAUSATIVESBOŞLUKDOLDURMA1DÇEVĐRĐ1A2BBENZER CÜMLE1E2C3A4B196
    • Pharasal Verbsact like: gibi davranmak Why are you acting like a child?act up: şımarmak Stop acting up and do your homework.ask after: hal hatır sormak Jenny asked after you.ask for: bir ceza yada belayı hak etmek I am not sorry for him. He asked for it.back off: geri adım atmak We told them we would sue them but they didn’t back off.back out off: anlaşmayı bozmak Now that you’ve signed the contract, you can’t back out off it.back up: bir bilgiyi desteklemek He is not lying. His friend backed up his story as well.back up: yedeklemek I wish I had backed up the file. I have to write it again now.be up to: uğraşmak, meşgul olmak I’ve seen you recently. What are you up to?blow up: patlamak The bomb will blow up when he starts his car.blow up: birden sinirlenmek Dorothy blew up when her son told he was suspended from school.break away: alışkanlık terk etmek You have to break away your bad habits, if you want to live healthy.break down: bozulmak, arızalanmak Did the tv break down? I can’t switch it on.break in: kilidi kırıp girmek When we were on holiday, somebody broke in and took the TV and computer.break off: ilişkiyi bitirmek I can’t believe that they broke off. They were so happy. 197
    • break out of: bir yerden kaçmak Two prisoners broke out of jail yesterday.break up: okulların tatil olması When does the schools break up in Germany.bring back: hatırlatmak The photo brought back her to childhood.bring on: sebep olmak The agents are trying to find out what brought on the fire.bring out: yeni bir ürün sürmek The chair man of Dell told they would bring out three new models next week.bring round: dile getirmek Why don’t you bring round the pollution problem in the council?bring round: ayıltmak We couldn’t bring her round for two hours.bring up: yetiştirmek My Grandma brought me up as my parents were working.burn up: birini kızdırmak My father will burnu p when I tell him my grades.burst in: odaya dalmak Don’t burst in here again! Knock on the door first.butter up: yağ çekmek George is buttering the new manager up.butt in: konuşmayı bölmek They didn’t let the author speak because they constantly butt in.buy up: tamamını satın almak Chevrolet bought up Daewoo motors last week.call away: iş için çağrılmak The branch managers are called away to the US.call by: uğramak I just called by to return your book. Thanks.call for: gerektirmek The situation calls for immediate action.call in: uğramak I called in at the chemist’s to buy some aspirins.198
    • call off: iptal etmek The concert is called off because of the rain.call up: göreve çağrılmak The nationalist called up the army.calm down: sakinleşmek Calm down. we are going to find a solution.care for: bakmak, korumak Gina really cares for her children.catch on: anlamaya başlamak You will like it when you catch on the story.catch up with: yetişmek Rudy has been ill for a week. He will have to catch up with his friends.check in: otele kayıt yapmak After you check in, you can use the hotel pool.check out: otelden ayrılmak You have to check or else they will charge one more day.check over: doğruluğunu kontrol etmek The consulate will check over your papers to decide on your visa.cheer up: neşelendirmek Even the cartoon on tv didn’t cheer up little girl.chew out: azarlamak, fırçalamak The boss chewed out Martin as he forgot to hand in his report.clear up: havanın açması If it clears up, we will go for a picnic.come across: şans eseri bulmak I came acroos these old photos while I was looking for my certificates.come by: elde etmek How did you come by this old camera?come down with: hastalanmak He came down with flu as he ate so much ice-cream.come in: gelmek (yarışta 1. 2. vs.) The Turkish athlete came first in long jump.come into: miras kalmak Mr. Shepherd came into two houses and a car after his uncles death. 199
    • come in: moda olmak Leather jackets came in when Michael Jackson wore it 1980s.come off: kopmak The buttons will come off if you keep playing with them.come on: yavaş yavaş başlamak The flight fares are going up as the summer comes on.come out: ortaya çıkmak The flowers started coming out after two weeks we planted them.come round: uğramak I think he is coming round to see you.come round: ayılmak The boy came roud when they washed his face.come round to: fikre katılmak He will come round to our plan if you explain it well.come through: atlatmak The passenger came through without a scratch in the accident.***come up against: sorunla karşılaşmak It’s normal to come up against these kind of problems abroad.count in: hesaba katmak, saymak Don’t count me in unless you by train.count on: güvenmek You can’t count on him about lending money.cut across: kestirmeden gitmek We cut across by using the old motorway.cut back: bir şeyin tüketimini azaltmak The city has to cut back on spending money on structures.cut down on: azaltmak You have to cut down on salt and fat for your health.cut off: bağlantısı kesilmek Many villages are cut off by snow in winters.cut out: kısaltmak They cut out the text as it was too long.do over: tekrar yapmak Somebody has deleted my homework. I have to do it over.200
    • drag on: beklenenden uzun sürmek We the the meet would end in an hour but it dragged on till nine.draw in: gün için kısalmak The days will draw in after August.draw out of: para çekmek He drew out of some money as he was going on a holiday.draw up: durmak (araç) A lorry drew up in front of the bank.drop in: habersiz ziyaret etmek Helen’s dropped in us two days ago.drop off: uykuya çabuk dalmak, sızmak Because he worked all day, he dropped off as soon as he went to bed.drop sb off: arabayla bırakmak Can you drop me off after the party.drop out: okulu bırakmak He dropped out for acting.dry up: nemi kurumak The lake dries up a hundred years ago.dry out: alkol yada uyuşturucuyu tedavi ile bırakmak Sean dried out after the programme in Jersey.eat out: restoranda yemek We eat out every Saturday.end up: son bulmak, soluğu (bir yerde) almak If you go on smuggling, you will end up in jail.face up to: gerçekleri kabul etmek She doesn’t like you. You must face up to it.fall back: geri çekilmek The Greek forces fell back because of the strong defense.fall behind with sth: ödeme yada etkinlikte geri kalmak He fell behind with his bills as he is laid off.fall for: aldanmak Don’t fall for the sellers, they always want to earn more.fall in with: bir fikre uymak We tried to persuade the boss to fall in with our plan. 201
    • fall out: münakaşa etmek Did you fall out with Tony for a computer game?fall through: planı suya düşmek We don’t have a Plan B. Because we didn’t think Plan A would fall through.feel up to: kotarmak, becermek Find someone else to play the Sultan. I don’t feel up to it.figure out: bir problemi çözmek, anlamak Everybody laughed but she didn’t figure it out.fill out: form doldurmak Fill this form out. We will inform you later.find out: bulmak, ortaya çıkarmak The police are trying to find out the criminals.fix up: görüşme ayarlamak Can you fix up a meeting with bus?get across: anlaşılmak He tried hard but he just couldn’t get across his point.get along: anlaşmak, geçinmek Are you getting along with your fiancée?get at: yetişmek, uzanmak As Serhat was a short boy he couldn’t get at the lamp on the ceiling.get away: kaçmak Trevor tried to get away a few times but he always get caught somehow.get by: ekonomik açıdan geçinmek I can’t my wife is going to get a job. We can’t get by.get down: yazmak Mrs. Peterson always wants her students to get down everything on the board.get down to: işe başlamak This rest is enough. Let’s get down on some work.get in: küçük bir araca binmek Get in the car! It’s raining.get off: araçtan inmek Just as I got off the bus, somebody grabbed my purse.get on with: geçinmek, anlaşmak Try getting on with the new manager. He is quite harsh.202
    • get over: atlatmak, etkisinden kurtulmak It’s three years since her fathers death but she still couldn’t get over.get rid of: kurtulmak, başından savmak I don’t want the journalists. Get rid of them.get round sb: ikna etmek If we can get round our dad, we will come with you to the concert.get round to: zaman ayırmak I would like to go to the theatre but I can’t get round to it.get round: üstesinden gelmek I don’t need your help. I can get round it.get through: ulaşmak, iletişim kurmak I can’t get through to Glen. What is going on?get through: sınavı geçmek Many people can’t get through the driving exam.get up to: halt karıştırmak He doesn’t know what his son is getting up to these days.give away: ihbar etmek Why don’t you give him away if you think he is selling drugs?give in: teslim olmak After a short clash, the terrorist gave in.give off: koku yada duman salmak This old tomato paste is giving off a bad smell!give out: dağıtmak Can you give out these worksheets?give up: bir alışkanlığı bırakmak I know it’s harmful, but I can’t give up.go along with: bir fikre katılmak I don’t go along with you. This project is just a dream.go at: saldırmak Butch went at Fred as it thought him a thief.go by: bir bilgi yada ipucunu baz almak You can’t go by the newspapers. They aren’t always true.go down: batmak There are no life jackets in this boat. Because we won’t go down. 203
    • go for: saldırmak As I hadn’t eaten anything for two days, I went for the food.go for: fiyat biçmek How much does a second hand laptop go for these days?go off: çalmak (alarm) The clock didn’t go off yesterday. I was late, of course.go off: kesilmek (elektrik) I couldn’t do my homework, because the electricity went off.go off: bozulmak This soup smells bad. I think it’s gone off.go out: çıkmak Mary doesn’t go out with anyone poor.go over: gözden geçirmek Go over your answers again. You still have some time.go round: yetmek You can each have two. It will go round.go through: tecrübe etmek, yaşamak He went through really bad days after his mother’s death.go with: uymak, yakışmak This red tie doesn’t go with your jacket.goof off: zaman öldürmek, aylaklık etmek As soon as the manager went out, the workers started to goof off.grow out of sth: büyüdüğü için bırakmak He is stil spitting out while walking. I thought he would grow out of it.grow up: büyümek, olgunlaşmak I’ll be an officer when I grow up.hand in: bir rapor yada ödev teslim etmek When is the deadline to hand in our reports?hand out: dağıtmak Please hand out these assignments to your friends.hang on: hatta kalmak Can you hang on a minute? Dad is on the other line.have sb around: ağırlamak We would like to have you around, if you come to Rwanda.204
    • hold in: duygularını gizlemek You shouldn’t’ t hold in your love for her. Go and tell her!hold on: beklemek Hold on a second. I will check the store for your order.hold out: dayanmak, tahammül etmek I can’t hold out his bad behaviors anymore!hold up: oyalanmak We were held up in the traffic. Everyone was heading back home from holiday.keep off: uzak durmak You can live longer, if you keep off danger.keep on: devam etmek You can’t keep on like that! You must get over it.keep up with: takip etmek, ayak uydurmak Do you think he can keep up with these rich kids?kick out: atılmak Yanni was kicked out off school because of cheating.knock out: bilincini kaybetmek The man knocked out when he was hit on the head.knock out: yenmek, alt etmek Galatasaray knocked out Chelsea in the first match.lay off: işten çıkarmak My father was laid off according to the new economical arrangements.leave out: çıkartmak This programme leaves out the mistakes automatically.let down: hayal kırıklığına uğratmak I thought Derek would win the gold medal but he let me down.let off: gaz yada duman salmak You can’t do anything. The factories will let off smoke.let out: hapisten salınmak She was let out after the police found the real criminal.let through: yol vermek I said I was his son but they didn’t let me through.look forward to: dört gözle beklemek I look forward to see my cousins in the summer. 205
    • look down on: hor görmek Don’t look down on poor people!look into: araştırmak The senate is still looking into the matter.look like: görüntü itibariyle benzemek She really looks like her sister.look on: hiçbir şey yapmadan bakmak There was no one who knew first-aid so they just looked on.look on to: bakmak (bina) Our new house looks on to the Black Sea.look out: dikkat et! Look out! There is a car coming.look over: kontrol etmek Mr. Preston looked over the garden but didn’t like it at all.look through: aramak The man at the desk looked through the papers but couldn’t find my report.look up: bir kaynaktan bilgi aramak The teacher wants us to look up at the dictionary for the words we don’t know.make for: telafi etmek I’ve not seen my parents for two years. I don’t know how to make up for it.make fun of: alay etmek Don’t make fun of old people!make out: anlam vermek He told a long story but we couldn’t make out his point.make up: reçete yapmak Many pharmacies doesn’t make up prescription with credit cards.make up: uydurmak Children sometimes make up stories. It’s normal.make up: makyaj yapmak It takes her two hours to make up before she goes out.mix up: aklını karıştırmak The old man’s direction mixed up my mind.pass away: vefat etmek My uncle passed away when I was a little child.206
    • pass for: sanmak, benzetmek She is only twelve, but she can easily pass for twenty.pass off as: kendini biri gibi göstermek He wore a uniform and passed off as an officer.pass out: bayılmak The old lady passed out because of the hot weather.pay off: karşılığını almak Sometimes hard work doesn’t pay off.pick out: seçmek Pick out the color you like the best.pick up: kaldırmak, toplamak Why don’t you ever pick up your clothes!pick up: hastalığa yakalanmak Babies pick up flu much easier.play along: destekliyor gözükmek Although he doesn’t agree with the boss, he plays along.play up to: yalakalık etmek The workers who play up to his superiors are always promoted.pull away: hareket etmek (araç) He run fast. However the bus pulled away before he reached.pull down: yıkmak The City is determined to pull down the old buildings.pull in: yanaşıp durmak (araç) We were out off gas, so we pulled in at the gas station.pull out: çekip çıkartmak I went to see the dentist and he pulled out two of my teeth.pull over: aracı yolun kenarına çekmek The police man made us a sign to pull over.pull up: yavaşlayıp durmak (araç) The limousine pulled up in front of the hotel.put across: kabul ettirmek Although he tried hard, he couldn’t put across his view.put away: para biriktirmek I’ve to put away some money to go abroad. 207
    • put back: geciktirmek, oyalamak The strike put all the orders back.put down: not almak You should put down everything Mr. Vitally says.put down to: olarak açıklamak Her strange behaviors were put down to her childhood.put forward: bir fikir öne sürmek Young candidates are not let to put forward any ideas.put in for: baş vurmak Are you planning to put in for the tutoring position?put out: söndürmek Don’t forget to put out the candle before you sleep.put off: ertelemek Fifa put off today’s match due to the bad weather.put on: giymek Put on your clothes. We are going out.put sb on: dalga geçmek, kafa bulmak You don’t have to see the boss. I was just putting you on!put sb out: birinin başını derde sokmak I don’t want to put you out. You don’t have to come with me.put sb up: birini yatıya almak I don’t mind putting you up for the night.put through: telefonu bağlamak The girl on the phone won’t put me through to Dr. Tucker.put up with: tahammül etmek I can’t put up with chatty people.ring off: telefona bakamadan kapanmak I ran for the phone but it rang off before I get it.run down: araçla ezmek My dog was run down by a lorry yesterday.run down: azalmak The remote control doesn’t work. I think the batteries ran down.run into: şans eseri karşılaşmak Mrs. Gwenth ran into one of her old friends in down town.208
    • run out off: tükenmek We’ve run out off the gas we bought a few hours ago.run over: araçla çarpmak, ezmek I think, you’ve just ran over a frog!run through: tekrar etmek I want to run through the headlines before I finish.see off: yolcu etmek Donnie went to see his girlfriend off.see to: kontrol etmek, takip etmek Can you see to the project when I’m abroad.send for: postayla sipariş vermek I sent for a tv set two weeks ago. Why are they so late?sell out: ürünlerin tamamını satmak, tüketmek The laptops were sold out as they were much cheaper than the normal price.set back: geciktirmek The export orders were set back because of the strikes.set off: tetiklemek The bomb on the train was set off with a mobile phone.set out: yolculuğa çıkmak I’ll set out early in the morning. I don’t want to be held up in the traffic.set out: kurul yada komisyon oluşturmak The president set out a commission for human rights.set up: iş kurmak Paul wants to set up his own business with the inheritance.settle down: bir yere yerleşmek After many years, they settled down in France.show off: gösteriş yapmak He bought a motorbike to show off.show up: gelmek, gözükmek She was rewarded the golden globe, but she didn’t show up at the ceremony.stand by: desteklemek, yanında olmak I was surprised to see him stand by me.stand out: kendini göstermek, fark ettirmek Jenny’s paintings always stand by. 209
    • stand for: simgelemek What do the letters of NATO stand for?stand up to: karşılık vermek Though her father slapped her face, she didn’t stand up to him.step on: terbiye etmek, disipline etmek Somebody has to step on children.stir up: ortalığı karıştırmak The old lady stirred up the bank when she learnt the wages were postponed.take after: görüntü itibariyle benzemek Terry takes after his grandfather. He also had curly hair.take back: geri götürmek You have to take the books back to the library in two weeks.take care of: sağlığına dikkat etmek Everybody thinks they take care of their health.take in: anlamak The conference took four hours but I didn’t take in anything.take in (passive): aldatılmak, dolandırılmak Clare paid 100 dollars for a shirt. She is certainly taken in.take off: elbiseyi çıkartmak Why don’t you take off your clothes? Is it cold?take off: kalkmak (uçak) When does your plane take off?take on: işçi almak DTE corporation takes on twenty workers each year.take out: para çekmek Can you take out some money form me?take up: yer kaplamak This dinner table takes up too much place.take up: bir hobi yada spora başlamak Andrew took up tennis despite his age.think over: iyice düşünmek Before you buy the flat, you had better think it over.try on: bir elbiseyi denemek Why don’t you try this sweater on?210
    • try out: bir makineyi denemek They don’t let everyone try out the luxury cars.turn down: ayarını düşürmek yada kısmak I am sure Becky will turn down Harry’s proposal.turn off: bir cihazı kapatmak You can turn off the light. The daylight is enough.turn on: bir cihazı açmak The heater automatically turns on when it’s cold.turn sb on: heyecanlandırmak, tahrik etmek What kind of music turns you on?turn over: ters dönmek The vandals turned over three cars and burned them.turn up: ayarını yükseltmek Can you turn up the volume? I can’t hear it.turn up: beklenmedik bir anda gelmek We were expecting them the next week, but they turned up yesterday.watch out for: dikkat etmek Your duty is to watch out for the shop-lifters.wear off: etkisi geçmek When the alcohol wears off, he will understand his mistake.wear out: yormak This homework really wore me off. It is thirty pages in total!work out: incelemek, kontrol etmek The meeting ends after we work out the import results.zonk out: hemen uykuya dalmak As he had been working for nine hours, he zonked out as soon as he went to bed. 211
    • PHARASAL VERBSÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları 4. Before the meeting begins, it would be1. I don’t know how we are going to ____ advisable to remind him that he is not onthe expected surge of immigrants into the any account to ____ the subject ofcountry. unemployment insurance.A) look over A) look throughB) run through B) bring upC) put out C) take backD) take down D) break outE) cope with E) make out98K 99K 5. Since most of the world’s commercial2. The Jewish immigrants, who ____ the apples lack genetic diversity, they areboat in England, formed the bulk of the unable to ____ a disease or a pest.ethnic groups arriving in a countryhistorically wary of foreigners. A) put away B) hold upA) took after C) fight offB) got off D) get offC) turned up E) break outD) made up 99ME) showed off98K 6. The atmosphere ____ the earth as if it3. Despite the gusty wind they were able to were a huge roof.put out the fire before it ____ . A) breaks upA) fell off B) makes forB) was taken into account C) hangs overC) was held out D) puts offD) got out of hand E) runs overE) broke up 99M98M212
    • 7. The problem of how to ____ the vast 11. In the early twentieth century, aquantities of waste we produce, requires number of scientists, who had been trainedour urgent attention. as physicists, were interested in the study of biological organisms, and their effortsA) bring up ____ the field we now call molecularB) win over biology.C) find outD) put off A) took leave ofE) deal with B) made up for00K C) gave rise to D) showed up E) fell apart 01K8. Once the children have grown up I shall 12. In the introduction to this book, thestart traveling again, and Im really ____ writer ____ a foreign policy that makesthat. world peace the top priority.A) passing on to A) calls forB) waiting up for B) holds outC) looking forward to C) keeps upD) making up for D) puts onE) going along with E) brings about00K 01K9. Natural disasters have been defined as 13. Im afraid I cant ____ the signature onecological disruptions exceeding the this oil painting, but it has been signed.adjustment capacity of a community and____ outside assistance. A) make out B) take upA) stepping up C) find outB) putting up with D) turn backC) look after E) put downD) calling for 01ME) dealing with00M10. It is hard for a tiger, especially an 14. The top research universities in the USAinexperienced one, to ____ how to attack are ______ the fact that womenan animal that is facing it. researchers are encountering substantial barriers to career advancement.A) figure outB) keep away A) waiting forC) rule out B) pulling out ofD) fall back C) facing up toE) run over D) trying out00M E) turning up 01M 213
    • 15. His doctor ______ advising him to take 19. Among the Maori of New Zealand, eachit easy for a while and stop all overtime, community has developed its own way ofbut he didnt listen. ____ crimes and has chosen a number of different punishments to match them.A) made upB) kept on A) holding upC) ran through B) coming alongD) left out C) dealing withE) played down D) paying for01M E) taking over 02M16. The foreman has a way of making most 20. The first two paragraphs ____ thepeople do what he wants, but somehow I particular requirements of the digitaldont think hell manage to ____ the new environment as the source of data and as adirector! means of producing maps and other visualizations.A) get aroundB) make up for A) lay emphasis onC) turn over B) run out ofD) keep up with C) break throughE) rule out D) stop short of02K E) look down on 03M17. The man who created the first computer 21. As Egypt ____ its biggest irrigationvirus has been sentenced to 20 months in project, the Pharaohs dream of spreadingan American federal prison, and it is their kingdoms into the desert is cominggenerally agreed that he has been ____ true.very lightly. A) puts offA) shown up B) embarks onB) let off C) breaks upC) taken down D) tries onD) given up E) shows upE) brought in 04K02K18. The population of the underdeveloped 22. Pakistan ____ the Indus and itscountries is growing so fast that the tributaries for almost half of its irrigationagricultural activities there are unable to supplies.____ the progressively rising demand forfood. A) turns back B) waits forA) keep up with C) takes toC) look out for D) pulls upB) make sure of E) relies onD) bring up 04ME) sort out02M214
