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HIGH SCORE                   KPDS TEST BOOK                            for                    upper intermediate          ...
CONTENTSArticles               1Determiners            3Tenses                 11Modals                 43If clause       ...
Articlesa/ an• one yerine:she has a brother• sıfat tamlamalarında: a strong man, a hard question• mesleklerde:He is an eng...
• ne olduğu açıkça anlaşılan şeyler: the weather is getting cold.• sıfatlarda geneli kastederken: the poor, the young• mil...
Determiners• Kelimelerden önce gelerek miktarlarını belirtirler. Bu konuda öncelikli olarak bilmemiz gereken countable ve ...
neither/ either/ both ofĐki şeyden bahsederken        She has two sons. I like neither of them. (ikisini de sevmem) [C]   ...
Determiners• Kelimelerden önce gelerek miktarlarını belirtirler. Bu konuda öncelikli olarak bilmemiz gereken countable ve ...
neither/ either/ both ofĐki şeyden bahsederken        She has two sons. I like neither of them. (ikisini de sevmem) [C]   ...
DETERMINERSÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları1. I don’t imagine he wrote the speech         4. Several experts were wo...
7. We are confident that the management       11. The failure so far to produce evidenceand the workforce will get on well...
15. Few things ____ unnerved the Spanish        19. Indeed, the situation is such that theconquerors of the New World ____...
23. Human activity has destroyed____           27. A structural formula is a chemicalplant species that collective action ...
KEY TO DETERMINERSBOŞLUK         26 BDOLDURMA       27 D1D             28 A2C             29 C3C             30 C4E5 E*6B7...
TENSESThe Simple Present Tense•   rutin işler,        Jane goes to school by bus.•   alışkanlıklar,        My grandpa smok...
The Present Continuous Tense•   konuşma anında devam eden olaylar,       I’m studying English now.       Jack is trying to...
The Past Simple Tense•   geçmişte belirli bir zamanda yaşanmış olaylar,       A friend of mine drove me home yesterday.   ...
The Past Continuous Tense•   geçmişte bir noktada başlayıp belirli bir süre devam eden olaylar,       I was working in Sco...
The Present Perfect Tense•   geçmişte başlayıp bulunduğumuz zamana kadar devam eden olaylar,       They have repaired the ...
The Present Perfect Continious Tense•   geçmişte başlayıp bulunduğumuz zamanda halen devam eden olaylar,       Mr. Aeron h...
The Past Perfect Tense•   geçmişte meydana gelen iki olaydan daha önce meydana gelen olay,       Dr. Claude had worked as ...
The Past Perfect Continuous•   geçmişte başlamış ve bir süre devam ettikten sonra yine geçmişte bir noktada son bulmuş    ...
FutureThe Simple futurebe going to•   planlanmış olaylar,        I’m going to see the headmaster at diner.        When are...
Future Continuous•   gelecekte belirli bir süre devam edecek olaylar,        When I arrive at Houston you will be sleeping...
Future Perfect•   gelecekte belli bir zamanda tamamlanacak olaylar,        By the time I finish my homework, I’ll have wri...
Which Tense?The simple past or the present perfect       Beatles wrote 186 songs all their life. (bir daha yazamayacaklar....
TENSE UYUMU    Aynı cümle içersinde kullanılan iki farklı tense in birbirleriyle uyumlu olması gerekir.Mesela simple prese...
the past perfect continuous - the simple past       Mr. Seyhan had been carrying the coal when his son came to help him.  ...
TENSESÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları1. As the decade ____ to wind down, Mark      4. There have been some art crit...
7. Marxism ____ an important movement in       11. Over the last few years, consumerBritain even though it ____ its origin...
15. The ridicule that ____ upon him by       19. He insisted that mountaineering ____ aleading scientists of the day ____ ...
23. Is seems that, even if big western         26. Many parts of rural America ____tocompanies____ to help develop lifesav...
Çeviri soruları29. He certainly ____ party members last     1. During the Gulf War in 1991, the Iraqiweekend when he annou...
3. According to the UN observers in ihe             5. Birleşmiş Milletlerin, Filistinin Yahudi veregion, Rwandan troops h...
7. Sonunda ormanın kenarına                          9. When, in the mid-19th century, the woolulaştığımızda, uzun süre or...
11. Başkan Yeltsin Đtalya’ya yaptığı geziyi            13. On dokuzuncu yüzyılın sonlarında Xtamamlarken, Rusya’nın ulusal...
Cümle tamamlama soruları1. ____ even though certain difficult                4. While most people still saw computers asec...