    • 23. Jean Chrétien ____ after more than ten 26. For decades presidents have beenyears as Canadas prime minister. coming ____ plans to deal with the fact that one day the world will run ____ its keyA) steps down sources of energy; oil.B) makes outC) runs out A) up with/ out ofD) holds up B) out of/ up againstE) points out C) down to/ away from05K D) up for/ through E) over to/ into 06M24. In Chinas largest psychiatric facility 27. There has been increasing pressure inthere is a serious lack of resources but the the US to ____ the amount of fundingstaff try hard to ____ this in their allocated to foreign aid, and instead, usetreatment of the patients. the funds to improve the domestic economy.A) come up withB) go in for A) make up forC) put up with B) point out toD) set oat for C) keep up withE) make up for D) cut down on05M E) take up with 06K25. Solar heating never ____ in the US 28. Cells convert energy from one form tobecause of the cost and limited winter another and use that energy to ____sunlight in most areas. various activities, ranging from mechanical work to chemical synthesis.A) caught onB) played up A) turn offC) turned over B) use upD) waited on C) take inE) looked back D) carry out06M E) pick up 07M 215
    • KEY TO PHRASAL VERBSBOŞLUK 17 ADOLDURMA 18 B1E 19 A2B 20 C3D 21 A4B 22 B5B 23 E6C 24 A7C 25 E8E 26 A9C 27 A10 D 28 D11 A 29 D12 B13 A14 C15 C16 B216
    • VOCABULARYÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları1. Asthma is a common ____ in which the 4. It is plain that the United Nations willairways lining the lung become inflamed. not lift the sanctions unless the Iraqi government fully ____ with the SecurityA) diagnosis Council resolutions.B) diseaseC) fury A) matchesD) patient B) elaboratesE) recovery C) complies98K D) resumes E) accomplishes 98K2. From the report released today it 5. When the chairman tried to explain hisappears that oil tankers suffer their major views to the shareholders at the ________ on their return journeys. general meeting, he was shouted down by them with cries of “Resign!”.A) spillsB) costs A) annualC) repairs B) minimalD) drills C) essentialE) crews D) ultimate98K E) recurrent 98K3. People curious to get some idea of what 6. If we are serious about suppressingit is like to be black in a country ____ by terrorism we shall have to ____ strongerwhites need look no further than Dennis measures than those currently in practice.Williams’s new novel Crossover. A) requireA) tempted B) reviseB) undermined C) adoptC) perpetrated D) abductD) run E) suspendE) deemed 98M98K 217
    • 7. When an unknown but gifted artist is 11. Space research is largely a branch offinally recognized, his paintings can pure science, independent of anybecome valuable ____ in the future. applications which ____ from it.A) rates A) enforceB) accounts B) insureC) sales C) reduceD) interests D) restoreE) assets E) stem98M 99K8. I am horrified at the turn things have 12. She is the oldest person in the village,taken and am convinced that he is ____ of to be precise, 92 years old and has a ____much better treatment than that which he word of advice for everyone.is receiving. A) fancifulA) rebutting B) faithfulB) deserving C) credibleC) defending D) futileD) safeguarding E) kindlyE) indulging 99K98M9. Progress in materials research is ____ to 13. Our challenge is to ____ our clientsovercoming such problems as the finiteness with the best possible advice and support,of the world’s resources and possible enabling them to take the right direction atshortages of strategic materials. both strategic and operational levels.A) crucial A) expandB) inexpensive B) consultC) adamant C) improveD) subversive D) provideE) subsequent E) respect98M 99K10. The whole business of having meals at 14. It is a book rich in ideas and beauty, afixed ____ is nothing but a social book that ____ and tries to answer greatconvention and, in modern life, a matter of fundamental questions and demands theconvenience. most active reading one is capable of.A) approaches A) raisesB) substances B) attainsC) intervals C) castsD) requirements D) alludesE) proportions E) accomplishes99K 99K218
    • 15. The Carnegie Endowment for 19. The objective of this project is toInternational Peace seeks an individual to increase the depth of awareness andlaunch a research project on the understanding in the world, about theinformation revolution and its ____ on causes and consequences of the HIVinternational affairs. epidemic through ____ policies and programmes.A) impactB) involvement A) innovativeC) reference B) decadentD) linkage C) meagreE) comparison D) ambiguous99M E) poignant 99M16. Unlike Europe’s stone castles and 20. If you want that post youd better applycathedrals, America’s historical buildings quickly; the last day for ____ applicationsare often wood-framed and so subject to is Friday.____ from moisture and insects. A) reversingA) rebuke B) withholdingB) deficiency C) enforcingC) damage D) submittingD) obsession E) committingE) frustration 00K99M17. Physically speaking, the Pacific Basin 21. In this paper I should like to reportincludes not only all those countries some of the results of an ____ study of twobordering on the Pacific coast but also the hundred London families.Pacific island nations ____ across theocean. A) extreme B) intrinsicA) adopted C) intensiveB) based D) emphaticC) grafted E) apparentD) scattered 00KE) expanded99M18. Nearly half of the world’s countries 22. Recent studies have shown thathave ____ capital punishment in law or in smokers are more ____ to common coldspractice, and some two dozen of them have and flu than non-smokers.done so formally since 1985. A) feasibleA) accused B) susceptibleB) abolished C) applicableC) executed D) reliableD) entailed E) responsibleE) frustrated 00K99M 219
    • 23. I wasnt at all impressed by the ____ 27. Today a very wide spectrum ofhe gave me. biological scientists are needed, both to develop the biotechnology of the nextA) distribution millennium and to ensure the ____ of life inB) explanation our planet.C) determinationD) complication A) explanationE) negotiation B) process00K C) exhaustion D) duration E) conservation 00M24. The river Danube rises in Germany and 28. If the ____ of profits falls in one area of____ through central Europe and into the activity, entrepreneurs may move theirBlack Sea. resources to an industry where the returns are higher.A) cruisesB) spreads A) phaseC) flows B) liabilityD) conducts C) levelE) covers D) supply00M E) policy 01K 29. In many countries training for industry25. Anti-lock brakes (ABS) help you to has always been considered to be ____ themaintain steering control of your car even concern of industry itself, not of the state.while braking on ____ roads. A) sociallyA) lonesome B) primarilyB) fast C) suitablyC) reckless D) firmlyD) slippery E) reputedlyE) stagnant 01K00M26. ____ populated, rural Northumberland 30. A basic ____ of amphibious warfare isis one of the most unspoiled countries in undoubtedly command of the sea.England. A) withdrawalA) Sparsely B) involvementB) Nearly C) determinationC) Primarily D) concessionD) Suitably E) requirementE) Efficiently 01K00M220
    • 31. Even quite late in the twentieth century 35. The ozone layer may still act like amany men assumed that entry into certain protective blanket, but scientists continueprofessions was their ____ right. to worry about the suns _____ lethal effects.A) independentB) exclusive A) potentiallyC) adequate B) equivalentlyD) excessive C) indifferentlyE) unaccountable D) approximately01K E) abruptly 01M32. Bacteria have remarkable capacity for 36. Owing to the shortages in some____ tolerance to previously lethal drugs. building materials and labor ______ in some trades, the building industry began toA) acquiring make more use of prefabricatedB) denouncing components.C) deceivingD) repudiating A) immunityE) recovering B) reliability01K C) cavity D) scarcity E) morality 01M33. Our understanding of the development 37. In a blizzard, the _____ of very lowof behaviour has long been hampered by temperatures, strong wind and suffocatingthe tendency to _____ sharply between snow often proves fatal."innate" and "acquired" behavior. A) expectationA) exclude B) enduranceB) separate C) engagementC) distinguish D) consistenceD) infer E) combinationE) assess 01M01M34. The government has recently made one 38. Acid rain only became a ____million dollars _____ for research grants environmental issue in the 1980s followingconcerning the prediction of earthquakes. groundbreaking studies in the 1970s.A) conditional A) previousB) available B) deceitfulC) suitable C) recklessD) considerable D) destructiveE) vulnerable E) prominent01M 02K 221
    • 39. Using the dam to generate power would 43. Now that formal____ has been given bynot ____ the treaty with the neighboring the government, the project team can becountry, but diverting water out of the river recruited.would. A) referenceA) intimidate B) apprehensionB) betray C) approvalC) violate D) expressionD) convert E) determinationE) fetch 02M02K40. The ____ that terrorists use to move 44. Certain new findings suggest thatmoney from regions that finance them to young calves may be more ____ than oldertheir target country are often identical to cows to bovine spongiform encephalopathythose used by criminal gangs. (BSE).A) regulations A) reluctantB) methods B) hazardousC) provisions C) intimateD) laws D) susceptibleE) admissions E) relative02K 02M41. In the wake of yet another financial 45. Champions of the green movementscandal, the chief accountant handed in his regard the internal combustion machine as____ to the director. one of the biggest ____ in history.A) retirement A) disastersB) redundancy B) rejectionsC) promotion C) admissionsD) resignation D) denialsE) vacancy E) illusions02K 02M42. The American constitution with its 46. The distinction between a language andvarious constraints ____ to protect a dialect is a ____ difficult one.citizens, can actually shield criminals. A) preciselyA) discovered B) notoriouslyB) complained C) compulsivelyC) persuaded D) suitablyD) designed E) flexiblyE) displayed 02M02K222
    • 47. Japan is often ____ as an example of a 51. The discovery of a _____ cancer-country that has managed to keep its causing chemical in foods like crisps, chipsnational defense orientated industries and cereals caused shock waves around theentirely separate from foreign-owned world when it hit the headlines earlier thiscompanies. year.A) deduced A) potentiallyB) delayed B) remarkablyC) deceived C) controversiallyD) withdrawn D) memorablyE) cited E) concisely02M 03M48. The general feeling in the court was 52. Each year, large amounts of carbonthat several of the witnesses were ____ monoxide are _____ into the atmosphereinformation that could have a direct by automobiles and factories.bearing upon the case. A) absorbedA) expressing B) emittedB) withholding C) exchangedC) avoiding D) repulsedD) disrupting E) compelledE) declining 03M02M49. As the new field-worker will be working 53. These novels illustrate thein close ____ with several others, make authors____ for the struggles of youngsure you select someone with an agreeable people and the proper help that should bepersonality. given.A) uniformity A) deceitB) suspicion B) obligationC) collaboration C) alterationD) discretion D) disturbanceE) productivity E) concern03M 04K50. Sponsorship is being increasingly 54. The quartets rendering of Mozart isallowed in schools provided it is regarded ____ good, but l have mixed feelings aboutas being ____ with educational curricula. the Schubert collection.A) considerate A) exceptionallyB) predictable B) sensitivelyC) decisive C) preferablyD) compatible D) impulsivelyE) provocative E) impartially03M 04K 223
    • 55. The book is surprisingly lucid and 59. It seems strange to us now that minersmanages to make the controversial field of and others employed in dangerous workevolutionary psychology ____ to the should not have demanded the provisionaverage intelligent reader. of____ Headgear.A) susceptible A) forcefulB) conducive B) obstructiveC) available C) relentlessD) indulgent D) protectiveE) exclusive E) intensive04K 04M56. Americas subsidies to its cotton 60. In the past 30 years , our knowledge offarmers have long been a noteworthy the ancient Maya civilization has increasedexample of the harm that rich countries ____ as a result of the decipherment of asubsidies ____ on the poor. newly discovered script.A) enforce A) significantlyB) provide B) alternativelyC) exceed C) suspiciouslyD) inflict D) persuasivelyE) employ E) conditionally04K 04M57. Their Prime Minister has been able to 61. A fair proportion of the workforce nowact more aggressively in the past year work from their homes, a____ that hasbecause he has ____ his power within the been made possible by computers.government. A) disturbanceA) recommended B) destinationB) reduced C) circumstanceC) compelled D) supportD) consolidated E) denialE) impaired 05K04M58. The auroras are caused by the ____ of 62. North Korea is ____ to abandon itssolar winds with gases in the Earths nuclear programme without specificatmosphere. security guarantees from America and promises of lost of aid.A) intersectionB) completion A) sincereC) interaction B) nastyD) perception C) boastfulE) distraction D) unlikely04M E) provisional 05K224
    • 63. Pharmaceutical firms are wary of 67. In the case of opera, the benefits ofdevoting money to new antibiotics whose being able to experience the wholesales can be ____ limited by the production from the comfort of yourdevelopment of resistance in the target armchair are very ____.microbes. A) subtleA) accurately B) demonstrativeB) adequately C) deliberateC) severely D) excessiveD) complacently E) attractiveE) confidently 05M05K64. In an aircraft the cabin lights are 68. For the control of the deadly braindimmed during take-off and landing to help disease in cows (BSE), surveillance is beingpassengers to _____ themselves to stepped up in Canada, but the US claims todarkness in the event of an emergency. be testing enough cattle already to ____ the risk.A) modifyB) accustom A) assertC) resume B) assessD) associate C) consultE) relate D) exceed05K E) discourage 05M65. Unless you use your computer____ , 69. Volcanoes are built by the ____ of theiryou cant expect it to function well own eruptive products, which are lava, ash, flows, airborne and dust.A) surelyB) particularly A) accumulationC) recently B) destructionD) properly C) explosionE) soundly D) instability05M E) growth 07M66. Its worth remembering that his ____ 70. Certain nations have ____ the use ofof the downward trends in output over prenatal diagnostic techniques to select therecent years is not the only one. sex of an unborn child; but, bribery and human ingenuity have made it easy forA) interpretation prospective parents to bypass the statute.B) departureC) compliance A) removedD) discretion B) outlawedE) intention C) explored05M D) sustained E) retained 07M 225
    • 71. Music educators give us many good 75. Pollen grains - the tiny malereasons for playing. It is said to feed our reproductive bodies of flowering plants –intelligence and ____ our self-esteem. have an almost ____ outer shell that can survive in certain sediments for tens ofA) raise thousands of years.B) appreciateC) afflict A) intenseD) represent B) approachableE) provoke C) indestructible07M D) abundant E) unsteady 06K72. Education is both a consumption and an 76. The Basques were at this time theinvestment good. The ____ of knowledge largest suppliers to Europe of whale-oil –by reading a book can give pleasure and an important ____ used for lighting and inbenefits to an individual equivalent to products such as soaps.consuming an ice-cream or seeing a film atthe cinema. A) commodity B) refinementA) contribution C) artifactB) exclusion D) hardshipC) obscurity E) settlementD) acquisition 06KE) continuation07M73. A strong ____ exists between a 77. The laws concerning the breeding ofcountry’s wealth and the freedom afforded animals for research could turn out to be toits citizens. the ____ of medical research.A) coincidence A) admissionB) correlation B) detrimentC) consideration C) exclusionD) determination D) preferenceE) interpretation E) cohesion06K 06M74. Satellite television transmission now 78. At present, interest rates aremakes it ____ for us to watch events as comparatively____ ; let’s hope they remainthey unfold in other countries. that way.A) worldwide A) frequentB) substantial B) uneasyC) aware C) consecutiveD) commonplace D) comprehensiveE) liable E) steady06K 06M226
    • 79. What are some of the things that 80. The concept developed out of adifferentially affect siblings and help ____ growing emphasis on research into thetheir success or failure? ____ of emotion and thought.A) pursue A) alternationB) recognize B) participationC) recreate C) interactionD) determine D) obstructionE) reinstate E) complication06M 06M 227
    • KEY TO VOCABULARYBOŞLUK 26 A 53 EDOLDURMA 27 E 54 A1B 28 C 55 C2A 29 B 56 D3D 30 E 57 D4C 31 B 58 C5A 32 C 59 D6C 33 C 60 A7E 34 B 61 C8B 35 A 62 D9A 36 D 63 C10 C 37 E 64 B11 E 38 E 65 D12 C 39 C 66 A13 D 40 B 67 E14 A 41 D 68 B15 A 42 D 69 A16 C 43 C 70 B17 D 44 D 71 A18 B 45 A 72 D19 E 46 * 73 B20 D 47 E 74 D21 C 48 B 75 C22 B 49 C 76 A23 B 50 D 77 B24 C 51 A 78 E25 D 52 E 79 D 80 C228
    • PARAGRAF SORULARI ANALĐZĐÖrnek paragraf 11.-5 soruları parçaya göre cevaplayınız.(2) No human dream is more universal than the longing for a paradise on earth, a placefree of the ravages of time and disease, where the best in nature flourishes while theworst is forbidden to enter. By definition, such magical lands can’t be near at hand; theymust be remote and inaccessible – destinations to be reached by pilgrimage or a heroicjourney. (3) Ancient Tibetan Buddhist texts spoke of just such a kingdom, where wisekings, blessed with long life spans, await the day when they will take power over theworld, ushering in a golden age of peace and justice. This mythical kingdom was called“Shambala,” and its location was believed to be a valley in northern India. Said to beenclosed by a double ring of snow-capped mountains, this fabled valley of Shambalaresembled a (5) “mandala,” which is Buddhism’s circular symbol of the unity of allcreation. Known only to a few European enthusiasts of Asia in the 19th century, (1,4) themyth of Shambala was popularized in the 20th century by the famous Russian mystic,Madame Blavatsky, who claimed she received telepathic messages from the mysticvalley.1. It is clear from the passage that the myth of Shambala ____ .A) was originally introduced by those Europeans in the 19th century who were interested inBuddhism and carried out extensive studies in IndiaB) began to be so popular in Europe in the 19th century that, with Madame Blavatsky, it turnedinto a mystical kind of religionC) had obviously been very popular throughout Asia in the 19th and 20th centuries before it wasdiscovered by the EuropeansD) had originally been an Indian myth and was later adopted by Tibetan Buddhists into their owncultureE) came to be known widely in Europe only in the last century, thanks to MadameBlavatskySoru kökü ‘Shambala’ dan bahsettiği için paragrafta kelimenin geçtiği satırı buluyoruz (1 numaralısatır). E şıkkında known widely olarak verilen yani tanınan ibaresi aslında metinde de popularizedolarak geçiyor. Đkisi de Shambala’nın Madame Blavatsky tarafından Avrupa’ya tanıtıldığını anlatıyor.A şıkkı: Shambala’yı Avrupalı araştırmacılar tarafında tanıtıldığını,B şıkkı: Madame Blavatsky tarafından Avrupa’ya tanıtıldığını fakat bir dine dönüştüğünü,C şıkkı: Avrupalılar keşfetmeden önce de Shambala’nın Asya’da bilindiğinden,D şıkkı: bir Hint mitiyken Tibetli Budistler tarafından kendi kültürlerine uyarlandığından bahsediyor. 229
    • 2. The author claims that a great many people ____ .A) yearn for a distant land of absolute health, happiness and goodnessB) imagine India as a land of plenty, where people lead a most prosperous and peaceful lifeC) go on long pilgrimages to very remote places such as Tibet, where the most popular religion isBuddhismD) have a mystical view of life which enables them to cope with the ravages of time and diseaseE) have a strong desire to make a pilgrimage to the mythical valley of Shambala in order torecover from their sorrows and sufferingsSoru kökü pek çok insan diye başlıyor. Metnin girişinde de insanların cennet gibi bir dünya hayalettiklerinden bahsediyor. Metindeki long for kelimesinin eş anlamlısı yearn (özlem duymak) Aşıkkında geçmekte. Her ikisi de insanların her zaman mutlu ve sağlıklı olduğu, kötüleri olmadığıcennet misali bir yerden bahsetmekte.B şıkkı: insanların Hindistan’ın mutlu ve huzurlu bir yer olarak hayal ettiklerinden,C şıkkı: insanların Tibet gibi uzak yerlere hacca gittiklerinden,D şıkkı: insanların sıkıntı ve hastalıklarıyla mistik bir dünya görüşü sayesinde baş ettiklerinden,E şıkkı: insanların sıkıntılarından kurtulmak için Shambala’ya gitmek istediklerinden bahsediyor.3. According to the passage, ancient Tibetan Buddhists ____ .A) preferred to live in places which were very remote and not easily accessible for common peopleB) had a very strong longing for a world in which Buddhist values and ideas were shared by allhuman beingsC) were most gifted writers who idealized life on earth and, in their writings, encouraged people tostrive for peace and justiceD) often made long pilgrimages and journeys to the valley of Shambala in India in order to have amystical experienceE) believed that a time would come when, under the rule of wise kings, peace and justicewould prevail in the worldSoru kökünde geçen eski Tibet Budistleri 3 numaralı satırda geçiyor. Eski Tibet Budistlerininkaynaklarında dünyaya huzur ve adaleti getirecek bilge kralların ortaya çıkacağından ve dünyanınaltın çağını yaşacağından bahsediyor. Bu ise E şıkkında aynen anlatılıyor.A şıkkı: Eski Tibet Budistlerinin uzak yerlerde yaşamayı tercih ettiklerinden,B şıkkı: Eski Tibet Budistlerinin Budizm öğretilerinin benimsendiği bir dünya hayal ettiklerinden,C şıkkı: Eski Tibet Budistlerinin çok iyi yazarlar olduğundan,D şıkkı: Eski Tibet Budistlerinin Shambala’ya hacca gittiklerinden bahsediyor.230
    • 4. As one understands from the passage, the Russian mystic Madame Blavatsky ____ .A) was clearly one of the few Europeans in the 19th century who were seriously concerned withstudies related to AsiaB) developed her telepathic skill through her study of Buddhism and also by making innumerablejourneys to the valley of ShambalaC) constantly dreamed of a paradise on earth and made great efforts to make peace and justicedominant in the worldD) helped to spread interest in the mythical kingdom of ShambalaE) believed that a study of Tibetan Buddhist texts was indispensable for the acquisition andexercise of telepathic skillsAslında bu soru, 1. sorunun tersten sorulmuş hali. Yani Madam Blavatsky’nin Shambala’yıAvrupa’ya tanıttığından bahsediyor.A şıkkı: Madam Blavatsky’nin Asya araştırmalarıyla ilgilenen birkaç Avrupalı’dan biri olduğundan,B şıkkı: Madam Blavatsky’nin telepati yeteneğini Budizm çalışmaları sayesinde edindiğinden,C şıkkı: Madam Blavatsky’nin cennet gibi bir dünya hayal ettiğinden ve bunun için çabaladığından,E şıkkı: Madam Blavatsky’nin telepati öğrenmek için Budizm kaynaklarının vazgeçilmez olduğundanbahsediyor.5. One learns from the passage that, for Buddhism, ____ .A) the wise kings of the valley of Shambala value peace and justice more than any other thingB) man can never enjoy absolute peace and justice in the world owing to his wickednessC) the valley of Shambala is a sacred place for pilgrimage and worshipD) a paradise on earth can only be established in the distant futureE) everything created in the universe was part of one whole, which was represented bythe symbol of mandalaSoru kökündeki mandala kelimesi metinde 5 numaralı satırda geçiyor. Budizm’e göre yaratılmış herşey aslında bir bütünün parçası. E şıkkı bize bu bilgiyi veriyor.A şıkkı: Budizm’e göre bilge krallar için en önemli şey huzur ve adalettir.B şıkkı: Budizm’e göre insan kötü olduğu için dünyada asla mutlu olamaz.C şıkkı: Budizm’e göre Shambala saklı bir ibadet ve hac yeridir.D şıkkı: Budizm’e göre ileri bir gelecekte cennet gibi bir yaşam kurulabilir. 231