7. In good hands, the harpsichord will                  10. ____ that basic evolutionary processesalways have things to of...
13. _____, so the introduction of                    16. ____ ,we need to find ways to copemetalworking made trade with th...
19. While businesses and stores have                22. Before Freud shed light on dreams andstarted to perform well and m...
25. ____ while such African languages as             28. In general, when credit demand is low,Hausa and Swahili continued...
Benzer cümle soruları31. Oxygen, sugars and amino acids are           1. Until recently people felt that Nigerianallowed i...
Paragrafa uymayan cümle soruları1. (I) X-rays, chemical analysis of paint and   3. (I) In 1912 some of the topclose scruti...
5. (I) It should be stated at the outset that    7. (I) In Brazil, as in much of Latinit is the successful farmers with th...
KEY TO TENSES                26 C        4ABOŞLUK          27 E        5C      BENZER CÜMLEDOLDURMA        28 B        6E ...
OUTLINE OF MODALS   MODAL                KULLANIM                             PRESENT / FUTURE                            ...
MODALSÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları1. Its not considered safe to leave your     4. Cross-border shopping is a fun...
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  1. 1. HIGH SCORE KPDS TEST BOOK for upper intermediate and advanced learners yasin yaylarf fisebilillah yaylar@gmail.com
  2. 2. CONTENTSArticles 1Determiners 3Tenses 11Modals 43If clause 59Wish clause 69Reported speech 73Conjunctions 85Adjectives 105Adverbs 117Prepositions 131Relative clauses 143Gerund - Infinitives 159Participles 171Passive voice 181Causatives 193Phrasal verbs 197Vocabulary questions 217Paragraph analyzing 229Appendix 253Glossary 260
  3. 3. Articlesa/ an• one yerine:she has a brother• sıfat tamlamalarında: a strong man, a hard question• mesleklerde:He is an engineer.• bir grubun geneli:A teacher must be patient.• ilk defa bahsedilen şeyler:Suddenly there was a bright light.• her manasında: two times a week, once a year• her zaman çoğul olarak kullanılan kelimeler: a pair of shoes, a pair of glasses• sayılamayan nesneler:a sum of bread, apiece of chocolate* okunuşu sessiz harfle başlayan kelimelerde a:a doctor, a car, a university* okunuşu sesli harfle başlayan kelimelerde an:an optimist, an hour, an FBI agent, an honor for methe• daha önceden bahsedilmiş şeyler:Suddenly there was a bright light. Then the light turned grey.• tek olan şeyler: the moon, the sun• superlative form:the most important thing, the ugliest woman 1
  4. 4. • ne olduğu açıkça anlaşılan şeyler: the weather is getting cold.• sıfatlarda geneli kastederken: the poor, the young• milletler:The English, The French• tanınmış yapılar:The Eiffel Tower, The Pyramids, The Topkapı Palace• unvanlar:The President, The Ambassador• kanal, çöl, okyanus, nehir, deniz isimlerinden önce:the Panama Canal, the Sahara, the Pacific, the Nile, the Black Sea• tamlama şeklindeki yer isimleri (of içeren):the Gulf of Mexico, Republic of Maltazero article ( article almayanlar)• özel isimler:Mrs. Thompson, Steven• bir türün geneli: Storks can fly more than twelve hours non-stop.• göl, ada, dağ, şehir, cadde, ilçe, eyalet, ülke isimleri:Lake Van, Long Island, Mount Ararat, Dublin, West Street, Tyler County, Texas, Algeria 2
  5. 5. Determiners• Kelimelerden önce gelerek miktarlarını belirtirler. Bu konuda öncelikli olarak bilmemiz gereken countable ve uncountable isimler.bunun için sözlük kullanmakta fayda var.some (of) (biraz) They took some papers with them. (birkaç kağıt) [C] Some of the papers were torn. (kağıtların bazıları) [C] I want some information about her. (biraz bilgi) [U] Some of the information was wrong. (bilgilerin bazıları) [U]any (hiç)sadece soru veya olumsuz cümlelerde kullanılır. Do you have any problems? [C] Do you have any sugar? [U] She didn’t bring any presents for us. [C] I won’t take any responsibility. [U]many/ much (of) (çok) There were not many guests yesterday. (çok misafir) [C] Many of the guests were from Monaco. (misafirlerin çoğu) [C] I don’t have much time. (çok zaman) [U] She spends much of her time on chatting. (zamanının çoğunu) [U]few/ littleolumsuz manada az anlamında. Few people eat sushi in Turkey.(pek az insan) [C] Few of the people die in prosperity. (insanların pek azı) There is little food left for him. (çok az yemek) [U] Little of the food is left.(yemeğin azı)a few/ a littleolumlu manada az There are few trees on the road. (birkaç ağaç) [C] Few of the trees are pine. (ağaçların birkaçı) [C] There is a little cheese in the fridge. (biraz peynir) [U] A little of the cheese is used. (peynirin birazı) [U]a lot/ lot of / lots of (pek çok) You can see lots of cars on the street. [C] He earns a lot of money. [U] I don’t know him a lot. [U] 3