    • Örnek paragraf 21.-5. soruları parçaya göre cevaplayınız.Until the giant American energy company (5) Enron collapsed, and its director KennethLay was imprisoned, his life had been a model of the American dream of rising from ragsto riches on the strength of merit and hard work. His beginnings were socially andfinancially very modest. He was born in Tyrone, Missouri, in 1942, as the son of apreacher who was also a part-time salesman. (3) He helped his father make ends meetby cutting grass and delivering papers. His start in the energy industry seemed similarlymodest. After obtaining a doctoral degree in economics from the University of Houston,he got his start in the booming Texan oil industry. In 1985 (2) he merged HoustonNatural Gas with InterNorth of Nebraska in order to form Enron. As Enron becamestronger, (4) Mr. Lay turned increasingly to politics and was one of the biggest donors tothe Bush-Cheney campaign. (1) After Mr. Bush entered the White House, Mr. Lay hadhopes of a seat in the cabinet, perhaps as energy secretary or even at the Treasury.However, for reasons that remain unclear, Mr. Bush overlooked him, so his professionallife ended in frustration.1. According to the passage, after Mr. Bush was elected president of the US, Kenneth Lay____ .A) turned increasingly to politicsB) became involved in the Texan oil industryC) was not offered a cabinet seatD) obtained a doctoral degree from the University of HoustonE) dissolved Enron, the company he had createdBush başkan seçildikten sonra Lay kendisine de kabinede bir koltuk verileceğini düşünüyor.1 numaralı satırda geçen bu bilgi C şıkkı ile tamamlanıyor. Fakat kabineye alınmıyor.A şıkkı: Kenneth Lay kendini politikaya veriyor.B şıkkı: Kenneth Lay Texan Oil’e katılıyor.D şıkkı: Kenneth Lay Houston Üniversitesinden doktora derecesi alıyor.E şıkkı: Kenneth Lay Enron’ u bölüyor.232
    • 2. It is clear from the passage that the giant American energy company Enron wasfounded through ____ .A) Kenneth Lay’s increasing interest in politicsB) Kenneth Lay’s dream of rising from rags to richesC) the fact that Kenneth Lay had been imprisonedD) Kenneth Lay’s modest beginnings as the son of a preacher and part-time salesmanE) the merging of two companies: Houston Natural Gas and InterNorthSoru kökü bizden Enron’un nasıl kurulduğunu istiyor. 2 numaralı satır, Enron’un Houston Doğal Gazve InterNorth’un birleşmesi ile kurulduğunu gösteriyor. E şıkkı da aynı bilgiyi veriyor.A şıkkı: Enron’un Lay’in politikaya girmesiyle,B şıkkı: Enron’un Lay’in fakirlikten kurtulma hayali sayesinde,C şıkkı: Enron’un Lay hapse girdiği için,D şıkkı: Enron’un Lay’in mütevazi hayatı sayesinde kurulduğunu söylüyor.3. We understand from the passage that, when Kenneth Lay was a child, he ____ .A) worked as a part-time salesman together with his fatherB) wanted to become a preacher like his fatherC) moved with his family from Tyrone, Missouri, to Houston, TexasD) contributed to his family’s income by working at part-time jobsE) dreamed of becoming an oil tycoonSoru kökü bize Lay’in çocukluğunu soruyor. 3 numaralı satırda çocukken satıcılıkta babasına yardımettiğini öğreniyoruz. Yani A şıkkında belirtildiği gibi.B şıkkı: babası gibi vaiz olmak istediğinden,C şıkkı: ailesiyle Tyrone’den Houston’a taşındığından,D şıkkı: part-time işlerde çalışarak ailesine destek olduğundan,E şıkkı: petrol devi olmak istediğinden bahsediyor. 233
    • 4. We can infer from the passage that Kenneth Lay expected Mr. Bush to offer him a highposition in his administration because Mr. Lay ____ .A) had contributed a very large amount of money to Mr. Bush’s presidential campaignB) was an important player in the Texan oil industryC) was frustrated with his political lifeD) had obtained a high level of education, and was therefore quite knowledgeableE) had become very rich through his hard workLay, Bush’tan bir koltuk bekliyor. Soru kökü Lay’in neden böyle bir beklenti içinde olduğunu bizesoruyor. 4 numaralı satırda Lay’in, Bush’un seçim kampanyasına büyük destekte bulunduğunuöğreniyoruz. A şıkkı bize Lay’in seçim kampanyasına yüksek miktarda para akıttığını söylüyor.B şıkkı: Texan Oil’de yönetici olduğu için,C şıkkı: politikadan istediğini alamadığı için,D şıkkı: iyi bir eğitim almış olduğu için,E şıkkı: zengin olduğu için kendisine koltuk verilmesi gerektiğini düşünüyor.5. We see from the passage that Kenneth Lay’s imprisonment was ____ .A) the result of his involvement in the Bush-Cheney campaignB) a miscarriage of justiceC) due to a crime he had committed while studying at the University of HoustonD) carried out despite the fact that he was a good friend of President BushE) implemented at around the same time that Enron, the company he had founded,collapsedSoru kökü bizden Lay’in hapse atılması hakkında bilgi istiyor. 5 numaralı satırda Enron’un battığınıve hapse atıldığını öğreniyoruz. Yani iki olayda ardı sıra gerçekleşiyor. E şıkkında bahsettiği gibi.A şıkkı: seçim kampanyasına katıldığı için hapse atıldığını,B şıkkı: yasalara karşı geldiği için hapse atıldığını,C şıkkı: üniversitede işlediği bir suç için hapse atıldığını,D şıkkı: Bush’un dostu olmasına rağmen hapse atıldığını söylüyor.234
    • Örnek paragraf 31.-5. soruları parçaya göre cevaplayınız.Just as every teenager thinks he is brighter than his parents, (5) every decade considersitself superior to the one that came before. Over the past few months, (2) we of the2000 decade have made it quite clear that we are morally heads above those who livedin the 1990s. We’ve done it first by establishing a reigning cliché for that period. Just asthe 1960s are known for student unrest, the 1980s for Reagan, Thatcher and theYuppies, the 1990s will henceforth be known as the second Gilded Age. They will beknown as the age when the real problems in the world were ignored while the illusionsof the dotcom types were celebrated. It was the age of effortless abundance, cell phoneson every ear, stock markets that only went up and Mercedes sport utility vehicles.(4) Never before had business leaders enjoyed so much prestige, and never before hadcapitalism had fewer mortal enemies. Bill Gates couldn’t be on enough business-magazine covers; tycoons like him felt free to assume the role of global sages, writingbooks with such weighty titles as “The Road Ahead.”1. According to the passage, the decade of the 1990s was characterized by ____ .A) capitalism, blindness and possessionsB) hard-work, greed and the need to communicateC) indifference, immorality and selfishnessD) generosity, spontaneity and individualityE) disagreements, competition and prejudiceSoru kökü bize 90’lı yılların nasıl anlatıldığını soruyor. Gilded age yazan bölümden itibaren bize 90’lıyılların özellikleri anlatılıyor. Đnsanların gerçek sorunlardan uzaklaşıp teknoloji ve spor arabalarlauğraştığı, varlık içinde yüzülen bir hayat. A şıkkı bunların hepsini özetliyor.B şıkkı: 90’lı yılları çok çalışma, hırs ve iletişim gerekirliği,C şıkkı: 90’lı yılları kayıtsızlık, bencillik, ahlaksızlık,D şıkkı: 90’lı yılları cömertlik, doğaçlama, bireyselci,E şıkkı: 90’lı yılları uyuşmazlık, rekabet ve önyargı yılları olarak tanımlamış. 235
    • 2. In the opinion of the author of the passage, the 2000 decade____ .A) differs very little from the decade of Reagan, Thatcher and the YuppiesB) inherited a failing global economy from the previous decadeC) is far more moral than the preceding oneD) still admires the values of the business leaders of the 1990s and the books they wroteE) is fast losing its idealism and growing more and more like previous decadesSoru kökü bize 2000’li yılların nasıl anlatıldığını soruyor. 2 numaralı satırda 2000’li yılların 90’lıyıllardan daha ahlaklı olduğunu söylüyor. C şıkkı bize bu bilgiyi veriyor. Morally heads above diyebahsettiği şey C şıkkında far more moral (daha ahlaklı) olarak geçiyor.A şıkkı: 2000’li yılların Reagan’lı yıllardan çok da farklı olmadığını,B şıkkı: 2000’li yılların küresel ekonomiyi önceki yıllardan kötü devraldığını,D şıkkı: 2000’li yılların hala 90’lı yılların işadamlarına hayranlık duyduğuna,E şıkkı: 2000’li yılların idealizmini kaybedip önceki dönemlere benzemeye başladığını anlatıyor.3. The term “Gilded Age” as it is used in the passage means____ .A) to be admiredB) golden ageC) with moral principlesD) with surface shineE) in bad tasteSoru kökünde Pırıltılı Yıllar kelimesiyle neyin kastedildiğini soruyor. Bu gösterişli olmasına rağmen90’lı yılların içinin boş olduğunu bize gösteriyor. D şıkkı yüzeyi parlayan anlamında with surfaceshine kelimesini kullanmış.A şıkkı:hayran olunacak,B şıkkı: altın çağ,C şıkkı: ahlaklı,E şıkkı: kötü tatlı tanımlarını öngörmüş.236
    • 4. We understand from the passage that, during the 1990s, ____ .A) there was a great deal of student unrestB) capitalism again fell into disreputeC) technological advance took the form of useful gadgetsD) teenagers grew very critical of their parentsE) business tycoons received undue respect and were indeed almost idolizedSoru kökü bizden 90’lı yıllarda yaşanan bir bilgiyi istiyor. Şıklardan sadece E şıkkı 90’lı yıllara aitbilgi içeriyor. Bu da 90’lı yıllarda işadamlarına hayranlık duyulmaya başlandığı.A şıkkı: öğrenci ayaklanmalarından,B şıkkı: kapitalizmin gözden düştüğünden,C şıkkı: teknolojinin yararlı aletler ürettiğinden,D şıkkı: gençlerin ailelerini eleştirdiklerinden bahsetmiş.5. One point made in the passage is that ____ .A) with each passing decade life gets easier and more comfortableB) any hopes of the 2000 decade are not likely to survive the decadeC) the business magazines of this decade differ very little from those of earlier decadesD) each new decade regards itself as superior to the previous oneE) the real problems of each decade are essentially the sameNot: Soru kökünde burada olduğu gibi ayrıca bir ipucu verilmiyorsa, mesela:One point made in the passage is that,We understand from the passage that,According to the passage,It is clear from the passage that,One point emphasized in the passage is that,gibi soru kökleri parçanın genelinden bir bilgi çıkartmamızı gerektirir. Ayrıca bir ipucu kelime olsaydı, mesela:We understand from the passage that, during the 1990sbiz, hemen 90’lı yıllara ait bir bilgi arayacaktık.Bu tür sorularda en doğru yöntem şıklardan hareket ederek cevabı bulmaktır. Yani yanlış bilgiiçeren yada parçayla alakası olamayan şıkları çıkarttıktan sonra bize zaten doğru şık kalacaktır.A şıkkı: her geçen gün yaşamın kolaylaştığından bahsediyor.B şıkkı: 2000’li yıllara dair umutların çok yaşamayacağından,C şıkkı: bu yılların iş dergilerinin önceki yıllardan çok değişmediğinden,E şıkkı: asıl sorunların bu dönemde de aynı olduğunda bahsediyor.Fakat D şıkkı her dönem insanının kendini bir önceki dönem insanlarından daha üstün gördüğünüsöylüyor. Bu şıkkın metinde yer aldığını 5 numaralı satırda geçen cümleden anlıyoruz. 237
    • PARAGRAF 1ÇIKMIŞ SORULAR 3. It is clear from the passage that, the queries and manuscripts sent to an editor’s1. – 5. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre office ____ .cevaplayınız. A) are meticulously examined with a view to making booksEditors have two primary functions which B) are rarely of any interest to the editorial staffsometimes overlap: finding/selecting C) will almost always result in a publicationmanuscripts, then polishing them for D) seldom receive the attention they deservepublication. Acquisitions editors perform E) are of vital importance in the search for athe first chore. The approach they adopt suitable writer for a given textdepends on several factors. The idea for acollege text, for example, usually originatesinside the publishing house; the acquisitioneditor’s job is then to choose a suitableauthor to produce the manuscript. In atrade book division, on the other hand, theacquisitions editor may be more passive,carefully reading manuscripts and queriesthat are mailed in, then recommending thebest of these for development as a book. Inthe former case, the acquisitions editormay be knowledgeable in a given area(economics, perhaps, or one of the 4. We understand from the passage that ansciences) while the second type might be acquisitions editor, working on collegemore of a generalist. Copyeditors, who texts, will probably ____ .whip the manuscript into shape for thepress, must possess a superb background A) have far better skills and qualifications thanin English and bring to their work high copyeditorsstandards of accuracy and thoroughness B) have started his career in one of the branchesalong with a remarkable attention to detail. of the media07M C) have taken courses in marketing and advertising D) aim to go on to promote sales E) have a specialized knowledge of one or more fields1. According to the passage, editors havetwo primary functions ____ .A) one of which is to write publicityannouncements about the books which will bepublishedB) the most crucial of them to preparemanuscripts for publicationC) which occasionally merge into each otherD) both of which are related to the selection ofbooks to be publishedE) which few publishers can fulfill 5. It is obvious from the passage that the work of a copyeditor ____ . A) is one of the easier ones in the publishing business B) hardly differs from that of the acquisitions2. We learn from the passage that a college editortext ____ . C) has been constantly underrated D) requires an excellent grasp of the EnglishA) usually has its starting point in a lecturer’s language and the ability to give precisenotes expressionB) is always assigned to an author by E) combines specialized knowledge withcopyeditors communication skills and the ability toC) can only be edited by the original author summarize essential pointsD) is harder to edit than a trade bookE) often has its origin in an editor’s office238
    • PARAGRAF 2 2. It is suggested in the passage that a person with a sense of independence____ .1. – 5. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya görecevaplayınız. A) enjoys traveling together with other people B) can make friends easily while traveling C) soon mixes with other peopleWhen you stay as a guest in someone’s D) wants to be led around by friends who knowhouse, you give up your anonymity. This the territorybecomes quite a challenge if you are the E) usually prefers to be anonymous when he orkind of person who cherishes she travelsindependence. However, when you andyour host are on the same wavelength, youcan have a trip more special than moneycan buy. Some years ago when I went toAuckland, New Zealand, for the first time,my hosts were a couple, about my age,whom I had met while traveling in Europe. 3. According to the passage, while theThey had a full programme lined up for me. narrator was in New Zealand, he ____ .They drove me around and showed metheir favorite hot springs and also the A) tried to find ways whereby he could travelbeach where a popular TV series had once independentlybeen filmed. At mealtimes, they introduced B) had the opportunity to taste the nativeme to their favorite restaurants, where I produce unique to the countrysampled cheeses from south New Zealand C) was frustrated with the programme preparedthat don’t get exported, and fruits grown for him by his hostslocally. Normally such a tight schedule D) was particularly attracted by the location of awould make me nervous, but I found popular TV seriesmyself happily relinquishing control to my E) did not have enough money to see the otherhosts, who truly understood the pleasures parts of the country outside Aucklandof their native country and enjoyed sharingthem. I couldn’t have encountered this NewZealand on my own.06K 4. It is pointed out in the passage that the narrator and his hosts ____ . A) knew each other before he traveled to New Zealand B) had made a long journey together across many European countries C) spent a fortune to experience the pleasures of New Zealand1. As we understand from the passage, the D) were genuinely interested in sampling a largenarrator ____ . variety of New Zealand’s food and drinks E) were independent people who preferred to beA) was a person who shamelessly exploited the on their owncouple’s hospitalityB) expected his hosts to meet all the expensesof his sightseeing in and around AucklandC) and his hosts had similar tastes and interests,which made his trip most enjoyableD) was more interested in eating than visitingplaces 5. It is implied in the passage that theE) enjoyed the beginning of the holiday but not narrator usually likes ____ .the latter part A) local food more than nationally popular food B) to be in New Zealand rather than in Europe or anywhere else C) to follow a full programme on his travels D) to see his travels as a challenge E) to travel in a relaxed and leisurely way 239
    • PARAGRAF 3 2. One point that is given considerable1. – 5. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre emphasis in the passage is ____ .cevaplayınız. A) the need of all students to get acquainted with foreign cultures and global issues In this century, the wealth and success of B) that the universities have a commitment tonations will depend like never before on the the pursuit of truth for its own sakeability to produce and use knowledge. C) that the universities are in a position toUniversities have long been instrumental in further greater global integrationgenerating knowledge and ideas. But in an D) the incredible speed with which knowledge isincreasingly globalized world, and in the increasingface of rapid scientific change, they will E) that universities must stick to the values thatneed to think about a set of new challenges have made them successful in the pastand how best to prepare their students forthe coming decades. Universities will needto teach a new kind of literacy, in whichglobal awareness will play an importantrole. They also need to deal with thedilemmas posed by the accelerating pace ofchange brought on by scientific and 3. It is clear from the passage that sciencetechnological advances. We are on the and the application of science ____ .brink of once-in-human-history progress incombating disease through the application A) will not help to further global awarenessof modern science. Doctors will have at B) is largely confined within the universitiestheir disposal blood tests that will tell you C) has grown so complex that it is beyond thewith substantial predictive power how long understanding of all but a very fewyou will live and from what diseases you D) cannot go on advancing at this rateare likely to suffer. The Internet and the E) is opening up startling new possibilitiesapplication of information technology maywell represent the most profound change inthe way knowledge is disseminated sincethe printing press. We are close tounderstanding the first second of thehistory of the cosmos. 4. The writer of the passage seems06M convinced that the current rapid developments in science and technology____ . A) will be accompanied by new problems B) cannot go on much longer C) will bring more harm than good D) are largely concentrated in the field of medicine E) are beyond the grasp of most people in most1. According to the passage, universities countriesare under an obligation to ensure that theirstudents ____ .A) have the chance to work alongside foreignstudentsB) are equipped to deal with the changing 5. The phrase, “once-in-human-historyconditions of the coming decades progress” is saying ____ .C) are introduced to international perspectives inevery area of study A) we cannot expect or, indeed, hope for suchD) are taught not specific facts as much as progress ever to happen againbroad ways of thinking B) this is only the first of many spurts ofE) all have a good grounding in science and progresstechnology C) this is the first instance of a widespread application of science D) there has never been such progress ever before and there may not be again E) this is the highest possible peak of progress240
    • PARAGRAF 4 2. In this dramatic account of the film Super volcano, the writer ____ .1. – 5. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya görecevaplayınız. A) urges the general public to go and see the film B) is primarily concerned with the measuresOne of the greatest natural catastrophes needed to contain a super-eruptionthe world will ever see could be little more C) essentially deals with the causes of a super-than a decade away. The film Super volcano eruptiontraces the evolution of an enormous D) also includes certain specific detailsvolcanic eruption -one that not only wipes E) is obsessed with the idea that the end of theout several states of America but that world is very nearthreatens the entire planet. But is such aneruption really possible? Well, supervolcanoes certainly arent fiction. Theyre anormal part of the way the Earth works andoccur perhaps every 50,000 years. Everystatistic associated with a super-eruption is 3. According to the passage, one of thealways wildly over-exaggerated. Molten devastating consequences following amagma is blasted out at a rate 140 times super eruption would be ____ .greater than the flow of water over theVictoria Falls. Ash and gas are thrown more A) the complete destruction of America andthan 50km upwards to the edge of space Britainbefore falling over one percent of the B) a very long period of excessive cold on earthEarths surface. Enough ash would pile up C) that deep layers of volcanic ash would coveron the ground to bury Britain under a the whole surface of the planetblanket 4m thick. Further, devastating D) the drying-up of all water sources on earthwinds carrying burning gas and red hot ash E) a dramatic increase of heat on earth, thewould scour the land surface over an area result of burning gasof 10,000 square kilometers. Worst of all, asuper-eruption is followed by a dramaticfall in global temperatures, leading to yearsand years of bitter cold known as a volcanicwinter.05K 4. The writer seems convinced that ____ . A) super-eruptions really do occur at long but fairly regular intervals B) no part of the US could possibly survive a super-eruption C) Britain would be the first region of the planet1. We understand from the passage that to be buried under the ashes of a super-the film Super volcano ____ . eruption D) a volcanic winter, following a super-eruption,A) gives a convincing and credible account of an would wipe out life on earthimminent super-eruption E) there is no likelihood of a super-eruptionB) has attracted a great deal of attention in the happening in the near futurescientific worldC) has aroused little interest among the generalpublicD) focuses on the horrors of a volcanic winterE) presents a futuristic account of the effects of 5. According to the passage, thea volcanic super-eruption destruction caused by a volcanic super- eruption ____ . A) could lead to the break-up of the entire planet B) could be contained, if not prevented C) would be on an unimaginably huge scale D) would result largely from the flow of molten magma E) can only be guessed at as one has never occurred 241
    • PARAGRAF 51. – 5. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya görecevaplayınız.We should care about dying languages for 3. The author draws a strong parallelthe same reason that we care when a between ____ .species of animal or plant dies. It reducesthe diversity of our planet. In the case of A) cultural and linguistic diversitylanguage, we are talking about intellectual B) plant and animal speciesand cultural diversity, not biological C) linguistic and biological diversitydiversity, but the issues are the same. As a D) environmental and cultural publicityresult of decades of environmental publicity E) the uniformity of ecosystems and that ofand activism, most people have come to culturesaccept that biodiversity is a good thing. Butlinguistic diversity has not enjoyed thesame publicity. Diversity occupies a centralplace in evolutionary theory because itenables a species to survive in differentenvironments. Increasing uniformity holdsdangers for the long-term survival of aspecies. The strongest ecosystems arethose which are most diverse. It has oftenbeen said that our success in colonizing theplanet can be accounted for by our abilityto develop diverse cultures which suitdifferent environments. 4.It is pointed out in the passage that man05K _____ . A) has developed diverse cultures which are appropriate for the environment he lives in B) has always been very much aware of the benefits of biodiversity C) has always valued cultural diversity well above biodiversity1. It is stressed in the passage that D) has always found it very hard to adaptbiological diversity _____ . himself to any new environment E) has always felt that cultural uniformity isA) is not in any way related to eco"1 systems desirableB) has received far more attention than linguisticdiversityC) is fast being reducedD) contributes very little to the survival of plantand animal speciesE) is richer in northern regions than in southernones 5. According to the writer, diversity on2. The point is made in the passage that the earth _____ .survival of species in differentenvironments _____ . A) is rapidly becoming reduced owing to a lack of public interest in itA) is of no real importance except to biologists B) consists not only of the diversity of speciesB) has been made possible by the continuous and plants but also of languages and culturesefforts of man C) has only recently become a research concernC) has aroused very little interest in the general among environmentalistspublic D) has encouraged man to exploit hisD) has been made possible by diversity environmentE) bears no relation to the survival of languages E) can best be maintained through theand cultures. preservation of different languages242