  6. 6. neither/ either/ both ofĐki şeyden bahsederken She has two sons. I like neither of them. (ikisini de sevmem) [C] I like either of them. (ikisini de severim) [C] I like both of them. (ikisini de severim) [C]each/ every (her biri/ her) You can have two sandwiches each. [C] Each of you can have two sandwiches. [C] Every student must come on time. [C]no/ none of (hiç) There is no trouble about the schedule. [C] None of the troubles were solved. [C] She has no love for you. [U] None of her love is for you. [U]all/ all of (hepsi) There were seven plates. We bought them all. [C] We bought all of them. [C]whole (tamamı) He ate the whole pizza. [C] I want the whole story. [U]Demonstratives This novel is on love. [C] This meal is cold. [U] That novel is on love. [C] That meal is cold. [U] These novels are boring. [C] No [U] Those novels are boring. [C] No [U]Possessive Adjectives my, your, our, his, her, its, their, Gina’s, school’s, garage’s They will see her new flat. Hospital’s ER is full with injured people.Articles a/ an/ the/ Ø They saw a snake on the grass.bkz. Articles 4
  7. 7. Determiners• Kelimelerden önce gelerek miktarlarını belirtirler. Bu konuda öncelikli olarak bilmemiz gereken countable ve uncountable isimler.bunun için sözlük kullanmakta fayda var.some (of) (biraz) They took some papers with them. (birkaç kağıt) [C] Some of the papers were torn. (kağıtların bazıları) [C] I want some information about her. (biraz bilgi) [U] Some of the information was wrong. (bilgilerin bazıları) [U]any (hiç)sadece soru veya olumsuz cümlelerde kullanılır. Do you have any problems? [C] Do you have any sugar? [U] She didn’t bring any presents for us. [C] I won’t take any responsibility. [U]many/ much (of) (çok) There were not many guests yesterday. (çok misafir) [C] Many of the guests were from Monaco. (misafirlerin çoğu) [C] I don’t have much time. (çok zaman) [U] She spends much of her time on chatting. (zamanının çoğunu) [U]few/ littleolumsuz manada az anlamında. Few people eat sushi in Turkey.(pek az insan) [C] Few of the people die in prosperity. (insanların pek azı) There is little food left for him. (çok az yemek) [U] Little of the food is left.(yemeğin azı)a few/ a littleolumlu manada az There are few trees on the road. (birkaç ağaç) [C] Few of the trees are pine. (ağaçların birkaçı) [C] There is a little cheese in the fridge. (biraz peynir) [U] A little of the cheese is used. (peynirin birazı) [U]a lot/ lot of / lots of (pek çok) You can see lots of cars on the street. [C] He earns a lot of money. [U] I don’t know him a lot. [U]
  8. 8. neither/ either/ both ofĐki şeyden bahsederken She has two sons. I like neither of them. (ikisini de sevmem) [C] I like either of them. (ikisini de severim) [C] I like both of them. (ikisini de severim) [C]each/ every (her biri/ her) You can have two sandwiches each. [C] Each of you can have two sandwiches. [C] Every student must come on time. [C]no/ none of (hiç) There is no trouble about the schedule. [C] None of the troubles were solved. [C] She has no love for you. [U] None of her love is for you. [U]all/ all of (hepsi) There were seven plates. We bought them all. [C] We bought all of them. [C]whole (tamamı) He ate the whole pizza. [C] I want the whole story. [U]Demonstratives This novel is on love. [C] This meal is cold. [U] That novel is on love. [C] That meal is cold. [U] These novels are boring. [C] No [U] Those novels are boring. [C] No [U]Possessive Adjectives my, your, our, his, her, its, their, Gina’s, school’s, garage’s They will see her new flat. Hospital’s ER is full with injured people.Articles a/ an/ the/ Ø They saw a snake on the grass.bkz. Articles
  9. 9. DETERMINERSÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları1. I don’t imagine he wrote the speech 4. Several experts were working on the____ but ____ did so, certainly made a project, and each came up with somegood job of it. interesting proposals, and naturally ____ claimed that ____ was the best.A) for them / whomsoeverB) of his / somebody A) many /eachC) by him / they B) some / itsD) himself / whoever C) we / itE) themselves / whichever D) all / he98K E) each / his 98M2. As ____ of our employees can afford cars 5. If the others hadn’t voted in favor of theof ____ own, they all have to rely on public younger candidate, I probably wouldn’ttransport. have done so ____ .A) few / them A) evenB) some / his B) tooC) none / their C) alsoD) most / our D) as wellE) many / its E) either98K 98M3. The lawyer decided to call ____ of the 6. The editor thought that the new series ofwitnesses only and paid no attention to articles would prove very popular, but____ . actually hardly ____ seems to have been impressed by it.A) both / othersB) the two / any other A) nobodyC) two / the others B) anyoneD) some / another C) the otherE) any / some others D) any other98M E) somebody 99K 5