    • PARAGRAF 61. – 5. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya görecevaplayınız.The discovery of an ancient tomb in modern 3. According to Professor Rawson in theChina is so commonplace that it often passage, China ____ .annoys as much as excites, because it candelay construction for months or even A) has only recently emerged as an area ofyears. So when archaeologists were called interest for archaeologistsin last May to check structures discovered B) has only just started to publish art objects forduring the expansion of a bone meal the Westfactory in a southern suburb of Beijing, C) is noted for its ancient domed tombs withthey werent expecting to find anything of frescoesgreat interest. To the archaeologists D) continues to be very secretive about itssurprise, the structures were the remains archaeological findsof two traditional domed tombs, each over E) has the finest frescoes anywhere in the worlda thousand years old. One was flooded andbadly damaged, but the other containedbeautifully-preserved wall frescoes fromthe 10th century. "Its only recently thatthe Chinese have been publishing artifactsfrom ancient tombs, and its unusual to seethem in the Western press,1 says DrJessica Rawson, Professor of Oriental Artand Archaeology at Oxford University.05K 4. We understand from the passage that only one of the tombs unearthed during extension work at a factory in Beijing _____ . A) attracted the attention of Dr Rawson had a domed roof which was undamaged1. We learn from the passage that the B) had a doomed roof which was undamagedChinese ____ . C) could be dated back to the 10th century D) revealed frescoes in excellent conditionA) show archaeologists a great deal of respect E) caused a delay in the ProjectB) are very proud of their ancient archaeologicalheritageC) are very skilled in the art of frescoesD) often have mixed feelings when an ancienttomb is discoveredE) used to prefer tombs without domes to thosewith domes2. It is clear from the passage that in China 5. The passage points out that thetoday the progress of a construction work archaeologists who were called in ____ .____ . A) were not impressed by the frescoes on theA) is very often hindered by the unexpected walls of one of the tombsdiscovery of ancient tombs B) werent expecting to discover tombs of suchB) is frequently supervised by archaeologists great value in a suburb of BeijingC) is liable to be delayed for a variety of reasons C) made ancient tombs their specialtyD) depends, to a certain extent, on weather D) had published extensively in the westernconditions pressE) often runs parallel with archaeological E) were annoyed by the discovery of two ancientexcavations tombs in Beijing 243
    • PARAGRAF 7 2. The writer points out chat children can, at a very early age____ .1. – 5. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya görecevaplayınız. A) be encouraged to take part in after-school activitiesMuch has been said and written about the B) develop an interest in scientific mattersdeclining numbers of and disappointing C) make up their minds to study engineering atlack of diversity among American college universitystudents majoring in engineering. Among D) learn something about the basis ofthe factors cited to explain this engineering, which is designphenomenon are the lack of exposure of E) be influenced by their school environmenthigh school students to the very idea ofengineering and the fact that many haveinsufficient mathematics and sciencebackground to gain entrance to engineeringschool, even if they do identify theprofession as a possible career. This isunfortunate, for the ideas of engineeringshould be integrated into the curricula not 3. The writer recognizes the fact thatonly of high schools but also of middle and engineering____ .primary schools. Our children are beingdone a disservice by not being exposed A) is becoming less and less popular as a field ofproperly throughout their education to study among university studentsengineering activities identified as such. B) is only suitable for highly intelligent studentsAfter all, even pre-school children have the C) is a complicated subject only suitable forprerequisites in their play for appreciating really mature studentsexactly what engineering is: design. D) has become one of the most popular fields ofIndeed, design is everywhere around them study at American universitiesthroughout their school day, even in their E) requires many years of treaning prior tobefore-school and after-school activities. it qualificationneed only be pointed out to them that theyare designing something, and thereforebeing engineers of sorts, in virtuallyeverything that they do.04M 4. Among the reasons given in the passage for the decline in the numbers of engineering students is that____ . A) the American schools still follow out-dated curricula B) university entrance requirements are far too demanding C) it is generally recognized as one of the most difficult of all the courses1. The writer of the passage feels strongiy D) engineering in the US is not considered to bethat ____ . a competitive field of study E) many of them fail to acquire an adequateA) children should be involved in engineering knowledge of mathematics and science at highactivities at an early age schoolsB) many children are being unfairly directed intoa career in engineeringC) the mathematics and science courses inschools need to be modernized 5. According to the passage, all schoolD) university engineering courses ought to be programmes____ .upgradedE) the education of pre-school children is being A) should be designed to make students awaregiven too much importance of the engineering practices and principles B) ought to give priority to the sciences C) must encourage children to make creative designs D) seem to put the emphasis on the need to diversify learning E) overlook the fact that all children are different244
    • PARAGRAF 81. – 5. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya görecevaplayınız.In many ways, Hollywood seems to 3. As we understand from the passage, theexemplify the most joyless aspects of writer ____ .capitalism. The "industry", as it insistsupon calling itself, packages artistic ideas A) is a great admirer of Hollywoods film-makingand images as commodities and then B) seems reluctant to call film-making anvalues those commodities according to how industrythey "penetrate" markets. The systems C) is sympathetic towards the film-industry andworrying inefficiency, of course, is that wants it to be more successfulstudios never know what the public at large D) attaches great importance to the suggestionswill want to buy. So films are tested in of preview audiencesfront of preview audiences, revised E) thinks that the amount spent on a film isaccording to the audiences suggestions, usually in proportion to its successtested again, and then marketed with avigor directly proportionate to the testscores. There are two problems with thisapproach. The first is that the test-samplesize is minimal but can determine a filmsfate. The second is that by the time the testaudience sees a film its too late to changeit very much anyway, particularly whentwenty, fifty or a hundred million dollarshas already been spent.04M 4. It is clear from the passage that Hollywood regards its films as____ . A) commodities to be selectively marketed to1. One point made in the passage about suitable audiencestest audiences is that they ____ . B) artistic creations designed for sophisticated audiencesA) seldom have any real understanding of C) goods to be dynamically marketedartistic values D) the most creative products of capitalismB) add to the expenses of film-making E) financial investments which are sure to makeC) rarely have any constructive criticism to a profitmakeD) are ignorant of the Hollywood techniques offilm makingE) are too small to be truly representative of thegeneral public 5. We understand from the passage that2. According to the passage, film-makers the making of a film ____ .find it difficult to ____ . A) is far more important than the marketing of itA) carry out any market research to find out B) usually involves a very large financialabout the wishes of film-goers investmentB) find volunteers for their preview audiences C) is a strictly secret process until it finally goesC) raise the money needed for film- making on showD) guess what sort of films will be popular and D) usually follows the norms established byso profitable HollywoodE) revise scripts to meet the expectations of E) is guided by a whole series o representativetheir audiences preview audiences 245
    • PARAGRAF 9 2. We learn from the passage that, in Shakespeares London, theatres ____ .1. – 5. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya görecevaplayınız. A) competed with each other to get Alleyn or Burbage in their troupeThroughout his working life, Shakespeare B) were normally open to the public sixworked as an actor in the midst of a troupe. afternoons a weekWe know little about his first years in C) provided actors with a comfortable andLondon, For a few years between 1585 and profitable way of life1592 his name disappears altogether from D) were rather like drama schools and theythe public records, and the most likely trained actorsreason for this is that, for at least some of E) all had their own leading playersthis time, he was working for one of thecitys acting companies; as a juniormember he would not be listed among thetroupes principal players. In the late 1580stheatrical activity in London was largelyconcentrated in shore ditch and Southward,districts of London. Shakespeare could 3. it is clear ,from the passage thathave lived anywhere, but Shore ditch, Shakespeare, during his early years inwhich would have been cheap and London, ____ .convenient, is a likely candidate for a youngactor. In his early career Shakespeare may A) gained experience as an actor by appearing inhave moved from troupe to troupe in order a huge variety of partsto survive. Whatever the case, working B) was encouraged to write plays by Alleyn andconditions must have been similar. BurbageSundays, religious holidays and disasters C) devoted himself primarily to the writing ofaside, a company would perform a different playsplay each afternoon of the week, though D) preferred living in Southward to Shore ditchsome plays would be repeated in the weeks E) was little known as an actor though he wasahead. An actor usually had to keep at least probably acting30 parts in his memory and a leading playersuch as Alleyn or Burbage must have keptin mind nearly 5,00 lines a week.04K 4. We understand from the passage that in the late 16th century____ . A) it was illegal to hold theatrical performances on religious days B) Shore ditch and Southward were heavily populated, commercial districts1. According to the passage, in C) there was apparently a great deal of publicShakespeares time, ____ . interest in the theatres D) the popularity of Alleyn and Burbage wasA) it was not unusual for actors to appear in a already on the declinegreat many roles each week E) working conditions in the theatres variedB) there was no theatrical activity anywhere in enormouslyEngland except for LondonC) leading actors would only agree to appear incertain rolesD) an acting company usually staged a new playeach week 5. it was clear from the passage that, forE) acting was regarded as an immoral Shakespeare, they years in London up tooccupation 1592 ____ . A) were times of hardship and uncertainty B) were a period of widespread public recognition C) marked a turning point in his life D) brought many great changes and opportunities E) were the period during which he established a lifelong friendship with Alleyn and Burbage246
    • PARAGRAF 101. – 5. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya görecevaplayınız.Scientist who study earths moon have two 3. According to the passage, even throughbig regrets about the six Apollo missions there were six Apollo missions to the moonthat landed a dozen astronauts on the lunar roughly thirty years ago, ____ .surface between 1969 and 1972. Thebiggest regret, of course, is that the A) none of them could claim to be successfulemissions ended so abruptly, with so much B) mans knowledge of the moon has notof the moon still unexplored. But increased at allresearchers also lament that the great C) a very large proportion of the lunar surfacetriumph of Apollo led to a popular remains to date unexaminedmisconception: because astronauts have D) it was only the lunar poles that were exploredvisited the moon, there is no compelling fullyreason to go back. In the 1990s, however, E) the idea of sending astronauts back to thetwo probes that orbited the moon raised moon seems even more far-fetched thannew questions about Earths airless formerlysatellite. One stunning discovery wasstrong evidence of water ice in theperpetually shadowed areas near themoons poles. Because scientists believethat comets deposited water and organiccompounds on both Earth and its moon,well-preserved ice at the lunar poles couldyield clues to the origins of life.03M 4. As we understand from the passage, a great many people____ . A) believe lunar missions should continue indefinitely B) regard the Apollo missions as a scientific1. The point made in the passage is that it breakthroughmay be possible to _____ . C) are sure the moon cannot support life D) feel that the very fact that man has landedA) come to a better understanding of comets on the moon is enoughthrough the study of the moon E) regard scientific investigations of the moon asB) learn more about the beginnings of life from unfeasiblethe ice at the moons polesC) resume Apollo missions as there is evidenceof water on the moonD) identify the origin of the organic compoundsfound on the moonE) have a full knowledge of the moon withoutsending anymore astronauts there 5. A major point made in the passage is2. As is pointed out in the passage, one that ____ .significant outcome of the lunar probes inthe 1990s was ____ . A) comets hold the secrets of the origins of lifeA) the staggering finding of evidence of water on in the universethe moon B) the six Apollo missions to the moon were aB) the focusing of scientific attention on the great scientific successcomets C) the chances of finding water on the moon areC) the resumption of lunar missions very slimD) the realization that life is possible on the D) the probes of the 1990s demonstrated thatmoon the lunar landings should have continuedE) the realization that there were great E) scientists are agreed that there is nothingsimilarities between earth and moon further to learn about the moon 247
    • PARAGRAF 11 2. The writer points out that in the1. – 5. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre 1960s____ .cevaplayınız. A) research activities were largely carried outIn modern times, it was perhaps the under the sponsorship of industry"gentleman scientists" of the nineteenth B) scientists believed that they were enteringcentury who came closest to a genuinely upon a golden ageobjective form of scientific research. These C) academic freedom was already a thing of theprivileged amateurs enjoyed a financial pastindependence which most scientists today D) scientists carried out their research activitiescannot have, and which enabled them to at the public expensesatisfy their scientific curiosity without the E) scientific research largely concentrated onneed to please patrons. With the growth of meeting the needs of warscientific research after World War II,science has become an expensiveoccupation. Many scientists today look backupon the 1960s as a golden age of modern-day science, when research was mainlyfunded by the taxpayer, and scientificenquiry was seen by governments to bepart of the public good, and worth payingfor. Today, the situation is very different."Academic freedom" is now often little 3. The writer of the passage argues thatmore than an illusion for most scientists contemporary scientific research ____ .working at universities or in publicly-funded research institutes. Moreover, A) is, to a large extent, controlled by thescience is now largely dominated by the interests of industryinterests of the industrial world, and hence, B) finds its best milieu within the universitieshardly deserves the name "science". C) is advancing at an incredibly fast rate02K D) offers one of the most exciting and stimulating of careers E) is far more concerned with theory than with any practical application 4. The writer of the passage regards the "gentleman scientists" of the nineteenth century as privileged because ____ . A) the choice of field was rapidly expanding1. According to the passage, the major B) there were plenty of patrons willing to financedifference between the "gentleman themscientists" and present-day ones ____ . C) they were unrestricted by financial pressures D) scientific research was still in its early stagesA) has frequently been ignored by governments and it was easy to discover something newand universities E) they were always well-rewarded for theirB) is that the former were free to research as effortsthey chose, while the latter are notC) has become a highly controversial issue inuniversity circlesD) is not nearly so obvious as some peoplebelieve it to beE) the former were less objective in their 5. The phrase "part of the public good"research methods than the latter are (lines 13-14) in effect means ____ . A) deserving of a good public B) setting good standards for society C) ensuring a better future for society D) beneficial to society E) recognized by the general public as being good248
    • PARAGRAF 121. – 3. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya görecevaplayınız.Water of doubtful purity for drinking can be 2. We learn from the passage that, whenrendered safe by boiling and then can be sterilization of water is to be carried out bycooled in water bags or in earthenware means of chlorination, ____ .containers, which must be protected fromdust and files. When boiling is not possible, A) it is important to make sure that the water isdrinking water can in many areas be not infectedadequately sterilized by chlorination; one B) it must be preceded by filtrationtablet of Halazone is added to one liter of C) great care must be taken that no dust bewater and allowed to stand for 30 minutes. allowed to get into the waterWater containing suspended matter should D) the best containers for the job arebe filtered first. There is, however, the earthenware onesdanger of a particularly serious infectious E) the process should be followed by the boilingdisease in many regions of Africa, the of the waterMiddle and Far East, and South America. Inthese regions the water of rivers, lakes andcanals may be infected, and the disease isacquired when the water comes in contactwith the skin.01M1. In this passage the writer point out that 3. We understand from the passage that, inboiling ____ . certain regions of the world, such as parts of Africa and Asia, ____ .A) is the only safe method of producing drinkingwater A) filtration is vital for the removal of suspendedB) is commonly used in Africa and the less matter from the water.developed countries to purify water. B) river water may be so infected that boilingC) is a reliable method of making impure water cannot purify it.safe to drink C) people are cautioned not to use canal waterD) will purify water but must not continue for because it is always infectedmore than 30 minutes D) Halazone tablets are frequently used toE) is one method of combating infectious sterilize infected waterdiseases in third world countries E) skin contact with infected water can cause the development of a highly infectious disease 249
    • PARAGRAF 131. – 3. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya görecevaplayınız.The Amazon is the largest river in the 2. It is pointed out in the passage that theworld. It carries about a quarter of the waters of the Amazon ____ .world’ s running water and is the secondlongest after the Nile. Much of it is brown, A) shelter many species of exotic fishbrackish, piranha-infested and bitterly cold. B) are in parts muddy and not freshRanging from narrow tributaries and raging C) form a chain of spectacular waterfallsrapids to stretches of prodigious width and D) are not suitable for the survival of piranhacalm, the river’ s banks can take half a day E) flow calmly throughout its courseto reach in parts. It can drop up to 40meters in less than a kilometer.Furthermore, it runs through deep canyonsand steep gorges that have been carved outby its turbulent waters.99M1. We learn from the passage that, though 3. The passage largely deals with ____ .the Amazon has the largest volume ofwater of any river in the world, ____ . A) the difference and the similarities between the Amazon and the NileA) it is not the longest B) the varying problems of navigation along theB) it is in no parts particularly wide AmazonC) there is very little topographical variety in its C) the geological formation of the course of thecourse AmazonD) it is seldom used for transportation of goods D) the number and the size of the Amazon’ sE) it is in most parts congested with mud and many tributariesslime hence slow-moving E) the size of the Amazon and its topographical and aquatic features250
    • KEY TO PARAGRAPHSPARAGRAF 1 PARAGRAF 5 PARAGRAF 8 PARAGRAF 111C 1B 1E 1B2E 2D 2D 2D3A 3C 3D 3A4E 4A 4C 4C5D 5B 5B 5DPARAGRAF 2 PARAGRAF 6 PARAGRAF 9 PARAGRAF 121C 1D 1A 1C2E 2A 2B 2D3B 3D 3E 3E4A 4D 4A5E 5E 5APARAGRAF 3 PARAGRAF 7 PARAGRAF 10 PARAGRAF 131B 1A 1B 1A2D 2D 2A 2B3E 3A 3C 3E4A 4E 4D5D 5A 5APARAGRAF 41E2D3B4A5C 251
    • APPENDIX 1 IRREGULAR VERBS infinitive past simple past participle V1 V2 V3be was/were beenbeat beat beatenbecome became becomebegin began begunbend bent bentbet bet betbite bit bittenblow blew blownbreak broke brokenbring brought broughtbuild built builtburst burst burstbuy bought boughtcatch caught caughtchoose chose chosencome came comecost cost costcut cut cutdeal dealt dealtdig dug dugdo did donedraw drew drawndrink drank drunkdrive drove driveneat ate eatenfall fell fallenfeed fed fedfeel felt feltfight fought foughtfind found foundfly flew flownforbid forbade forbiddenforget forgot forgottenforgive forgave forgivenfreeze froze frozenget got gotgive gave givengo went gonegrow grew grownhang hung hunghave had hadhear heard heardhide hid hiddenhit hit hithold held heldhurt hurt hurtkeep kept keptknow knew known 253
    • lay laid laidleave left leftlend lent lentlet let letlie lay lainlight lit litlose lost lostmake made mademean meant meantmeet met metpay paid paidput put putread read readride rode riddenring rang rungrise rose risenrun ran runsay said saidsee saw seenseek sought soughtsell sold soldsend sent sentset set setsew sewed sewnshake shook shakenshine shone shoneshoot shot shotshow showed shownshrink shrank shrunkshut shut shutsing sang sungsink sank sunksit sat satsleep slept sleptspeak spoke spokenspend spent spentstand stood stoodsteal stole stolenswear swore swornsweep swept sweptswim swam swumswing swung swungtake took takenteach taught taughttear tore torntell told toldthink thought thoughtthrow threw thrownunderstand understood understoodwake woke wokenwear wore wornwin won wonwrite wrote written254
    • LIST OF THE IRREGULAR VERBS (advanced)INFINITIVE PAST PAST PARTICIPLEabide abode abodearise arose arisenawake awoke awokebear bore bornebear bore bornbeat beat beat/ beatenbecome became becomebefall befell befallenbeget begot begottenbegin began begunbehold beheld beheldbereave bereft bereftbeseech besought besoughtbet bet betbid bid/ bad bid/ biddenbind bound boundbite bit bitbleed bled bledblow blew blownbreak broke brokenbreed bred bredbring brought broughtbroadcast broadcasted broadcastbuild built builtburn burnt burntburst burst burstbuy bought boughtcast cast castcatch caught caughtchide chid chidden/ chidchose chose chosencleave clove/ cleft cloven/ cleftcling clung clungclothe clad cladcome came comecost cost costcreep crept creptcrow crew crowedcut cut cutdare durst dareddeal dealt dealtdig dug dugdo did donedraw drew drawndream dreamt dreamtdrink drank drunkdrive drove drivendwell dwelt dwelt 255
    • eat ate eatenfall fell fallenfeed fed fedfeel felt feltfight fought foughtfind found foundflee fled fledfling flung flungfly flew flownforbear forbore forborneforbid forbad forbiddenforecast forecast forecastforego forewent foregoneforget forgot forgottenforgive forgave forgivenforsake forsook forsakenforswear forswore forswornfreeze froze frozenget got gotgive gave givengo went gonegrind ground groundgrow grew grownhang hung hunghear heard heardheave hove hovehew hewed hewnhide hid hidden/ hidhit hit hithold held heldhurt hurt hurtkeep kept keptkneel knelt kneltknit knit knitknow knew knownlade laded ladenlay laid laidlead led ledlean leant leantleap leapt leaptlearn learnt learntleave left leftlend lent lentlet let letlie lay lainlight lit litlose lost lostmake made mademean meant meantmeet met met256
    • mistake mistook mistakenmow mowed mownpay paid paidput put putquit quit quitread read readrid rid/ ridded rid/ riddedride rode riddenring rang/ rung rungrise rose risenrun ran runsaw sawed sawn/ sawedsay said saidsee saw seensell sold soldseek sought soughtsend sent sentset set setsew sewed sewnshake shook shakenshave shaved shaved/ shavenshear sheared shornshed shed shedshine shone shoneshoe shod shodshoot shot shotshow showed shownshrink shrank shrunk/ shrunkenshut shut shutsing sang sungsink sank sunksit sat satslay slew slainsleep slept sleptslide slid slidsling slung slungslink slunk slunkslit slit slitsmell smelt smeltsmite smote smittensow sowed sown/ sowedspeak spoke spokenspeed sped spedspell spelt speltspend spent spentspill spilt spiltspin spun/ span spunspit spat/ spit spat/ spitsplit split splitspoil spoilt spoilt 257
    • spread spread spreadspring sprang sprungstand stood stoodsteal stole stolenstick stuck stucksting stung stungstink stank/ stunk stunkstrew strewed strewnstride strode striddenstrike struck struckstring strung strongstrive strove strivenswear swore swornsweat sweat sweatsweep swept sweptswell swelled swollen/ swelledswim swam swumswing swung swungtake took takenteach taught taughttear tore torntell told toldthink thought thoughtthrive throve thriventhrow threw thrownthrust thrust thrusttread trod troddenunderstand understood understoodwake woke woke/ wokenwear wore wornweave wove wovenweep wept weptwin won wonwind wound woundwring wrung wrungwrite wrote written258
    • APPENDIX 2 STATE VERBS* acknowledge, agree, assume, believe, belong, contain, cost, detest, deduct, disagree, excuse, feel, hate, have, hope, know, like, look, love, own, prefer, realize, regret, resemble, smell, taste, trustAPPENDIX 3 COUNTABLE OR UNCOUNTABLE ?† [C] [U] accident advice ache anger arrangement behavior assignment bread belonging cake building coffee coast courage condition education disaster equipment expenditure food explanation furniture feeling health income information life jewelry movie knowledge neighborhood love operation luggage pain meal problem money situation news stream rubbish tide scenery trouble smell view tea traffic vocabulary water wealth weather* continuous ve modal would ile kullanamayacağımız bazı fiiller† sıkça karıştırılan sayılabilir ve sayılamaz isimler 259
    • GlossaryAabandon : leave, desert - bırakmakabate : reduce, decrease, lessen - azaltmakabbreviate : shorten, curtail, brief, abridge - kısaltmakabhor : hate, detest, loathe – nefret etmekabide : remain, sojourn, reside, inhabit - katlanmakabject : humiliating, contemptible, base, mean - sefilabolish : annul, nullify, revoke – yürürlükten kaldırmakabound : teem, swarm - bolabreast : alongside – omuz omuzaabrupt : sudden, hasty - aniabsent-minded : oblivious, inattentive - dikkatsizabsolute : complete, perfect – mükemmel, mutlakabsorb : swallow, engulf - emmekabstain : refrain - kaçınmakabstract : theoretical, unpracticed - muğlakabsurd : ridiculous, foolish, stupid - garipabundance : plenty, profusion - yeterliabuse : misuse, maltreat, ill-use, reproach – suiistimalaccelerate : hurry, hasten, quicken, speed up - hızlanmakaccept : admit, approve – kabul etmekaccess : approach - ulaşmakaccidental : casual, contingent - kazaraacclaim : praise - övmekaccommodate : suit, fit, adapt, hold, contain - yerleştirmekaccompany : escort, convoy – eşlik etmekaccomplish : fulfill, complete, achieve, execute - başarmakaccord : agree, assent, concur - uymakaccount : explanation, exposition - açıklamakaccumulate : gather - toplamakaccurate : correct, precise - kesinaccuse : indict, charge, impeach, blame - suçlamakaccustomed : customary, habitual, wont – alışıkachieve : accomplish, effect, perform - başarmakacknowledge : admit, confess, own - bilgilendirmekacquaintance : associate, companion - tanıdıkacquire : gain, win, earn, secure - dinmekacquit : declare sb innocent - aklamakactual : tangible, definite, genuine - asılacute : sharp, intense, poignant, severe – keskin, şiddetliadapt : suit, adjust, fit - uymakaddress : 1. residence, abode - adres 2. speech, lecture, discourse – işaret etmekadequate : sufficient, suitable - yeterliadhere : stick, cleave, cling - yapışmakadjourn : suspend, postpone, defer, delay - ertelemekadjust : fit, adapt, suit - uymakadmonish : give advice – nasihat etmekadminister : manage, conduct, execute, direct - yönetmekadmirable : praiseworthy, fine, excellent – takdire şayanadmire : esteem, revere - imrenmekadmit : acknowledge, own, confess, receive – kabul etmekadore : worship, esteem, revere – hayran olmakadorn : decorate, beautify, ornament - süslemekadroit : skilful - mahir 259
    • advance : improve, progress, propose, offer - ilerlemekadvent : arrival - varışadversary : antagonist, opponent, enemy, foe - düşmanadversity : calamity, catastrophe, disaster, misfortune - felaketaffable : agreeable – uyumlu, geçimliadvocate : support, argue for, speak for - desteklemekaffect : influence, impress, touch, stir - etkiaffectation : airs, pretense - gösterişaffection : attachment, amity, love – sevgiaffectionate : friendly - sevimliaffluent : rich, opulent, abundant - varlıklıaffront : offend, insult, abuse – hor görmekaggregate : assemble, collect, accumulate, gather - toplamakaggressive : offensive, assaulting, militant - saldırganagile : quick, light, nimble - hızlıagree : assent, consent, accede, comply - kabul etmekailing : sick, ill, unwell - hastaailment : illness - hastalıkaim : direct, point - hedefalert : attentive, vigilant, watchful, wary - dikkatlialien : strange, foreign - yabancıallege : declare, affirm, assert - açıklamakalleviate : ease, lessen, abate - azaltmakalliance : association, partnership, affiliation, union - birlikallocate : assign - ayrımak, atamakallot : divide, distribute, assign, allocate - tahsis etmekallow : permit, grant - izin vermekallude : mention indirectly - ima etmekally : align, confederate, join, combine - müttefikalter : modify, change, vary - değişmekalternate : interchange, occur successively - değişmelialternative : choice, option - seçenekaltitude : height, elevation - yükseklikaltruistic : unselfish - paylaşımcıamass : collect, gather, accumulate - toplamakamaze : astound, surprise, astonish - şaşırtmakambiguous : unclear, vague - muğlakamend : improve or correct sth. - özür dilemekamiable : kind, friendly, amicable - uyumlu, dostçaample : large, spacious, vast, great - bolamplify : enlarge, expand, magnify - büyütmekamuse : entertain, please, cheer - eğlendirmekancestor : forefather - ataanchor : fix, secure, fasten - bağlamakancient : old, aged, antique, antiquate - eskianger : resentment, wrath, fury, rage - öfkeangry : indignant, resentful, irate - sinirlianguish : pain, pang, suffering, agony - üzüntüannihilate : remove, abolish, erase, exterminate - yok etmekannounce : proclaim, publish, declare - duyurmakannoy : harass, bother, worry, trouble - kızdırmakannul : cancel - ertelemekanonymous : unnamed, unsigned - anonimantagonist : opponent, adversary - rakipantagonize : counteract - karşısına almakanticipate : foresee, forecast - tahmin etmekantipathy : dislike, disgust, hatred - hoşlanmamakapathetic : indifferent, unconcerned, uninterested - vurdum duymaz260
    • apex : tip, summit, zenith, acme, climax - zirveappall : frighten, horrify, terrify, shock - dehşete düşürmekapparel : clothes, dress, garb, attire, costume - kıyafetapparent : plain, clear, evident, obvious - açıkappeal : entreaty, request, petition - başvurmakappease : pacify, quiet, soothe, calm, tranquilize - sakinleştirmekappendix : supplement, adjunct - ekapplause : acclamation, acclaim - alkışlamakappliance : instrument, apparatus, device, tool - aletapply : use, employ, utilize - uygulamakappoint : nominate, name, designate - atamakapportion : divide, allot, assign, allocate - payappreciate : value, estimate - takdir etmekapprehension : anxiety, misgiving - kuruntuapprentice : trainee - çırakappropriate : suitable, proper - uygunapt : inclined, disposed, prone, liable - yatkınaptly : appropriately - uygun bir şekildeaptitude : aptness, fitness, suitability - uygunlukarchaic : ancient, antiquated, antique - tarihiardent : passionate, fervent, eager, enthusiastic - hevesliardor : eagerness, zeal, passion, enthusiasm - hevesarid : barren - çorakargue : debate, discuss, dispute - tartışmakarouse : awaken, excite, incite, stimulate - uyandırmak, tahrik etmekarrange : order, array - ayarlamakarrogant : haughty, insolent, overbearing - kibirliarrest : seize, apprehend, capture - tutuklamakascend : mount, soar, arise - yükselmekascertain : determine, settle, discover - doğrusunu araştırmakaspect : appearance, look, countenance - görünüşaspire : desire, long, yearn - arzulamakassail : assault, attack - saldırıassassinate : murder, kill, slay - suikast düzenlemekassemble : gather, congregate, collect, convene - toplamakassembly : congress, legislature, parliament, diet - toplanmakassent : accede, consent - uzlaşmakassess : estimate, calculate, evaluate, appraise - değer biçmekasset : commodity - malassign : distribute, allot - tahsis etmekassociate : join, affiliate, unite, combine - birleşmekassort : classify, group, sort, categorize - sınıflamakassume : pretend, affect - tahmin etmekassure : convince - temin etmekastonish : amaze, surprise, shock, startle, stun - şaşırtmakasylum : refugee - mülteciattach : fasten, affix, join, annex - bağlamakattachment : affection - bağlılıkattain : 1. reach, win - ulaşmak, başarmakattempt : try - denemekattend : wait on, serve - katılmakattentive : heedful, alert, watchful, careful - dikkatliattire : clothing - kıyafetattitude : position, bearing, pose - tavırattract : draw, allure, charm - cazibeaugment : increase - arttrmak, büyütmekauthority : power - otoriteauthorize : empower, allow, permit, let - yetki vermek 261
    • auxiliary : subsidiary, subordinate, additional - yardımcıavailable : usable - elverişliavenge : revenge - öc almakaverage : mean, median - vasatavid : greedy, avaricious, covetous - aç gözlüavoid : shun, evade, escape, elude - kaçınmakaware : conscious - bilinçliawe : wonder, amazement - merakawkward : clumsy, unskillful - sakarBban : forbid, inhibit, prohibit, outlaw - yasaklamakbanish : expel, exile, deport - sürgün etmekbar : hinder, obstruct, deter, stop, impede - engelbarbarian : savage, primitive, barbaric, barbarous - canibare : naked, nude, exposed - çıplak, yalınbargain : contract, trade, sell - pazarlık yapmakbarren : sterile, infertile, unproductive - kısırbarrier : bar, obstruction, barricade, obstacle - engelbarter : trade, exchange - takas yapmakbase : mean, degraded - temelbeam : shine, gleam, glitter, radiate - tayfbear : carry, transport, convey - taşımakbearing : manner, behavior, conduct - tavirbecoming : attractive, comely, suitable, appropriate - uygunbeg : entreat, crave - yalvarmakbehave : conduct - davranmakbend : curve, crook, bow - eğilmekbeneficial : helpful, profitable, advantageous - faydalıbenevolent : kind, humane, tender, generous - kibarbetray : be unfaithful to, be a traitor to - ihanet etmekbeverage : drink - içecekbewilder : confuse, perplex, puzzle - aklını karıştırmakbias : prejudice - ön yargıbid : command, order, direct - emretmek; fiyat vermekbilateral : between to sides - iki yönlübind : tie, fasten - bağlamakbite : gnaw, chew - ısırmakbitter : harsh, acrid, biting - acıblame : reproach, censure, condemn - suçlamakblasphemy : disrespectful speech towards God - isyanblast : explosion, outburst, burst - patlamablaze : flame - alevblemish : stain, defect, speck - lekeblend : mingle, mix - karışım, harmanblind : sightless - körblink : wink, twinkle - göz kırpmakblock : obstacle - engelbloody : cruel, ruthless - acımasızbloom : flowering - çiçek açmakblow : move with air - üflemekblunt : dull - küt, körelmişboast : brag, swagger - övünmekbold : courageous, daring, valiant - cesurbond : union - birleşikbondage : slavery, confinement - kölelik262
    • boom : flourish, thrive, prosper - yükselişe geçmekbore : weary, tire - sıkmakbother : annoy, worry, trouble, harass, disturb - rahatsız etmekbound : boundary, border, limit, precinct - bağlı, sınırlıboundary : edge - sınırbow : stoop, bend - başıyla selamlamakbrave : courageous, gallant, dauntless, bold - cesurbravery : boldness, courage, daring - cesaretbreak : shatter, batter, destroy - kırmak, bozmakbreakthrough : important discovery - dönüm noktasıbreed : generate, raise, rear, nurture - beslemekbrief : short, transitory, transient, temporary - özetbright : radiant, glowing, beaming, brilliant - parlakbrisk : active, lively, energetic - hareketlibroad : wide, extensive, vast, spacious - genişbrood : dwell on, ponder, meditate - yuva yapmakbrook : stream - akarsubrutal : savage, cruel, inhuman, barbarous - acımasızbrute : beast, animal - hayvanbulk : large size - yığınburden : load - yük, sıkıntıburst : explode, blow up - patlamakbury : entomb, hide - gömmekCcalamity : tragedy, disaster, catastrophe, cataclysm - felaketcalculate : count, figure, reckon, compute - hesaplamakcancel : annul, revoke - ertelemekcandid : frank, open, outspoken - açık sözlücapacious : spacious, roomy - genişcapacity : ability - yetenekcapital : principal, chief, prime, primary - öncülcaptivate : charm, enthrall, enchant, fascinate - etkisi altına almakcaptivity : bondage, confinement - tutsakcapture : seize, catch, snare - yakalamakcareful : cautious, watchful, vigilant, discreet - dikkatlicareless : heedless, reckless, indiscreet - dikkatsizcargo : freight, load, burden - yükcarriage : vehicle, conveyance - taşıtcarry : convey, transport, transfer - taşımakcast : throw, fling, hurl, pitch - atmakcasual : unexpected - tessadüficatastrophe : disaster, mishap, calamity, misfortune - afetcease : stop, terminate - durmakcelebrate : observe, commemorate - kutlamakcelebrated : famous, renowned, well-known, distinguished - tanınmışcelebrity : a famous person, hero, notable - ünlücelestial : heavenly - uhrevicensus : count of population - nüfus sayımıcessation : stopping - durmachange : alter, turn, transform, vary - değişmecharge : load - mal olmakcharitable : generous, benign, kind - cömertcheat : deceive, defraud, trick, delude - aldatmakcheck : study, examination, inspection, stop - kontrol etmekcheer : inspirit, animate - neşe 263
    • cheerful : gay, joyful, buoyant, jolly - neşelicherish : value sth. highly - değerini bilmekchill : cold, coldness - soğukchop : cut, mince - doğramakchronic : habitual, confirmed - kronikcite : mention as an example - örnek olarak bahsetmekcivil : polite, courteous, civilized - kibarclaim : demand, request, requirement - iddia etmekclash : collide - çarpışmakclasp : grasp, grip, clutch - tutmakclean : unstained, clear, pure - temizcleanse : clean, purify - temizlemekclear : distinct, evident, plain, obvious - açıkclever : smart, intelligent, ingenious - akıllıclimb : mount, ascend, scale - tırmanmakclumsy : awkward - sakarcoarse : crude, rude, rough - kabacoax : cajole, persuade - ikna etmekcohere : stick, cling, adhere, bond - bağlamakcohesion : bond, adhesion - tutarlıcollect : assemble, amass, accumulate, aggregate - toplamakcolumn : pillar - sütuncombat : struggle, fight, battle - savaşmakcombination : conjunction, association, union - birleşikcombine : unite, join, associate, incorporate - birleştirmekcomfort : soothe, console, solace - teselli etmekcommand : order, bid, instruct - yönetmekcommence : begin, start, originate - başlamakcommend : entrust, laud, praise, exalt - iltifat etmekcommit : perform - işlemekcommodity : traded item - malcommunicate : transmit, convey - iletişim kurmakcompact : tightly, packed - sıkıştırılmışcompanion : associate, partner, fellow, mate - arkadaşcomparable : similar, equivalent, like - benzercompassion : pity, sympathy, mercy - merhametcompel : force, impel - zorlamakcompensate : atone - telafi etmekcompete : contend, vie, rival - yarışmakcompetent : qualified, capable, proficient - yeteneklicomplain : grumble - şikayet etmekcomplex : compound, complicated - karışıkcomply : acquiesce, conform, consent, accede - uymakcomponent : element, ingredient - bileşencomposed : calm, tranquil - sakincomprehend : understand, grasp, discern, perceive - anlamakcomprehensive : inclusive, broad, extensive, sweeping - anlaşılırcompress : condense, squeeze - sıkmakcompulsory : compelled, binding - zorunluconceal : hide, bury - gizlemekconceit : vanity, complacency - kenini beğenmişconceive : understand, apprehend, comprehend - kavramakconcentrate : focus, intensify - odaklanmakconcession : privilege - ödünconciseness : brevity - kısalıkconcrete : definite - somutcondemn : blame, censure - suçlamakcondense : compress, concentrate - yoğunlaşmak264
    • condition : state, situation, circumstance - durumconduct : behavior, demeanor, manner, bearing - davranışconfer : bestow, give, donate, grant - ünvan vermekconference : meeting, convention - toplantıconfess : avow, own, admit - itiraf etmekconfidence : trust, belief, faith, reliance - itimatconfident : certain, convinced - eminconfine : enclose, imprison - tutsak etmekconfirm : assure - temin etmekconflict : collide, clash, contend, fight - çatışmaconform : comply, yield, agree, assent - uymakconfuse : disturb, confound, perplex, bewilder - kafasını karıştırmakconfront : encounter - maruz kalmakcongestion : blockage - tıkanıklıkcongress : meeting, assembly, conference - kongreconjurer : magician - sihirbazconquer : defeat, master, beat - fethetmekconscience : scruples - vicdanconscientious : just, upright, honest - vicdanlıconscious : aware - bilinçconsensus : agreement - uzlaşmaconsequence : effect, result, outcome - sonuçconsider : contemplate, meditate, reflect, ponder - düşünmekconsiderate : thoughtful, charitable - düşünceliconsistent : compatible, harmonious - tutarlıconsole : comfort, solace, soothe - teselli etmekconsort : associate, fraternize, agree - beraberlikconspicuous : prominent, manifest, plain, apparent - göze çarpanconstant : invariable, uniform, stable, unchanging - sabitconstitution : document of laws - anayasaconstrain : compel, coerce - zorunda bırakmakconstrict : compress, contract - darltmakconsult : confer - danışmakconsume : expend, exhaust - tüketmekcontagious : communicable, infectious - bulaşıcıcontain : hold, accommodate, include - içermekcontaminate : pollute, stain, corrupt - kirletmekcontemplate : consider, reflect, ponder, meditate - ayrıntısıyla düşünmekcontemporary : coexisting - çağdaşcontempt : scorn, disdain - küçümsemecontemptible : mean, abject, base - alçakcontemptuous : scornful, sneering - aşağılayıcıcontend : struggle, strive, fight, battle - mücadele etmekcontent : satisfied, contented - memnuncontest : struggle , battle, combat, fight - yarışmakcontinual : incessant, ceaseless - devamlıcontract : compact, bargain - sözleşmecontradictory : opposing, paradoxical, inconsistent, contrary - karşıtcontrast : comparison - zıtlıkcontrive : devise, invent, design - bulmakcontrol : dominate, govern, rule, reign - kontrol etmekcontroversy : dispute, debate - tartışmaconvenient : handy - münasipconverse : opposite, reverse - tersconvert : change, transform - değiştirmekconvey : carry, transport, transmit - taşımakconvict : find guilty - suçlu bulmakconvince : persuade - ikna etmek 265
    • core : center, heart - çekirdekcorpse : body - cesetcorrect : amend, remedy, cure - düzeltmekcorrespond : conform, accord, match - uyuşmakcorrosion : decay - çürüme, yozlaşmacorrupt : rotten, spoiled - bozukcourteous : civil, polite, well-mannered - kibarcovet : want sb else’s property - göz dikmekcowardly : craven, afraid, timid - korkakçacrack : break, snap, split - çatlakcraft : skill, ingenuity - sanatcrash : shatter, smash - çarpışmakcrave : desire - arzulamakcrazy : insane, lunatic, mad - çılgıncredit : belief, trust, confidence, faith - güvencreditable : reputable, honorable - güvenilircredulous : gullible - saf, çabuk kanancrime : offense, sin, felony - suçcriminal : convict, sinner, culprit, offender - suçlucripple : disable, maim, ruin - sakatcrisis : emergency - acilcritic : reviewer, judge - eleştirmencritical : crucial, momentous, important - kritikcrop : harvest, produce, yield - ürüncrowd : throng, multitude, swarm, herd - kalabalıkcrucial : vital - önemlicrude : unrefined, raw - hamcruel : barbarous, ferocious - acımasızcrush : shatter, smash, crumble - çarpmakcumbersome : bulky, inconvenient - hantalcunning : tricky, sly - kurnazcurb : restrain - kendine hakim olmakcure : remedy - şifacurious : inquisitive, interested - meraklıcurrent : prevailing, prevalent, common, popular - hali hazırdacurse : damn, imprecate - lanetlemekcurtail : curb, reduce - dizginlemekcustody : imprisonment, confinement - göz altıcustomary : habitual, accustomed, conventional - alışılancut : divide, sever, chop - kesmekcynical : sarcastic, satirical, sneering - ironikDdamage : injury, harm, hurt, impairment - zarardamp : moist, humid, wet - nemdanger : hazard, risk, peril, jeopardy - tehlikedare : venture, risk, challenge, defy - cesaret etmekdaring : courageous, bold, brave, valiant - cesurdash : rush, dart, bolt - acele etmekdawn : daybreak - gün batımıdead : deceased, extinct, inanimate - ölüdeadly : fatal, lethal, mortal - ölümcüldebate : discussion, argument, controversy, dispute - tartışmadecadence : deterioration, decline - rezil olmadecay : deteriorate, decline - kötüye gitmek266
    • deceit : fraud, deception, cheating - hiledeceive : delude, cheat - kandırmakdecent : right, proper, nice, pure, modest - münasipdecided : resolute, determined, final - kararlıdeclare : announce, proclaim - duyurmakdecline : refuse, reject - red etmekdecrease : diminish, lessen, dwindle, abate - inmekdedicate : devote - adamakdeduct : subtract - çıkartmakdefeat : conquer, overwhelm, subdue - yenmekdefect : blemish, flaw, fault, weakness - kusurdefend : guard, shield, shelter, protect - savunmakdeficient : lacking - eksiklikdefinite : fixed, clear, express - açıkdefy : challenge - kafa tutmakdejected : depressed, discouraged - üzgündeliberate : careful, thoughtful, cautious - kastidelicate : dainty, graceful, elegant - hassasdelicacy : dainty, savory - hassasiyetdelinquency : unlawful behavior - suçdelude : lead sb into false belief - yanıltmakdemolition : destruction - yıkımdeny : gainsay, contradict - red etmekdepart : start, leave, quit - ayrılmakdepict : represent, portray - betimlemekdepletion : exhaustion - tükenmedeplore : grieve, regret, lament, mourn - üzülmekdeposit : save, store, entrust - ayırmakdepressed : downcast, melancholy, gloomy - hüzünlüdeprive : bereave, strip - yoksun kalmakderive : come from a source - türemekdescent : falling, - inişdesert : abandon, forsake - terk etmekdesign : plan, devise, project, contrive - tasarlamakdesolate : barren, ravaged - ıssızdespair : discouragement, disheartenment - umutsuzlukdesperate : hopeless, desolate, extreme, excessive - umutsuzdestiny : fate, doom - kaderdestitute : poor, devoid - yoksuldestroy : smash, demolish - yok etmekdetain : confine, arrest, keep - alıkoymakdetect : spot, discern, discover - tespit etmekdeter : prevent - engel olmakdeteriorate : get worse - kötüleşmekdetest : hate - nefret etmekdetriment : harm - zarar, aleyhinedeviate : diverge, wander, stray - sapmakdevice : plan, design; tool - plan; cihazdevise : contrive, invent, design - planlamakdevoid : lacking - yoksundevote : dedicate -adamakdevour : eat up - yiyip bitirmekdevout : pious, devoted, saintly - dindardictate : fix, impose, prescribe, ordain - zorla kabul ettirmekdie : decease, perish, vanish - ölmekdiffuse : spread, distribute, scatter, disperse - yayılmışdigest : absorb, imbibe, assimilate - sindirmekdilemma : predicament, strait - ikilem 267
    • diligent : hardworking - çalışkandim : obscure, faint - loşdiminish : lessen, reduce, decrease, shrink - azaltmakdirty : foul, unclean, filthy - kirlidisadvantage : harm, damage, injury - aleyhinedisappear : vanish, fade - yok olmakdisappoint : frustrate, baffle - hayal kırıklığına uğramakdisaster : calamity, mishap, catastrophe, adversity - felaketdiscern : perceive, notice, discriminate, distinguish - fark etmekdiscernible : noticeable, detectable, observable, perceptible - fark edilirdisciple : pupil, student, scholar - öğrencidiscipline : training, drill, exercise, practice - disiplindisclose : reveal, divulge, unveil - ifşa etmekdisconcert : disturb, bewilder, perplex, embarrass - huzurunu kaçırmakdiscourage : dishearten, dispirit, depress - hevesini kırmakdiscreet : judicious, prudent, cautious, considerate - nazikdisdain : condemn, despise, scorn - hor görmedisgrace : shame, dishonor - yüz karasıdisgust : sicken, nauseate - iğrenmekdisgusting : offensive, sickening, nauseous, nauseating - iğrençdishonorable : disgraceful, shameful - onursuzdisinterested : unbiased, impartial, fair - tarafsızdisloyal : unfaithful - sadakatsizdismiss : discharge, fire, refuse, reject, decline - atılmakdisorder : mess, confusion, chaos - karmaşadisperse : scatter, dissipate, diffuse - yaymakdisplace : replace, remove - yerini değiştirmekdispute : argue, debate - tartışmakdisregard : ignore, neglect, overlook - göz ardı etmekdissent : differ, disagree - ayrılmak, uyuşmamakdissolve : melt - erimekdistinct : definite, clear, plain - sarihdistinction : difference - ayrımdistinguish : discriminate, differentiate - ayırmakdistinguished : marked, famous, celebrated - tanınmışdistort : mislead - yanlış yönlendirmekdistress : pain, anxiety, agony, anguish - sıkıntıdistribute : deal, allot, apportion, assign, dispense - dağıtmakdisturbance : agitation, disorder, confusion, uproar - rahatsızlıkdiverse : various, manifold - çeşitlidivulge : reveal - ifşa etmekdoctrine : tenet, dogma, theory, principle - öğretidomain : area, field, territory, province - bölgedominant : ruling, prevailing, prevalent - egemendonation : gift, contribution, offering - bağışdoom : fate, destiny, lot, ruin, death - kaderdraw : drag, pull, tug, attract - çekmek, cezbetmekdread : fear, awe - korkudreary : gloomy, dismay - can sıkıcıdubious : doubtful - şüphelidull : boring, tedious, uninteresting, blunt - sıkıcıdumb : mute, speechless - dilsizdurable : lasting, enduring, constant, permanent - dayanıklıdusky : dim, shadowy, cloudy, obscure - gölgeliduty : obligation - görevdwarf : pygmy - cücedwell : abide, reside, live, inhabit -yaşamak268
    • Eearn : gain, acquire, win, obtain - kazanmakearnest : sincere, ardent, eager - samimieasy : facile, light - kolayebb : subside, abate, recede, retire - çekilmeeconomical : saving, thrifty, frugal - tutumluedge : border, margin, boundary, verge, brink - kenar, sınıreffect : result, consequence, outcome - etkieffective : efficacious, efficient, effectual - etkilieffort : endeavor, exertion, struggle, striving - çabaegoism : selfishness - bencillikelaborate : detailed, intricate, complicated - ayrıntılıelegant : tasteful, refined, polished, graceful - zarifelementary : primary, rudimentary, basic, fundamental - ilk, girişelevate : raise, lift, exalt, heighten, increase - yükseltmekelicit : draw out - sonucuna varmakeliminate : remove - çıkarmakelude : avoid, escape, evade - kurtulmak, yakasını kurtarmakembark : 1. start - başlamak 2. get on a ship - güverteye çıkmakembarrass : confuse, perplex - şaşırtmakembed : fix, fasten, root - yerleştirmekemerge : emanate, appear - ortaya çıkmakemergency : crisis - aciliyeteminent : distinguished, prominent, renowned, outstanding - göze çarpanemit : discharge, shed, radiate - yaymakemphatic : forcible, strong - vurguluemploy : use, engage, hire - işletmekempower : authorize, warrant, enable, permit - yetki vermekempty : void, vacant, blank, unoccupied - boşenchant : fascinate, captivate, charm - cezbetmekencircle : surround, encompass, enclose - kuşatmakenclose : surround, circle, beset - kuşatmakencounter : face - yüzleşmekencourage : hearten, stimulate - cesaretlendirmekendeavor : effort, struggle, labor, exertion - mücadele etmekendemic : restricted to one place - yaygınendorse : support - desteklemekendow : confer, bestow, give - bahşetmekendowment : gift, capacity, talent - yetenekendure : sustain, bear, stand, tolerate - dayanmakenemy : foe, adversary, opponent, antagonist - düşmanenforce : apply - uygulamakenhance : increase - büyütmekenlarge : extend, augment, amplify, magnify - genişletmekenlighten : illumine - aydınlatmakenliven : invigorate, animate - canlandırmakenmity : hatred - düşmanlıkenormous : huge, immense, vast, gigantic - devasaenrage : anger, aggravate - öfkelendirmekensue : follow, succeed - izlemekentangle : complicate, involve - karıştırmakenterprising : ambitious, adventurous, energetic - girişkenentertain : divert, amuse, please - eğlendirmekenthusiasm : eagerness, zeal, passion - hevesenthusiastic : ardent, zealous, eager, passionate - heveslientice : seduce - ayartmakentitle : empower, qualify - yetki vermek 269
    • entity : thing, individual, object - bağımsızenvelop : surround, enclose - kapsamakenvy : jealousy - kıskançlıkequal : equivalent, alike - eşitequip : furnish, provide - donatmakera : time, period, age, epoch - çağerect : upright standing, vertical - dikmekerroneous : mistaken, incorrect, false - hatalıerr : mistake - hata yapmakerror : mistake, blunder, slip - hataescape : flee, evade, avoid - kaçmakescort : convoy, guard, guide - eşlik etmekessence : spirit, principal - özessential : indispensable, vital, fundamental - gerekliestablish : found, institute - kurmakesteem : prize, value, respect - değer biçmekestimate : judge, assess, value, evaluate, appraise - tahmin etmeketernal : endless, everlasting, infinite - sonsuzevade : escape, elude, shun - kaçmakevaporate : vaporize - buharlaşmakeven : equal - berabereevent : occurrence, happening, incident - olayeventually : ultimately, finally, in time, in the long run - sonundaevict : eject sb from a property - arazisinden çıkartmakevident : plain, clear, obvious, manifest, apparent - açık, bellievil : immoral, malicious - şeytaniexamine : inspect, probe, investigate - tetkik etmekexceed : surpass, excel, outstrip - aşmakexcel : surpass, outdo, exceed - üstün olmakexcellent : fine, eminent - mükemmelexception : exclusion - istisnaexceptional : unusual, extraordinary, abnormal - istisnaiexcessive : extreme - aşırıexchange : barter, interchange, swap - değiştirmeexcite : stir, arouse, stimulate, incite - heyecanlandırmaexclamation : outcry - ünlem, haykırışexclude : expel - hariç tutmakexclusive : excluding - tekelexecute : perform, achieve - işlemekexert : exercise, wield - çaba sarfetmekexhaust : expend, consume - tüketmekexhibit : present, display, show, demonstrate - teşhir etmekexorbitant : extreme, excessive, undue, extravagant - fahişexpand : extend, swell, enlarge - genişlemekexpect : anticipate, await - ummakexpel : oust, banish, exile - atmakexpend : use, consume, spend, exhaust - harcamakexpense : cost, charge, price, expenditure - tutarexpensive : costly, dear - pahalıexperiment : test, trial - deneyexpert : specialist, authority, master - uzmanexplain : elucidate, explicate, clarify - açıklamakexplicit : clear, unambiguous, definite - açıkexploit : feat, accomplishment - başarıexpose : display, betray, reveal, uncover - maruz bırakmakexpress : utter, state, manifest, reveal, represent - dile getirmekextend : increase, grow, expand, enlarge - genişletmekextensive : wide, broad, spacious, vast - geniş270
    • extent : space, scope, range, stretch - kapsamexterior : outer, outside, external - dışexterminate : annihilate, destroy, eradicate, eliminate - yok etmekextinct : quenched, vanished - nesli tükenmişextol : praise - methetmekextract : extort, derive - çıkartmakextraordinary : exceptional, inordinate, remarkable, unusual - sıradışıextravagant : wasteful, prodigal - müsrifextreme : ultimate, excessive, unreasonable - aşırıFfable : legend - efsanefabricate : make, build, produce, assemble, manufacture - üretmekfaculty : ability, capacity, aptitude - yetkinlikfade : wither, decline, decay - yok olmafailing : shortcoming, defect, flaw - hatafaint : indistinct, dim, feeble - çok küçükfair : unbiased, just, impartial, disinterested - adilfaith : confidence, trust, credit - sadakatfaithful : true, reliable, trustworthy - sadıkfalse : erroneous, wrong - yanlışfame : reputation, renown, eminence, celebrity - ünfamiliar : intimate, close, friendly, amicable - tanıdıkfamous : celebrated, well-known, eminent, distinguished - ünlüfancy : imagination, fantasy - hayalifascinate : charm, enchant, captivate, allure - cezbetmekfashion : style, vogue, mode - modafast : quick, swift, rapid, fleet - hızlıfasten : fix, attach - bağlamakfat : plump, stout, obese - şişmanfatal : deadly, mortal, lethal - ölümcülfate : doom, lot, destiny - kaderfatigue : exhausted - bitkinfault : blemish, flaw, shortcoming - kusurfavor : kindness, good-will - iyilikfear : apprehension, dread, terror, fright - korkufeasible : possible, workable, practicable, viable - makulfeast : celebration, anniversary, ceremony - kutlamafeat : achievement, accomplishment, exploit - marifetfeeble : weak, delicate, fragile - kırılganfeed : nourish, sustain - beslemekfertile : productive, fecund, fruitful - verimlifervent : ardent, earnest, zealous, passionate - iştiyaklıfeud : hostility - kinfidelity : loyalty, faithfulness, devotion - adanmışlıkfierce : ferocious, wild, savage, brutal - acımasızfiery : fervent, burning, afire - ateşli, kızgınfight : conflict, battle, war, combat - dövüşmekfinal : ultimate, conclusive - sonfinancial : monetary, pecuniary - malifine : delicate, elegant, exquisite - hoşfirm : stable, steadfast, determined, reliable - sabitfiscal : financial - malifix : arrange - ayarlamakflame : blaze, fire - alev 271
    • flash : flame, flare, glare - flaşflat : horizontal, level, even, plane - düzflawless : perfect - defosuzflee : escape from - kaçmakflexible : plastic, adaptable, adjustable, pliable - esnekflock : bevy, brood, school, swarm, herd - sürüflood : deluge, overflow - selflourish : thrive, prosper, succeed - gelişmekflow : stream, run - akışfluctuate : vary in level - dalgalanmakfluent : flowing - akıcıfoe : enemy, opponent, adversary, antagonist - düşmanfog : mist, haze - sisfollow : succeed, ensue - takip etmekfood : provisions - erzakfoolish : silly, fatuous, stupid, dull - aptalforbid : inhibit, prohibit - yasaklamakforce : strength, power, might, energy - zorlamakforecast : predict, foretell, foresee - ön görmekforesight : forethought - sezgiforgery : fake - sahteformidable : dreadful, threatening, fearful, frightful - korkunçfoster : encourage, promote - teşvik etmekfoul : filthy, dirty, stained, polluted - kötü, iğrençfoundation : base, basis, ground - kurumfraction : share - hissefragrant : perfumed - hoş kokuframe : structure - çerçevefrank : candid, outspoken - açık sözlüfraud : deceit, deception - sahtekarlıkfree : liberate, release, emancipate - özgür bırakmakfreight : cargo, shipment, load - nakliyefriction : rubbing - sürtünmefright : dismay, terror, panic - korkufrighten : scare, terrify, alarm, dismay - korkutmakfrightful : alarming, awful, horrible, gruesome - korkunçfrugal : economical, thrifty - tutumlufruitless : futile, sterile, unproductive - kısırfrustrate : disappoint, thwart - boşa çıkarmakfume : smoke - dumanfun : pleasure, amusement -eğlencefundamental : basic, underlying, essential, primary - temelfunny : amusing, diverting - komikfurnish : provide, supply - tedarik etmekfury : rage, anger, wrath - garezfuse : melt, dissolve - eritmekfutile : ineffective, useless, vain - sonuçsuzGgaiety : mirth, glee, cheerfulness, joviality - neşegain : obtain, secure, acquire, earn, win - kazanmakgallant : brave, valorous, valiant, intrepid - cesurgang : band, clique - çetegash : deep cut - kesik yaragasp : pant - soluk soluğa kalmak272
    • gather : collect, aggregate, assemble, muster - toplanmakgaze : stare - gözünü dikip bakmakgenerosity : charity, bountifulness - cömertlikgenerous : bountiful, unselfish, charitable - cömertgenial : sympathetic, cordial, friendly, kindly - kibargentle : clement, humane, merciful, amiable - kibarghost : phantom, spirit - hayaletgift : donation, present, contribution, offering - yetenekgigantic : huge, enormous, tremendous, mammoth - devasagive : deliver, bestow, impart, accord - vermekglad : delighted, pleased, elated - mutluglamorous : stylish, desirable - göz alıcıglance : glimpse - gözü çarpmakgleam : flash, beam, glimmer - ışıltıglee : exultation, merriment, hilarity - neşeglide : slide, slip - kaymak, süzülmekgloomy : obscure, depressed, dim, melancholy - melankolikglory : praise, honor, celebrity, fame - görmekgodly : pious, saintly, devout, holy - yücegood-will : benevolence, favor, kindness - iyilikgovern : rule, reign - hükmetmekgrace : elegance, refinement - lütufgracious : benign, courteous, polite - lütufkargrand : imposing, stately, dignified - büyükgrant : bestow, confer, award - vermekgrasp : seize, hold, clutch, grab, catch - kavramakgrateful : appreciative, thankful, obliged - müteşekkirgratify : satisfy - sevindirmekgrave : tomb; momentous, important, serious - mezar; ciddigreat : immense, enormous, huge, vast, grand - büyükgreed : avidity, avarice, covetousness - tamahgreedy : avaricious, desirous, covetous - tamahkargreet : accost, salute - karşılamakgrief : sorrow, woe, sadness - üzüntügrieve : lament, mourn, sorrow, bewail - üzülmekgrind : grate, rub - öğütmekgross : bulky, massive, great - hantalgrudge : malice, spite, malevolence - garez, kinguarantee : insure, warrant - taahhüt etmekguard : protect, shield, defend, shelter - korumakguess : conjecture, suppose, fancy - tahmin etmekguide : lead, conduct, show, escort - rehberlik etmekguilty : criminal, culpable - suçluguiltless : innocent, blameless, immaculate - suçsuzgush : spurt, spout - fışkırmakHhabitual : usual, regular, customary, accustomed - sıradanhabituate : accustom, familiarize - alıştırmakhalt : stop, cease - durmakhamper : impede, hinder, prevent, obstruct - engel olmakhang : suspend, dangle -asılmakhappen : occur, befall - meydana gelmekharbor : accommodate, board, room, shelter - sığınmakhard : solid, inflexible, unyielding - serthardship : trial, oppression, suffering - zorluk 273
    • hardy : vigorous, sturdy, robust, stout - dayanıklıharm : injury, damage, hurt, mischief, detriment - zarar vermekharmony : agreement, concord, unity - uyumharsh : rough, severe, austere - serthasten : hurry, accelerate, urge , quicken - acele etmekhate : detest, abhor, loathe - nefret etmekhatred : aversion, hate, detestation - nefrethaughty : proud, arrogant - gururluhazard : danger, peril, jeopardy - tehlikeheal : cure, remedy, amend - tedavi etmekheap : mass, stack, pile, accumulation - yığınheavy : weighty, demanding, burdensome - yoğun, ağırhectic : busy, hurried - telaşlıhelpful : useful, advantageous, profitable - yardımseverheredity : ancestry - kalıtsalheritage : inheritance - mirasheroic : brave, courageous, dauntless, gallant - epikhide : conceal, screen, veil, shroud, cover - saklamakhinder : interrupt, check, impede, hamper - engellemekhint : suggestion, implication, allusion - tüyohoarse : husky - kısık seslihoax : trick - hilehoist : raise, elevate, lift - kaldırmakhole : opening, cavity, hollow, pit - delikhomely : plain, simple, unattractive, ugly - sadehonesty : uprightness, justice - dürüstlükhonor : fame, repute, reputation - onurhopeless : desperate, despairing, despondent - ümitsizhorrible : terrible, dreadful, hideous, grim - korkunçhostile : antagonistic - düşmancahostility : enmity, antagonism - düşmanlıkhuge : mammoth, vast, gigantic, colossal - devasahumane : merciful, benevolent, compassionate - merhametlihumble : unassuming, meek, modest, unpretending - mütevazihumid : damp, moist - nemlihumiliate : degrade, disgrace, shame - küçük düşürmekhumorous : funny, comical - müziphurt : injure, damage, mar, impair - yaralamakhypocrite : pretender - ikiyüzlüIideal : perfect, model, exemplary - mükemmelidiotic : foolish, stupid, fatuous - aptalcaidle : indolent, lazy, slothful - tembelignite : catch fire - tutuşmakignoble : mean, base, degraded - alçakignorant : illiterate, uneducated - görgüsüz, cahilignore : overlook, disregard, neglect - önemsememekillegal : unlawful, illegitimate, illicit - yasa dışıillustration : explanation - betimlemeimaginary : fanciful, visionary - hayaliimitate : mimic, mock, reproduce, copy - taklit etmekimmense : huge - devasaimmerse : submerge, dip, submerse - daldırmakimminent : impending - yakında olacak274
    • immoderate : excessive, extreme, exorbitant - aşırıimmoral : vicious, corrupt, amoral - ahlak dışıimpact : effect - etkiimpair : injure, deteriorate - zarar vermekimpart : give, bestow, grant, confer - vermek, bildirmekimpartial : unbiased, just, fair, disinterested - tarafsızimpediment : obstacle - engelimpel : compel, drive, urge - sevketmekimperceptible : barely visible - zor seçilenimpetus : stimulus - hızimplore : supplicate, beseech, entreat, crave - yalvarmakimply : mean indirectly - ima etmekimpolite : uncivil, rude, discourteous - kabaimportance : consequence, moment, significance - önemimpose : enforce sth - empoze etmekimpregnable : unassailable, invincible - ele geçirilemezimpromptu : unrehearsed - doğaçlamaimproper : unfit, inappropriate - yakışıksızimprove : ameliorate, better - geliştirmekimprovident : unwary, thoughtless, careless, wasteful - savurganimprovised : impromptu - irticalenimpudent : brazen, insolent, rude - kabaimpulsive : emotional - duyguları harekete geçirenimpunity : exemption - ceezadan kurtulacağını düşünmeimpute : attribute, accuse - suçlamakinaccurate : incorrect, erroneous - yanlışinactive : inert, lazy, passive, inanimate - hımbılinadvertent : heedless, careless, negligent - kazara, kasıtsızinanimate : lifeless - cansızinapt : unsuited, unsuitable, inappropriate, unfit - uygun olmayaninborn : innate, native, natural - doğuştanincarcerate : imprison, confine - hapsetmekincense : scent, fragrance - tütsüincentive : motive, stimulus, spur, impulse - uyarıcıincessant : uninterrupted, unceasing, ceaseless, constant - devamlıincidental : accidental, casual, contingent - tesdüfiincisive : penetrating, keen - sorunla ilgilenenincite : stimulate, spur, instigate, provoke - uyarmakinclination : tendency, trend - meyilinclude : contain, comprise - içermekincome : returns, revenue, gain, earnings - gelirincommode : impede, hinder, bother - rahatsız etmekincompatible : unable, incapable, incompetent - kabiliyet olarak yetersizinconsistent : incompatible, inharmonious, incongruous, incoherent - çelişkiliinconstant : fickle, variable, volatile, unstable - değişkenincontrovertible :indisputable - tartışılmazincorporate : combine, integrate, include - birleştirmekincrease : augment, enlarge - artırmakincredulous : skeptical, doubtful, dubious - şüpheciincur : suffer sth unpleasant - (bir olay nedeniyle) çekmekindecent : vulgar, coarse, rude, immodest - yakışıksızindefinite : vague, obscure, confusing, uncertain - belirsizindifference : unconcern, apathy, inattention - kayıtsızlıkindignation : resentment, wrath, anger - kızgınlıkindignity : humiliation, insult, scorn - onur kırıcıindispensable : necessary, requisite, essential - vazgeçilemezinduce : persuade, instigate, urge - ikna etmekindulge : spoil - şımartmak 275
    • industrious : diligent, assiduous - çalışkaninept : inapt, unsuitable, inappropriate - uygun olmayaninert : inactive - hareketsizinfamous : notorious, disgraceful - rezilinfectious : contagious, communicable - bulaşıcıinflate : swell, expand - şişmekinflexible : rigid, unbending, stern, resolute - değişmezinform : notify, acquaint - bildirmekinformation : intelligence - istihbaratingenious : wise - bilgeinherent : natural, intrinsic, built-in, innate, congenital - kalıtsalinhabit : dwell - (bir yerde) yaşamakinhibit : restrain, prohibit, forbid - engellemekinitial : first, introductory, beginning, inceptive - ilk , öncüinitiate : begin, originate, commence, inaugurate - başlamakinjury : harm, damage, detriment, impairment - yaralanmakinnate : present from birth - doğuştaninnocent : pure, blameless, faultless - masuminnumerable : countless, numberless, numerous - sayısızinquire : ask, query - talep etmekinquiry : investigation, scrutiny, research - talepinquisitive : curious - meraklıinsane : lunatic, crazy - çatlakinsecure : unsafe, uncertain - emniyetsizinsolent : rude, overbearing, contemptuous, arrogant -görgüsüzinstantly : immediately, instantaneously - anındainstrument : tool, implement - araçinsulation : isolation - yalıtıminsult : scorn, slander, abuse - aşağılamakintact : uninjured, sound, unimpaired - etkilenmemiş, zarar görmemişintegrity : uprightness, honesty, righteousness - dürüstlükintensify : deepen, strengthen - yoğunlaştırmakintent : intention, design - niyet etmekintentional : deliberate, purposeful, designed, planned - niyetinterfere : intervene, intrude - müdahele etmekinterim : temporary - geçiciinterpret : explain, explicate, translate - çevirmek, anlamını vermekinterrupt : suspend, intermit, stop, hinder - bölmekintervention : interference - araintimate : close, familiar - yakın kişiintolerable : unbearable - tahammül edilemezintolerant : bigoted, narrow, prejudiced, biased - hoş görüsüzintricate : complex, elaborate, complicated - anlaşılması güçintrude : trespass, encroach, violate - sızmak, girmekintuition : insight - sezgiinundate : flood - selinvaluable : priceless, precious - paha biçilemezinvariable : constant, uniform, unchangeable - değişmezinvolve : include, embrace, contain, comprise - içermekirrigate : water - sulamakirritate : vex, fret, anger, enrage, infuriate - tiksinmekirrevocable : irreversible - geri döndürülemezisolation : separation, segregation - yalıtım, dışlamaissue : point, problem, question - konu276
    • /J Kjam : pack, force, squeeze - sıkıştırmakjealous : envious - kıskançjeer : scoff, mock, ridicule - alay etmekjeopardy : risk, danger, peril - tehlikejest : joke - şaka yapmakjoin : link, fasten, attach, combine - katılmakjolt : shock, startle - şok etmekjoyful : glad, delighted, buoyant, elated - neşelijoyless : cheerless, gloomy, dismal - mutsuzjudicial : judicious, juridical - adlijudicious : wise, sensible, reasonable - adiljump : spring, bound, hop, leap - zıplamakjunction : combination, union, joining, juncture - kesişimjustify : back, confirm, testify - doğrulamakkeen : sharp, acute, poignant - canlı, güçlükill : slaughter, slay, assassinate, massacre - öldürmekkind : benign, humane, compassionate - kibarkindle : ignite, inflame, fire - tutuşturmakkinship : relationship - yakınlıkknack : skill - maharetLlabor : toil, work, exertion - işlaborious : 1. toilsome, arduous, burdensome, difficult - yorucu 2. diligent, industrious - çalışkanlack : deficiency, need, want, scarcity - eksiklag : linger - ağırca ilerlemeklament : bemoan, deplore, grieve, mourn - yas tutmaklane : path, way, passage, alley - yollanguid : faint, weak, feeble, exhausted - uyuşuk, halsizlarge : huge, enormous, immense - genişlast : final, ultimate, conclusive, terminal - sonlatent : hidden, concealed, potential - gizlilaud : praise, exalt, applaud - beğenmeklaugh : giggle, chuckled, grin, smile - gülmeklavish : expend, waste, squander - savurmaklawful : legal, legitimate, valid - yasallax : not strict - gevşeklayman : sb without knowledge on a subject - bir konuda söz sahibi olmayanlazy : idle, indolent, slothful, sluggish - tembelleague : alliance, confederation, union - birliklean : incline, bend - eğilmekleap : jump, bound, spring, hop - zıplamakleave : quit, depart - ayrılmaklegacy : tradition, culture, heritage, inheritance - miraslegend : fable, myth - efsanelegitimate : licit, legal, lawful - yasallengthen : extend, stretch, prolong, protract - uzatmaklenient : mild, clement, merciful - yumuşak, müşfiklessen : diminish, decrease, abate, dwindle - azaltmaklevel : even, flat, plain, horizontal - seviyeliable : responsible, answerable, accountable - güvenilirliberal : tolerant, broad-minded, magnanimous - özgürlükçüliberate : release, free, disengage, deliver - serbest bırakmak 277
    • lift : raise, elevate, exalt, uplift - yükseltmeklight : illumination, radiance - ışıklighten : illuminate, brighten, shine - aydınlatmaklikely : probable, possible - muhtemellimber : flexible - esneklimit : bound, boundary - sınırlink : bond, tie, connection - bağliquid : fluid - sıvılivelihood : living, employment - geçinmelively : energetic, active, vigorous, brisk - canlılivestock : animals for sale - davarload : burden - yükloathe : abominate, detest, hate, abhor - nefret etmeklodge : shelter, harbor, house, quarter - kiralık barınakloft : attic - tavan arasılofty : high, elevated, tall, sublime - yüceloiter : linger, loaf - aylak aylak gezinmeklone : solitary, lonely, secluded, separate - yalnızlonging : desire, yearning, aspiration - özlem duymakloose : lax, slack - gevşeklordly : grand, magnificent, majestic, lofty - asilloud : noisy, clamorous, resounding, deafening - gürültülülower : reduce, decrease, diminish, lessen - düşürmekloyal : faithful, devoted - sadıklubricious : slippery, smooth - kayganlucid : clear, plain - akıcılucrative : profitable - kazançlıludicrous : ridiculous, comical, funny - saçma, gülünçluminous : bright, shining, lucid, brilliant - parlaklure : allure, decoy, attract, tempt, seduce - cezbetmeklust : sexual desire - şehvetluster : brilliance, brightness, radiance - pırıltılusty : hearty, vigorous, robust, stout - canlı, dinçluxurious : sumptuous, ornate - lüksMmad : insane, lunatic, crazy - çılgınmadden : infuriate, irritate, provoke, annoy - kızdırmakmagnificent : splendid, august, stately, majestic - görkemlimagnify : enlarge, augment, amplify, exaggerate - büyütmekmagnitude : degree, extent, measure, proportion - büyüklükmaid : girl, maiden, lass - kızmain : chief, cardinal, prime, principal, leading - ana, temelmaintain : keep, retain - iyi halde tutmakmaintenance : subsistence, livelihood, living - bakımmajestic : stately, grand, august, imposing - şahanemaladroit : unskillful, awkward, clumsy, inept - beceriksizmalady : disease, illness, ailment - hastalıkmalcontent : dissatisfied, discontented - menuniyetsizmale : masculine, manly - ekrekmalice : ill will, spite, enmity, malevolence - kötü niyetmalicious : malevolent, evil-minded - kötü niyetlimalignant : fatal - ölümcülmaltreat : mistreat, abuse - kötü davranmakmanage : conduct, control, direct, administer - yönetmekmanager : administrator, executive, director - yönetici278
    • maneuver : move; scheme, plot - hareket etmek, planmanful : manly - erkekçemangle : maim, ruin, spoil, mar - parçalamakmania : excitement, enthusiasm - hevesmanifest : evident, obvious, apparent - açıkmanifold : various, numerous - çeşitlimanner : mode, fashion, way, method - tavırmargin : border, edge, rim - sınırmariner : sailor, seaman - denizcimark : note, importance, distinction, eminence - işaretlemekmarriage : wedding, matrimony - evlilikmarvelous : wonderful, extraordinary, amazing, astonishing - olağanüstümask : veil, disguise - gizlemekmass : aggregation, collection, accumulation, pile - birikintimassacre : slaughter, annihilation, murder - kıymak, katletmekmassive : bulky, immense, huge, tremendous - toplumaster : commander, chief, head - üstatmatchless : unrivaled, unequaled, unparalleled - eşsizmatter : substance, material, stuff - maddemature : ripe, complete, grown, fully-developed - olgunmaxim : proverb, saying - özdeyişmeager : scanty, deficient, insignificant, thin - yetersizmean : signify, imply, express, humble, ignoble - cimri, kötü kalplimeasureless : limitless, boundless, immense, infinite - sınırsızmeddlesome : interfering - bölmekmedicine : drug - ilaçmeditate : contemplate, reflect, ponder - düşünmekmedium : means - vasıtameet : encounter, confront, face - karşılaşmakmelancholy : depressed, gloomy, despondent, dismal - hüzünmelt : fuse, dissolve, thaw - erimekmenace : threaten, intimidate - tehdit etmekmend : repair, fix - onarmakmerciful : compassionate, clement, humane, sympathetic - merhametlimerciless : pitiless, relentless, inexorable - merhametsizmercy : compassion, benevolence - merhametmerit : worth, excellence, value - değer, kıymetmerry : jolly, gay, mirthful, hilarious - neşemess : confusion, muddle - karmaşamighty : powerful, potent - güçlümigrate : immigrate, emigrate, move - göçmekmild : amiable, gentle, temperate, clement - yumuşak, hafifmilestone : important event - kilometre taşımingle : mix, blend - harmanlamakminor : secondary, subordinate - ikincil, önemsizminute : detailed, precise - detaylımiraculous : marvelous, wonderful, incredible - mucizevimirth : gaiety, glee, merriment - mutlulukmiscellaneous : various - çeşitli, türlümischief : harm, injury, damage, hurt - hasarmiser : niggard - cimrimiserable : wretched, unhappy - üzgünmisery : wretchedness, distress, suffering, torture - üzüntümisgiving : apprehension, doubt, distrust, suspicion - kuşku, kaygımislead : misguide, misdirect - yanıltmakmistake : error, blunder, slip - hatamisty : foggy - sislimix : blend - karışım 279
    • moan : groan, mourn - üzülmekmock : ridicule, sneer - dalga geçmekmoderate : reasonable, temperate, mild, average - vasatmodest : humble, decent - ağır başlımodify : change, alter, vary - değiştirmekmoist : damp, humid, wet - nemlimomentous : important, consequent, serious - ciddimonetary : pecuniary - parasalmonotonous : tedious, dull, unvaried - sıkıcımonster : demon, devil - canavarmonstrous : tremendous, gigantic, prodigious, enormous - kocamanmood : disposition, temper - halmoody : gloomy, sullen - hüzünlümoral : ethical, righteous, virtuous - ahlakimoreover : besides, further, furthermore - dahasımortal : fatal, lethal, deadly - ölümcülmostly : generally, chiefly - geneldemotif : figure, pattern, design, device - desenmotion : gesture, movement, move - hareketmotionless : fixed, still, stationary - hareketsizmotive : motivation, inducement, incentive - güdü, nedenmount : ascend, climb, scale - tırmanmakmourn : grieve, lament, bewail, deplore - üzülmekmovement : drive, crusade - hareketmultitude : host, crowd, throng, mass, swarm - çok sayıda, kalabalıkmurder : assassination - cinayetmurmur : grumble, mumble, mutter - söylenmekmuse : meditate, ponder, contemplate - derince düşünmekmute : silent, dumb, still - sessiz ; dilsizmutiny : revolt, rebellion, uprising, rebel - isyanmutual : reciprocal - karşılıklıNnaive : ingenuous, candid, downright - saf, toynaked : nude, bare, stripped - çıplaknamely : that is to say - yaninarrow-minded : intolerant, illiberal - dar kafalınasty : filthy, dirty, foul, impure, polluted - kötü, terbiyesiznative : inborn, inherent, natural, innate - yerlinearly : almost, approximately, well-nigh - neredeyseneat : orderly, trim, tidy, smart - düzenlinecessary : essential, indispensable, requisite, vital - gereklinegate : deny - reddetmekneglect : disregard, ignore, overlook - önemsememeknegligence : carelessness - ihmalnegligible : trivial, unimportant - ihmal edilebilirnegotiate : treat, bargain - uzlaşmaknervous : excitable, uneasy - sinirlinoble : lofty, honorable, dignified - asilnonconformist : disobedient - asinotable : noteworthy, noticeable, remarkable - dikkat çekicinotice : information, intelligence - fark etmeknotify : inform, acquaint - bildirmeknotion : opinion, view - tanım, ifadenotorious : known for sth bad - kötü ünlünourish : nurture, breed - beslemek280
    • novel : new, fresh - yeninuisance : trouble - baş belasınullify : cancel - ertelemeknumberless : innumerable, numerous, myriad, countless - sayısıznurse : care, look after - bakmaknurture : nurse - beslemenutrition : nourishment - besinOoath : promise - yeminobedient : submissive, docile - baş kaldırmaobject : protest, remonstrate - karşı çıkmaobjective : unprejudiced, unbiased, impartial, fair - yansızobligation : requirement, duty, responsibility - yaptırımoblige : require, compel, force - yaptırımda bulunmakobscene : explicit - müstehcenobscure : unclear, uncertain, ambiguous, blurred - muğlakobservance : fulfillment, performance - itaatobservation : noticing, perceiving, watching - incelemeobserve : 1. perceive, notice, watch - incelemek 2. comply, conform, follow, fulfill - uymakobsolete : outdated - demodeobstacle : obstruction, hindrance, impediment - engelobstinate : unyielding, stubborn, inflexible - dik kafalıobstruct : block, stop, bar, hinder, barricade, impede - engellemekobtain : get, acquire, procure - elde etmekobvious : evident, clear, apparent - açık, sarihoccult : mysterious, secret, unknown, mystical - gizemlioccupation : calling, trade, business, profession - meslekoccupy : capture, seize - doldurmakoccur : happen, befall - olmakoccurrence : event, incident, affair - olayodd : unusual, strange, eccentric, bizarre - garipodor : smell, fragrance, scent, perfume - kokuoffend : irritate, annoy, vex, provoke - rencide etmekoffense : transgression, sin, misdemeanor, crime, felony - suçoffensive : displeasing, irritating, unpleasant - çirkinoffer : present, proffer, tender - önermekold-fashioned : outmoded, antique, obsolete, archaic - eski modaominous : foreboding - uğursuzomnipresent : ubiquitous - yaygınonly : sole, single, unique - tekoperate : work, manage - işlemekoperation : transaction, business, affair - işlem, ameliyatoperative : effective, efficient, effectual - etkiliopponent : adversary - rakipopportune : timely, seasonable - yerli yerindeopportunity : chance, occasion - fırsatoppose : resist, object - karşı çıkmakopposite : contrary, reverse - karşıoppress : maltreat, persecute - sıkıntı vermekoppression : tyranny, despotism, persecution - sıkıntıoral : verbal, spoken, vocal - sözlüorbit : path, course - yörüngeordeal : trial, test - çetin sınavorder : direction, mandate, command - emretmek 281
    • orderly : regular, systematic, methodical - nizamiordinary : common, usual, customary - sıradanorganize : construct, form, constitute - örgütlemek, yönetmekoriginal : inventive, creative - özgünoriginate : spring, emanate, initiate - kaynak almak, doğmakornament : decoration - süslemeoutbreak : 1. epidemic, plague, rash - salgın 2. explosion, burst, outburst - patlak vermeoutcome : result, consequence - sonuçoutdo : surpass, excel - alt etmekoutlaw : criminal - kanun kaçağıoutline : contour, sketch, draft - eskizoutlive : survive - hayatta kalmakoutrage : insult, abuse, maltreat, injure - öfkeoutspoken : frank, open candid - açık sözlüoutstanding : prominent, eminent, conspicuous, striking - göz alıcıoverall : complete - tümovercome : conquer, defeat, subdue, crush, surmount - üstesinden gelmekoverlook : disregard, neglect, ignore; face - göz ardı etmek; yönü bakmakoverpower : overcome, overwhelm, vanquish - alt etmekoverrate : neglect - gözünde büyütmekoversee : supervise, superintend, survey, watch - göz kulak olmakoversight : mistake, blunder, slip, error - gözden kaçırmaoverthrow : upset, overturn, subvert - devirmek (hükümet)overwhelmingly : overpower, crush - ezici çoğunluklaown : acknowledge, admit, allow, recognize - sahiplenmekPpace : step, gait, walk, step - hızpacific : peaceful, calm, tranquil, quiet - sakinpacify : calm, tranquilize, assuage, ameliorate - sakinleştirmekpack : package, bundle, parcel - paketlemekpact : compact, contract, bond - anlaşmapain : suffering, distress, torment - ızdırappainstaking : assiduous, diligent - incelikle, hassasiyetlipale : pallid, wan - solukpanic : terror, fright, alarm - korkmakpant : gasp - nefes nefese kalmakparallel : corresponding - bezerlik gösterenparalyse : benumb - felç etmekparamount : supreme, chief, principal - üstünpartake : participate, share - yer almakpartial : biased, prejudiced, unfair - taraf tutanpartisan : adherent, supporter - destekçiparticipation : contribution - katılımpartition : divide, separate, apportion - bölmepassage : way, route, path, lane, thoroughfare - geçitpassion : zeal, ardor, fervor - tutkupassionate : ardent, vehement, zealous, enthusiastic - tutkulupassive : inactive, inert - pasifpastime : diversion, entertainment, recreation - hoşça vakit geçirmepatch : mend, repair, fix - yamapathetic : pitiable, touching, moving - acıklıpatience : endurance, fortitude, perseverance - sabırpause : suspension, interruption, break, halt -durma282
    • peaceable : pacific, peaceful, amicable - barışçılpeaceful : tranquil, placid, serene, calm - huzurlupeak : top, rest, summit, acme - zirvepeculiar : strange, odd, queer, eccentric, unique - tuhafpecuniary : monetary, financial - malipedestrian : walker - yayapeek : peep, peer, pry - dikizlemekpeer : equal, mate, match - eşpenance : self-punishment - kendini cezalandırmapenetrate : pierce, permeate - girmek, sokmakpenetrating : piercing, sharp, acute, keen - girenpensive : thoughtful, meditative, reflective - dalgınperceive : see, discern, notice, apprehend, understand - algılamakperception : understanding - algıperform : execute, discharge, fulfill, accomplish - icra etmekperil : risk, jeopardy, danger, hazard - tehlikeperiod : age, era, epoch - dönemperiphery : edge, border, fringe, margin, rim - alanperish : die, decay, wither, disappear, vanish - yok olmakpermanent : lasting, constant, perpetual, everlasting - süreklipermission : leave, permit, allowance - izinpermit : allow, let - izin vermekperpetual : everlasting, permanent, infinite - sonsuza dek sürenperplex : confuse, puzzle - karıştırmakpersecute : oppress, harass, molest, afflict - zulmetmekpersevere : persist, endure - dayanmakpersuade : induce, entice - ikna etmekpertinent : appropriate, suitable, fit, proper - uygunpervade : permeate, penetrate - doldurmak, kaplamakpetition : entreat, supplicate, beg, solicit - talepphony : false - yanlışpicturesque : colorful, scenic, beautiful - güzel manzaralıpiece : segment, scrap, shred, fragment - parçapierce : penetrate - sokmakpiety : devoutness - takvapile : heap up, accumulate, assemble, amass - yığmakpilgrim : wanderer - hacıpillar : column, prop - sütunpious : devout, reverent, religious - dindarpiquant : sharp, pungent - acı, keskinpitiful : pitiable, pathetic, piteous - acıklıpitiless : merciless, cruel, ruthless, relentless - acımasızpity : sympathy, compassion - acımaplacid : calm, peaceful, tranquil, serene, quiet - sakinplague : epidemic, outbreak - salgınplain : clear, distinct, lucid, unambiguous - açık, sadeplatform : stage, scaffold, scaffolding, pulpit - sahneplead : entreat, beg, supplicate - yalvarmakplight : predicament, dilemma - kötü durumplot : scheme, intrigue, conspiracy - senaryoplunge : immerse, submerge, dip - suya daldırmakpointed : sharp, piercing, severe, keen - sivri uçlupoison : venom - zehirpolish : brighten, smooth, shine - parlatmakpolished : smooth, glossy, shiny - parlakpolite : courteous, civil, genteel - kibarpollute : dirty, contaminate - kirletmekponder : meditate, reflect, deliberate - iyice düşünmek 283
    • popular : common, prevailing, current, general - ünlü, yaygınport : harbor, haven - limanportion : part, section, segment, fragment - payportray : picture, depict, represent, describe - resmetmekpose : state, assert, propound - ortaya sürmekposition : station, place, locality, site - durumpost : duty - görevpostpone : defer, delay, procrastinate, adjourn - ertelemekposture : pose, attitude - tutumpotent : powerful, mighty, influential - güçlüpoverty : state of being poor - yoksullukpracticable : workable, achievable, attainable - uygulanabilirpractice : custom, habit - uygulamakpraise : laud, commend, admire, exalt - övmek, yüceltmekpray : entreat, supplicate, beg, beseech, implore - dua etmekprecaution : prudence - önlemprecious : valuable, dear, invaluable, priceless - kıymetliprecise : definite, correct, strict, accurate - net, kesinpredecessor : forerunner - selefpredict : foretell, prophesy, foresee, forecast - tahmin etmekpredisposition : innate - doğuştanpredominant : prevailing, prevalent, dominant - baskınpredominate : prevail, outweigh, surpass, dominate - üstün gelmekpreeminent : conspicuous, noticeable, outstanding, eminent - üstünprejudice : bias, partiality - ön yargıpreliminary : introductory, preparatory - başlangıçpremises : building - binapremium : bonus, gift, reward - ödül, primpreoccupied : absorbed, engrossed - kafası meşgulprescribe : ordain, direct, dictate, decree - tarif etmekpresently : currently - şu andapreserve : keep, conserve, shelter, shield - korumakprestige : reputation, influence, distinction - itibarpresume : assume, suppose - öngörmekpretend : feign, affect, assume - gibi davranmakpretense : pretext, excuse - bahaneprevail : prevalent, predominate, dominant, current - yenmekprevent : hinder, obstruct, hamper, impede, thwart, interrupt - engellemekprevious : prior, earlier, former, preceding - öncekipride : conceit, self-esteem, vanity, arrogance - gururprimary : elementary, fundamental, basic - öncü, ilkprime : primary - ilkprimitive : primeval, uncivilized, uncultured - ilkelprincipal : prime, paramount, capital, chief - temel, asılprivate : individual, personal, confidential, secret - özelprivilege : prerogative - ayrıcalıkprobe : examine, explore, investigate - soruşturmakprocedure : proceeding, course, process - işleyişproceed : advance, progress, continue - ilerlemekproclaim : announce, declare, promulgate - ilan etmekprocure : acquire, gain, get, secure, win, obtain - edinmekprodigious : wonderful, marvelous, amazing, astonishing - muhteşemproductive : fertile, fruitful - üretkenprofession : vocation, calling, business, employment - iş, meslekproficient : skilled, adept, skillful - yetenekliprofound : deep - derinprofusion : abundance, bounty - bollukprogress : advancement, advance, progression - ilerleme284
    • progressive : forward, advanced - ilerleyenprogressively : increasingly - ilerleyerekprohibit : forbid, inhibit - yasaklamakproject : plan, scheme, design - tasarıprolong : lengthen, extend, protract - uzatmakprominent : distinguished - seçkinpromote : further, encourage - terfi ettirmekprone : inclined, disposed, liable, tending - meyilliproof : evidence, testimony - kanıtproper : appropriate, suitable, suited - uygunproperty : 1. possession, effects, estate - mal 2. quality, character, feature, characteristic - özellikprophesy : foretell, predict - gelecekten haber vermekproponent : supporter - destekçiproportion : size, extent, dimensions - oranpropose : offer, proffer, suggest - önermekproposition : proposal - teklifprosecute : sue - dava açmakprospective : anticipated - müstakbelprosper : succeed, thrive, flourish - canlanmak, gelişmekprosperity : wealth - refahprosperous : successful, flourishing, thriving - başarılıprotect : defend, guard, shield, shelter, harbor - korumakprotest : remonstrate, complain, object - karşı çıkmakproud : arrogant, haughty, overbearing, self-important - kibirliprove : confirm, verify, corroborate, validate - kanıtlamakproverb : maxim, saying - atasözüprovide : furnish, supply, afford - temin etmekprovision : food, supplies - erzakprovoke : enrage, exasperate, vex, irritate - galeyana getirmekprudent : cautious, discreet, careful, wary - temkinlipseudo : sham, counterfeit, false, fake - sahtepublish : announce, proclaim, declare - yayınlamakpurchase : buy, procure - satın almakpure : uncontaminated, clean, spotless, immaculate -safpurge : purity, cleanse, clear, clean, clarify - temizlemekpurpose : object, intent, intention, aim, end - teklif etmekpursue : follow - takip etmekpursuit : search for - aramakpush : shove, thrust - itmekpyre : fire of woods - odun ateşiQquaint : strange, odd, unusual, extraordinary - ilginçquake : shake, shudder, tremble, shiver - sarsılmakqualify : fit, suit, entitle, equip - yeterli olmakquality : characteristic, attribute, property - nitelikquarrel : dispute, argument, controversy - tartışmaquest : search - araştırmakquick : prompt, rapid, swift, fleet - çabukquiet : pacific, calm, tranquil, serene - sessiz, sakinquit : stop, cease, leave - sona erdirmekquiver : shiver. shake, tremble, vibrate - sarsılmakquote : mention - bahsetmek 285
    • Rradiant : shining, bright, brilliant, beaming - parlayanrage : anger, fury, wrath - öfkeraid : invasion - saldırıraise : lift, elevate, hoist - yükseltmekrandom : haphazard, aimless - rasgelerange : extent, scope, compass - saharank : position, standing, station, level - rütberapid : speedy, fast, swift, fleet - çabukrapture : ecstasy, joy, delight, bliss, exultation - büyük coşkurare : scarce, uncommon, extraordinary - nadirrascal : scamp, villain, scoundrel - alçak , namussuzrash : reckless, heedless, indiscreet, imprudent - dikkatsizratify : confirm, sanction, validate - onaylamakration : apportion, distribute, mete - istihkakrational : reasonable, sensible - mantıklıraw : crude, rude, uncooked - hamreactionary : repulsive - gericireadily : easily, willingly - gönüllüreal : actual, factual, authentic, genuine - gerçekrealize : grasp, understand, comprehend, conceive - farketmekrealm : kingdom - krallıkrear : nurture, raise, nurse - yetiştirmekreasonable : rational, logical, sensible, judicious - makulreassure : encourage, comfort - garanti vermekrebel : insurgent, traitor - isyancırebellion : mutiny, revolt - isyanrebellious : defiant, rebel, mutinous - isyancırebuke : reprove, reprimand, reproach, scold - azarlamakrecall : recollect, remember - hatırlamakrecede : go back - geri çekilmekrecency : latest - yenilikreciprocal : mutual - karşılıklırecite : rehearse - ezberden okumakreckless : careless, rash, heedless, imprudent - dikkatsizreckon : 1. count, compute, calculate, enumerate - hesaplamak 2. consider, regard, deem - sayma, kabul etmekrecommend : commend - önermekrecompense : compensation, reward - tazmin etmekreconcile : conciliate, appease - barıştırmakrecover : regain, reclaim, retrieve, restore - atlatmakreduce : decrease, abridge, abate, lessen - azaltmakrefer : attribute, ascribe, impute - söz etmekreferee : umpire, judge - hakemrefined : purified, clarified, distilled - saflaştırılmışreflect : meditate, ponder, deliberate, contemplate - yansıtmakreflection : image - yansımareform : better, rectify, correct, improve, repair - yenilemekrefresh : freshen, enliven, reanimate - tazelemekrefuge : sanctuary, haven - sığınakrefuse : decline, reject, rebuff - reddetmekrefute : disprove - yalanlamakregain : recover, retrieve - tekrar kazanmakregard : consider, account, deem - sanmakregardless : inattentive, neglectful, indifferent, unconcerned - dikkatsizregion : section, province - bölgeregister : enroll, list, record, catalogue - kaydolmakregret : deplore, lament - pişman olmak286
    • regular : uniform, even, systematic, formal - düzenliregulate : control, direct, adjust, arrange - düzenlemekregulation : rule, order, law - düzenlemerehearse : recite, practice, drill, train - prova yapmakreign : rule, govern, prevail, predominate - iktidara geçmekreinforce : strengthen, intensify - desteklemekrejoice : delight - zevkrelation : connection, relationship, association, alliance - ilintirelax : loosen, slacken - gevşemekrelease : 1. emit, vent, give off, give out, let off - salmak 2. loosen, loose, untie, unbind, unclasp - gevşetmekrelentless : severe, merciless, ruthless, pitiless - acımasızreliable : trustworthy, dependable, infallible - güvenilirrelief : alleviation, ease - rahatlatma, kurtarmarelieve : ease, alleviate - rahatlatmak, kurtarmakreligious : pious, devout, reverent - dinirelish : taste flavor, savor - zevkreluctant : unwilling, disinclined, loath, averse - gönülsüzremain : last, abide, endure - kalmakremainder : remnant, residue, rest - kalanremark : comment, utterance, statement - söz , görüşremarkable : notable, extraordinary, noteworthy, distinguished - dikkate değerremedy : cure, treatment - şifaremember : recall, recollect - hatırlamakremembrance : recollection, reminiscence, memory - anmaremote : distant, removed - uzakremove : transfer, transport, carry - taşımakrender : contribute, afford, present - vermek, sunmakrenew : regenerate, renovate - yenilemekrenown : repute, fame, eminence, reputation - şanrent : lease, let - kiralamakrepair : mend, remodel, amend, fix - tamir etmekrepel : repulse, parry - geri püskürtmekrepent : regret, atone - pişman olmakreplace : supersede, supplant, substitute - yerini değiştirmekrepresent : depict, express, portray - göstermek, betimlemekrepress : check, restrain, curb - bastırmakreprimand : rebuke - azarlamakreproach : reprimand, condemn, rebuke, scold - azarreproduce : copy, duplicate, imitate, generate, beget - kopyalamakreprove : rebuke, blame - paylamakreputation : repute, honor, fame, distinction - ünrequest : petition, entreat, beg - taleprequire : demand, enjoin - gerektirmekrequisite : necessary, essential, indispensable - gereklirescue : save, deliver, redeem - kurtarmakresearch : investigate, study, examine, scrutinize - araştırmakresemblance : analogy, similarity - benzerlikresentment : anger - öfkereserve : save, retain, keep, hold - ayırmak, saklamakreside : dwell, abide, live, inhabit - yaşamakresidence : dwelling, house, habitation - meskenresign : relinquish, abandon, forsake, quit - istifa etmekresilient : rebounding, elastic - esnekresist : withstand, oppose, confront - karşı koymakresolute : resolved, steadfast, determined - kararlıresolve : determine, decide, disintegrate, separate - karar vermekrespect : esteem, deference, veneration, reverence - saygı duymak 287
    • respectable : estimable, honorable - saygı değerrespectful : courteous, polite, well-mannered, civil - saygılıresponsible : accountable, answerable, liable - sorumlurestful : calm, tranquil, peaceful, serene - sakinrestore : renew, renovate, repair, return - yenilemekrestrain : check, repress, curb, suppress - dizginlemekrestrict : confine, limit, restrain, curb - sınırlamakresult : outcome, consequence - sonçretaliate : avenge, requite, revenge - misilleme yapmakretard : slow down - yavaşlatmakretire : withdraw, retreat, recede, retract - bir köşeye çekilmekreveal : disclose, divulge, unveil - ifşa etmekreverence : worship, respect - saygı göstermekreverse : invert - ters çevirmekrevert : return, come back, revisit - geri dönmekreview : survey, reexamination - gözden geçirip düzeltmekrevise : change, modify, amend, alter, correct - gözden geçirmekrevoke : cancel - iptal etmekrevive : revitalize - yeniden canlandırmakrevolt : rebel, mutiny - isyan etmekrevolution : overthrow, revolt - ihtilalrevolve : rotate, circulate, roll, orbit - dönmekreward : recompense, prize - ödülridicule : mockery, sneer, mock, jeer - alayridiculous : absurd, funny, comical - alaycıright : just, equitable, upright - doğrurighteous : moral, upright, virtuous, equitable - doğrulukrigid : strict, severe, stern, rigorous - sertrigorous : painstaking - özenlirim : edge, border, margin, brim - kenarriot : uproar, disturbance - ayaklanmaripe : mature, mellow, developed - hamrisk : hazard, danger, venture, peril - tehlikerival : competitor, contestant, antagonist, opponent - rakiproam : ramble, wander, rove, stray - gezmekroar : cry, bellow, shout, yell - kükremekrob : deprive, plunder, pillage - soymakrobust : sturdy, vigorous, stalwart - dayanıklırot : decay, corrupt, degenerate - çürümerotate : turn, spin, revolve, wheel, roll - çevirmekrotten : decayed, foul, corrupt - çürükrough : uneven, rugged, violent, wild - kaba, işlenmemişrouse : stir, excite, stimulate, awaken, provoke - uyarmakrude : discourteous, ill-mannered, impolite, coarse - kabarudimentary : elementary, fundamental, basic - basit, temelruin : decay, demolish, destroy, damage - yok etmekrural : rustic - kırsalrush : dash - acele etmekruthless : pitiless, cruel, harsh, relentless - merhametsizSsacred : holy, divine - kutsalsad : sorrowful, mournful - üzgünsafe : secure, protected - güvenlisanction : permission, ratification, authorization - yetkisanguinary : bloody, bloodthirsty, cruel, ruthless - acımasız288
    • sanitary : sterile - temizsarcasm : irony - iğnelemesatire : irony, sarcasm - iğnelemeksatisfy : gratify, meet, satiate, suffice - tatmin etmeksavage : wild, cruel, brutal - vahşisave : rescue, salvage - kurtarmaksavor : taste, flavor - tatscale : portion - ölçekscan : scrutinize, investigate - taramakscanty : meager, insufficient, inadequate - seyrekscarce : rare, insufficient, deficient - nadirscare : terrify, alarm, startle, frighten - korkutmakscatter : sprinkle, strew, disperse, dissipate - yaymakscent : odor, perfume - kokuscheme : plan, design, project - tasarıscoff : mock, scorn, jeer, sneer - alay etmekscold : reprove, reproach, reprimand - azarlamakscope : range, extent, space - alanscore : gain - puan almakscorn : contempt, disdain, mockery, scoff - alayscream : shriek, cry - çığlık atmakscrupulous : careful, painstaking, meticulous - ihtiyatlıscrutinize : examine, investigate, dissect, study - incelemekscrutiny : examination, investigation, dissection - incelemesearch : seek, explore - aramaksecluded : deserted - ıssızsecret : clandestine, conceal, private - sırsecure : safe, protect - güvence altına almaksegregate : isolate, separate, dissociate - ayrı tutmakseize : grasp, grab, clutch, capture, grip - kuşatmaksend : transmit, dispatch, convey -göndermeksensation : excitement, stimulation, agitation - duygusensational : exciting, stimulating - duygusalsense : meaning, signification, significance, denotation - hissenseless : stupid, foolish, silly, idiotic - hissizsensibility : susceptibility, sensitivity, sensitiveness - hassasiyetsensible : judicious, sound, rational, reasonable - mantıklısensitive : impressionable, susceptible - duyarlısensual : voluptuous, sensuous - hissisententious : concise, terse, succinct - özdeyişlerle konuşansentiment : emotion, sentimentality, sensibility - duyguseparate : divide, part, split - ayırmaksequence : succession, series - süreçserene : calm, peaceful, tranquil, placid - sakinserious : important, momentous, grave - ciddiserve : assist, help, aid, succor, contribute - yardım etmeksever : separate, divide, cut, cleave, rend - kesmeksevere : tough, rigid, stern, strict - acı, şiddetlishabby : ragged, beggarly, poor - pejmürdeshade : hide, protect, conceal, cover, shelter - gölgeshake : sway, waver, agitate, shudder - sarsılmakshameful : disgraceful, humiliating, dishonorable, ignominious - utanç kaynağıshameless : brazen, impudent, insolent, unashamed - utanmazshare : portion, part - hissesharp : keen, acute, pointed, pungent, severe - keskinshed : emit, radiate, diffuse - yaymakshatter : break, crush, crack - kırmaksheer : only - tek, yalnızca 289
    • shelter : protect, harbor, defend - sığınakshield : protect, defend, secure, guard - kalkanshine : beam, glare, gleam, glisten - parlamakshining : radiant, gleaming, brilliant - parlayanshiver : tremble, quake, shudder, shake - titremekshorten : curtail, abbreviate, abridge, reduce - kısaltmakshort-sighted : near-sighted, indiscreet, imprudent - miyopshowy : ostentatious, gaudy, loud - havalıshrewd : astute, sharp, acute, penetrating - kurnazshrink : contract, shrivel, diminish, decrease - kısalmakshun : elude, avoid, evade, escape - kaçınmakshy : bashful, reserved, timid, coy -utangaçsiege : blockade, besieging - kuşatmasign : token, indication, trace, hint - işaretsignificant : important - belirginsignify : express, indicate, mean - simgelemeksilent : speechless, dumb, mute, tacit - sessizsimultaneous : concurrent, concomitant, synchronous - eş zamanlısin : transgression, crime, offense - günahsincere : candid, earnest, true, real - samimisip : drink, absorb, sup - yudumlamaksituation : location, position, site, place, spot - durumsize : dimensions, proportions, magnitude - boyutskeptical : skeptic, doubtful, dubious, incredulous - şüpheciskilled : able, capable, competent - yetenekliskillful : adroit, deft, adept, proficient - yetenekliskip : spring, jump, leap, bound, hop - atlamakskirmish : battle, fight, conflict, combat - savaşmakslack : loose, relaxed - gevşekslander : defame, scandalize, vilify - karalamaslaughter : butcher, murder, slay - kıyımslavery : bondage, servitude, subjection, enslavement - kölelikslay : murder, kill, slaughter, massacre, butcher - kıymakslender : slim, weak, fragile, feeble, delicate - zayıf, dayanıksızslide : glide - kaymakslight : insignificant, trivial, trifling - önemsizslim : slender, thin - inceslip : mistake, error, blunder -sürçmeslumber : sleep - uyumaksly : cunning, artful - kurnazsmart : intelligent, bright, sharp, clever - akıllısmash : shatter, crush, crash - çarpmaksmooth : even, plain, flat - pürüzsüzsnare : trap, lure, bait - tuzaksneer : scorn, jeer, gibe, scoff -hor görmeksoak : steep, drench, wet, saturate - ıslanmaksoar : tower, rise, ascend, mount - yükselmeksober : sane, sound - ayıksociable : affable - girişkensoften : assuage, moderate, mitigate - yumuşatmaksolace : comfort, consolation - tesellisole : only, single, solitary - yalnızsolemn : serious, stately - ciddisolid : firm, substantial, sound, stable - katısolitary : isolated, lonely - yalnızsolitude : isolation, loneliness - yalnızlıksoothe : relieve, allay, mitigate, assuage - yatıştırmaksophisticated : artificial, mundane, worldly - karmaşık290
    • sore : painful, grieved, distressed, sorrowful - acı verensorrow : distress, anguish, grief, sadness - acısort : classify, class, assort - sınıflamaksound : uninjured, unharmed, unimpaired, healthy - sağsour : acid, tart - ekşisovereign : supreme, chief, paramount - lider, egemenspacious : ample, capacious, extensive, vast - genişspan : distance, length - mesafespare : save, reserve - yedeksparkle : spark, glitter, twinkle - parıltıspecial : particular, especial, peculiar, specific - özelspecimen : sample, model, pattern - misalspectacular : dramatic, sensational, impressive - etkileyicispeculation : supposition, conjecture, surmise - söylentispeculative : tentative - kuramsalspend : expend, waste, consume - harcamakspin : turn, rotate - çevirmekspite : ill-will, maliciousness, malice - kötü niyetsplendid : gorgeous, magnificent, sumptuous, dazzling - görkemlisplendor : brilliance, grandeur, pomp - ihtişamsplit : cleave, rend, separate - ayrıspoil : damage, impair, ruin, harm, corrupt - berbat etmekspontaneous : voluntary, uncompelled, willing - içten gelenspot : find, locate, pinpoint, detect - yerspread : unfold, extend, stretch, expand - yaymaksprinkle : scatter, strew, disperse - saçmakspur : incitement, stimulus, incentive, provocation - dürtüsquander : waste, lavish - israf etmekstab : thrust, plunge - bıçaklamakstable : invariable, constant, steady - sabitstagger : sway, totter, waver, falter - sendelemekstagnant : inert, inactive - durgunstain : taint, spot, dirty, blemish, blot - lekestake : stick - kazıkstale : vapid, old, decayed - bayatstammer : stutter, hesitate, falter - kekelemekstamp : trample, crush, pound - damgalamakstand : endure, undergo, bear, tolerate, endure - dikilmekstare : gaze - dik dik bakmakstartle : surprise, alarm, amaze, astound - şaşırtmakstate : condition situation, status, environment - halstately : imposing, grand, majestic, magnificent - görkemlistatement : declaration, announcement, proclamation - ifadestation : standing, rank - mevkistatus : position, standing, rank - konumsteadfast : firm, stanch, steady, resolute - sadıkstem : derive, originate - türemeksterile : barren, unproductive, fruitless - temiz, hijyenikstern : firm, severe, harsh, hard - haşinstick : adhere, cohere, cling, cleave - sadık kalmakstiff : rigid, solid - değişmezstifle : smother, suffocate, strangle, choke - boğmakstill : motionless, stationary - hareketsizstimulating : restorative, encouraging - motive edenstimulus : incentive, incitement, stimulation - uyarıcıstingy : parsimonious, miserly, mean - cimristir : agitate, incite, instigate, prompt - karıştırmakstock : store, inventory, reserve, hoard - mevcut mal 291
    • stoop : bend, lean, bow, crouch - eğik durmakstout : stalwart, sturdy, athletic, vigorous - dinçstrain : stretch, tighten - germekstrange : 1. unusual, extraordinary, bizarre - acayip 2. foreign, alien - yabancıstranger : alien, foreigner - yabancıstray : wander, rove, roam, ramble - yolunu kaybetmekstream : current, run, flow - akımstrength : power, force, vigor, might - güçstrenuous : vigorous, energetic, active - güçlüstress : emphasis, accent, force - vurgulamakstretch : extend, lengthen, pull - germekstrict : rigid , stiff, severe, harsh - katı, sertstrife : conflict, discord, quarrel - çekişmestringent : severe, constricted, tight, strict - sıkı, katıstrike : hit, knock, beat, pound, slap - saldırıstrive : endeavor, try, struggle, toil - uğraşmakstroke : striking, blow, beating, beat - atak, çarpıntıstroll : ramble, wander, roam, rove - gezinmekstrong : powerful, vigorous, mighty, potent - güçlüstubborn : obstinate, dogged, rigid, stiff - dik kafalıstuff : material, substance, matter - şey, maddestun : astound, daze, astonish, amaze - şaşırtmaksturdy : strong, robust, stalwart, muscular - dayanıklısubdue : conquer, defeat, suppress, subjugate - boyunduruk altına almaksubmerse : dip, sink, plunge, immerse - suya daldırmaksubmit : yield, obey; give - boyun eğmek; teslim etmeksubordinate : inferior, secondary - ikincil, astsubscribe : agree, assent, consent - onaylamak, abone olmaksubsidize : back, finance, fund - sübvanse etmeksubstance : matter, material, stuff - maddesubstantial : real, actual, material - gerçeksubtract : deduct, discount - çıkartmaksuccession : sequence, series - birbirini izlemesuccessive : consecutive, continuous - ardı sırasuccinct : concise, brief, lean, terse, condensed - az ve özsuffer : undergo, experience - bir şeyden çekmeksufficient : enough, adequate, ample - yeterlisuggest : indicate, hint, intimate - önermeksummary : digest, extract, abstract - özetsummit : top, apex, pinnacle, acme - zirvesummon : call, bid, convene, convoke - celp etmeksuperficial : shallow, external, outward - yüzeyselsupernatural : miraculous, abnormal - doğa üstüsupply : furnish, provide, replenish - tedarik etmeksupport : aid, help, assist, advocate - desteklemeksuppose : assume, presume - sanmaksurpass : exceed, excel, transcend, outdo - üstün gelmeksurplus : abundant - bolsurrender : give in, submit - teslim olmaksurvey : watch, inspect, examine, scrutinize - incelemeksuspect : surmise, imagine, consider, suppose - şüphelenmeksuspend : defer, postpone, delay - askıya almaksuspense : uncertainty, doubt, indecision, hesitation - kararsızlıksuspicion : doubt, mistrust, distrust - şüphesustain : bear, carry, support, uphold -tahammül etmekswallow : eat, gorge, gulp, engulf, devour - yutmaksway : swing, wave, brandish, rule - hükmetmek292
    • swear : avow, vow - yemin etmeksweat : perspiration - tersweep : clean - temizsweeping : broad, wide, extensive, comprehensive - geniş içerikliswift : speedy, fleet, rapid - hızlıswivel : spin, rotate, turn - dönmekTtaboo : prohibition - yasaktackle : deal with - baş etmektale : story, narrative, account, fiction - hikayetalent : aptitude, capacity, capability, gift - yetenektalkative : garrulous, wordy, verbose - gevezetame : domesticated, mild, docile, domestic - terbiye etmektangible : real, substantial, concrete, substantive - elle tutulurtear : rend, rip, sever, split - yırtmaktease : irritate, bother, disturb, annoy - kızdırmaktedious : boring - sıkıcıtemperament : disposition, make-up, nature - mizaçtemperate : moderate, self-restrained - ılımlıtemporary : transient, transitory, fleeting, ephemeral - geçicitempt : induce, allure, seduce, attract - baştan çıkarmaktempting : inviting, seductive, attractive, alluring - cezbedicitendency : trend, proneness, inclination, bent - meyiltender : soft, delicate, lenient, mild - ılımlıtense : rigid, strained, nervous - gerginterrible : dreadful, awful, frightful, appalling - berbatterrific : splendid, glorious, superb, marvelous - harikaterror : horror, panic, fright, dismay - korkuthrifty : careful with money - tutumlutiresome : wearisome, tedious, dull, boredom - yorucutoil : work, labor, strive - sıkı çalışmaktoken : symbolic - nişan, işarettolerance : toleration, patience - hoş görütolerate : endure - dayanmaktoll : damage sustained - kayıp sayısıtool : instrument, implement, utensil - alettorment : afflict, pain, rack, torture - sancıtorrential : heavy, severe - yoğuntide : stream, current - akım, dalgatouch : impress, move, strike, stir - duygulandırmaktough : firm, strong, hard, sturdy - serttrace : vestige, mark, sign, track - iztraffic : trade - ticarettrail : drag, draw - iz sürmektraitor : betrayer - haintranquility : serene - sakintransact : settle, perform, manage, conduct - iş görmek, yapmaktransform : change alter, convert, transmute - değiştirmektransmit : send, dispatch, convey, carry - iletmektransparent : clear, pellucid, lucid, limpid - saydamtransport : carry, convey, transport - taşımaktrap : pitfall, snare - tuzaktreachery : betrayal, treason - ihanettreasure : prize, cherish - hazine 293
    • treat : entertain, regale, feast - ziyafettremble : shake, quiver, quaver, quake - sallanmak, titremektremendous : huge, gigantic, colossal - devasatrend : tendency, direction, inclination - eğilimtrespass : encroach, infringe, intrude, invade - izinsiz girmektrial : hearing; affliction, suffering, distress, sorrow - duruşma; derttrick : cheat, swindle, beguile, deceive - oyun, hiletrifling : trivial, insignificant, unimportant, petty - önemsiztrim : clip, prune, shave, shear, arrange - kırkmaktriumph : win, succeed, prevail - zafertroop : band, squad, party company, group, herd - bölüktrouble : disturb, distress, worry, annoy, vex, bother - sorun çıkarmaktroublesome : annoying, laborious, difficult, arduous - sorun çıkarantrue : factual, actual, real, authentic - gerçektrust : confidence, belief, faith, credit - güvenmektrustworthy : reliable, true, stanch, dependable - güvenilirtumult : commotion, disturbance, disorder - patırtıtwinkle : glimmer, sparkle - parıldamaktwist : contort, distort - bükmektypical : representative, symbolic, model, exemplary - özgütyrannical : arbitrary, despotic, oppressive - zorba yönetimtyrant : dictator, oppressor - diktatörUugly : unlovely, unsightly, homely - çirkinultimate : final, last, extreme - sonumpire : referee, arbiter, judge - hakemunaccountable : inexplicable, strange, incomprehensible - anlaşılmazunanimity : accord, agreement - genel kabul görenunanimously : agreed on by everyone - genel kabul görenunassuming : modest, unpretending, unpretentious - alçakgönüllüunbearable : unendurable, intolerable, insufferable - dayanılmazunbecoming : inappropriate, unsuitable - uyumsuzunbiased : fair, impartial, unprejudiced, disinterested - tarafsızunbounded : unlimited, boundless, limitless, immense - sınırsızuncivil : impolite, discourteous, impudent - kabauncompromising : unyielding, inflexible, rigid, firm - uzlaşmazundergo : experience, suffer - kötü bir şey yaşamakundermine : ruin, thwart - yıkmakundertake : assume - üstlenmekunequaled : unparalleled, matchless, peerless - benzersizunexampled : unprecedented, matchless, peerless - benzersizuniform : invariable, unchanging, consistent - tek tipuninterested : unconcerned, indifferent - ilgisizunite : join, combine, incorporate, connect - birleşmekuniversal : entire, ecumenical - evrenselunlawful : illegal, illicit, illegitimate - yasa dışıunmindful : heedless, regardless, careless, inattentive - düşüncesizunparalleled : matchless, unmatched, unequaled, unrivaled - eşsizunpleasant : disagreeable, offensive, repulsive - hoş olmayanunreasonable : irrational, senseless, foolish, silly, preposterous - mantıksızunrefined : coarse, crude, unpolished, vulgar - işlenmemişunrelenting : relentless, implacable, inexorable, harsh - acımasızunsettled : unstable, unsteady, shaky, unfixed - değişken, kararsızunsophisticated : simple, artless, ingenuous, naive - saf, cahil294
    • unstable : infirm, unsteady, precarious, inconstant - kararsızunsteady : unsettled, changeable, unstable - kararsızuntie : unfasten, loose, unknot - çözmekunyielding : inflexible, firm, stanch, steadfast - bağnazupright : erect, vertical, perpendicular, conscientious - dürüstuproar : disturbance, tumult, turbulence, commotion - şamataupset : 1. overturn - ters dönmek 2. defeat, overwhelm, embarrass - yenmekurge : force, impel, press, instigate, stimulate - zorlamakurgent : pressing, imperative, exigent - aciluseful : serviceable, advantageous, profitable - kullanışlıVineffective : empty, devoid, destitute - etkisiz, sonuçsuzvacant : empty, void, unoccupied - boşvagabond : wandering, nomadic, vagrant - avarevague : indefinite, unspecified, obscure, uncertain - müphemvain : useless, worthless, trifling, trivial - faydasızvaliant : brave - cesurvalid : sound, cogent, effective -geçerlivanish : disappear, end, cease, fade - kaybolmakvanity : excessive pride - kibirvariable : changeable, inconstant, fickle, unsteady - değişkenvariety : diversity, kind, sort, species, type - türvarious : diverse, varied - türlüvary : change, alter, diversify, transform, transmute - değişmekvast : extensive, immense, huge, enormous - bolvelocity : speed, pace, rapidity, celerity - hızvengeance : avenging, revenge - intikamventure : hazard, danger, jeopardy, risk - tehlikeverbal : oral, spoken - sözelverge : edge, rim, margin, brim, brink - sınır, kenarversatile : multi functional - çok yönlüversion : translation - çevirivertical : upright, plumb, erect, perpendicular - dikeyvibrant : vibrating, shaking, oscillating - titreşimlivibrate : oscillate, shake, tremble, quiver, shiver - titremekvice : wickedness, evil - kötüvicious : immoral, depraved, corrupt, malicious - şeytaniview : prospect, outlook, idea, notion - görüşvigilant : attentive, wary, alert, awake - tetiktevigorous : strong, robust, sturdy, energetic - dinç, atikvillain : rascal, scoundrel - kötü kişiviolation : breach, infringement, transgression - çiğneme (yasa)violence : vehemence, intensity, force - şiddetvirgin : maiden, maid - bakirevirtual : practical, implicit - sanalvirtually : nearly - neredeysevirtue : goodness, uprightness, morality, justice -erdemvirtuous : right, upright, moral, righteous, good, chaste - erdemlivisible : apparent, obvious, evident, clear - görünürvision : sight, perception, discernment - görüşvisionary : fanciful, imaginary, speculative, illusory - hayalperestvista : view, prospect, perspective - manzaravital : indispensable, important, critical, cardinal - önemli 295
    • vivid : bright, brilliant, animated, spirited - canlıvocation : business, occupation, pursuit, profession - iş, meslekvogue : fashion, style, mode - modavoid : useless, ineffectual, vain - boş, faydasızvolume : size, measure, magnitude, mass - hacimvoluntary : spontaneous, free, unforced - gönüllüvow : pledge, promise - yemin etmekvoyage : cruise, sailing - seyahat etmekvulgar : coarse, mean, rude - kabavulnerable : susceptible - meyilli, yatkınWwage : pay, salary, earnings - maaşwake : rouse, arouse - uyanmakwallow : flounder, roll - yuvarlanmakwander : ramble, rove, roam, stray - gezinmekware : good, merchandise - malwarp : bend, deform, twist -eğriltmekwary : alert, careful, cautious - dikkatliwaste : squander, dissipate, lavish - israf etmekwatchful : vigilant, alert, observant, attentive - dikkatliwave : undulate, fluctuate - dalgalanmakweak : fragile, frail, delicate, feeble - zayıf, güçsüzweaken : deplete, diminish, lessen - zayıflatmakweakness : flaw, defect, fault - zayıflık, kusurwealth : abundance, profusion - varlıkwear out : exhaust - yıpranmakwearisome : tiresome, boring, tedious, irksome - yorucuweary : exhausted, tired, wearied, fatigued - bitkinweave : intertwine, twist, curl, meander - dokumakweigh : consider, ponder, contemplate - düşünmekwelfare : prosperity - refahwet : drenched, dampened, moistened, moist - ıslak, nemliwhim : caprice, whimsy - kapriswhip : lash, beat, flog, thrash - kırbaçlamakwhirl : spin, rotate, revolve, wheel - dönmekwholesale : extensive, indiscriminate - toptan satışwholesome : healthful, healthy, salutary - sağlıklıwicked : evil, immoral, impious, profane - lanetliwidespread : extensive, prevalent, sweeping - yaygınwild : untamed, undomesticated - vahşiwily : shrewd, cunning, crafty - kurnazwin : obtain, gain, procure, secure - kazanmakwise : judicious, sensible, rational - bilgewithdraw : retire, retreat, secede - çekmekwither : fade, decay, decline - solmak, sönmekwithhold : reserve, retain, hold back - saklamakwitness : sb that sees a occurrence - şahitwitty : amusing, clever, comic - şakacıwoe : distress, affliction, sorrow, grief - kederwonder : surprise, astonishment, amazement, awe - merakwonderful : remarkable, awesome, astonishing - muhteşemworkmanship : handicraft, handiwork - işçilikworry : torment, annoy, disturb - endişelenmekworship : revere, respect, venerate, adore - tapmak296
    • worthy : worthwhile, deserving - layıkwound : injure, hurt - yarawrap : cover, envelop, muffle - sarmak, kaplamakwrath : anger, ire, rage, resentment, indignation - gazapwreck : destroy, devastate, ruin, shatter - yıkmakwretched : miserable, pitiable, dejected, distressed - zavallıYyawn : gape - esnemekyearn : crave, desire, want - arzulamakyearning : longing, craving, desire - arzulayışyield : 1. produce, bear - üretmek 2. surrender, submit, concede - teslim olmakZzeal : passion, enthusiasm, ardor, zealousness - tutkuzealous : ardent, enthusiastic, eager, earnest - tutkuluzenith : apex, peak, tip - zirvezest : gusto, heartiness, eagerness - çeşni, zevkzone : area, area, region, district, section - bölge 297