  10. 10. 7. We are confident that the management 11. The failure so far to produce evidenceand the workforce will get on well together of life on any planet but ____ has givenas long as ____ respects ____ . continued strength to the belief in the uniqueness of Earth.A) the other / anotherB) both / itself A) usC) the one / another B) theirD) everyone / themselves C) oursE) each / the other D) our99K E) them 00K8. The majority of ____ are apprehensive 12. ____ half of the budget of the USabout new computer programmes, until National Institute on Ageing is spent onwe’ve actually tried them out for ____ . research into Alzheimer’s disease.A) him / himself A) As much asB) us / ourselves B) More ofC) them / themselves C) Rather thanD) ours / us D) OtherE) theirs / ours E) The most99M 00K9. One gathers from the press that a large 13. He said I was submitting my applicationmajority of the people are not in favour of form rather late. But now I find ____ havethe impeachment proceedings, and, frankly, still not submitted ____ .I’m not, ____ . A) most / theirA) either B) none / anyB) too C) many / itC) also D) others / theirsD) as well E) a few / theseE) even so 00M99M10. Though they had ____ government 14. It looks ____ the hiring committee isntbacking ____ a potential home market, the impressed by his qualifications, and I dontcompany poured billions of dollars into the think the manager of the company is, ____project and lost everything. .A) with / less A) like / alsoB) neither / nor B) as if / eitherC) some / any C) so that / as wellD) no / without D) though / tooE) few / more E) just as / neither00K 00M 6
  11. 11. 15. Few things ____ unnerved the Spanish 19. Indeed, the situation is such that theconquerors of the New World ____ the chairman has finally promised to implementprospect of death on Aztec sacrificial stone. ____ the committee recommends.A) as / as A) whoeverB) so / as B) howeverC) not only / but also C) if everD) neither / nor D) as everE) so / that E) whatever01K 02K16. Some anthropologists think that man 20. Of the companys three accountants,today is ____ honest _____ he was only one is useful; ____ deserve to be senthundreds and thousands of years ago. away.A) much / as A) they bothB) the less / than B) all the othersC) the least / of C) both the othersD) little / as D) each oneE) less / than E) each of them01K 02M17. More than ______ invention of the last 21. They are in no way responsible; weeight years or so, television has been the must face the fact that we have only ____most harmful to family life. to blame.A) some other A) itselfB) another B) oursC) the others C) themD) any more D) themselvesE) any other E) ourselves01M 02M18. Basically a country has two objectives 22. The micro air vehicles they are workingin imposing tariffs; one is to raise revenue on are____ small that it will be almostfor government, ____ is to protect home impossible to detect them with radar.industries by raising the price of competinggoods from abroad. A) too B) asA) other C) suchB) both D) soC) another E) moreD) the other 02ME) each02K 7
  12. 12. 23. Human activity has destroyed____ 27. A structural formula is a chemicalplant species that collective action is formula that shows how the atoms areessential for the conservation of those that bounded to____ in a molecule.remain. A) anotherA) more B) othersB) so many C) the othersC) many more D) each otherD) the most E) every otherE) as many 07M04K24. Exciting new research is transforming 28. In 1990 it was introduced into the fieldindustrial robotics, offering the promise of of scientific psychology, defined as thewhole new generation of ____ intelligent ability to monitor____ and others’machines. feelings.A) more A) one’s ownB) much B) one another’sC) any C) oneselfD) mostly D) the selfE) too E) each other’s04M 06M25. In business, every trend contains the 29. The doctor who is continuallyseeds of ____ counter-trend. confronted with human suffering cannot afford to become emotionally involved withA) itself ____ patient.B) its ownC) any one A) anotherD) any B) someE) ones own C) each05K D) few E) more 05K26. In Kuwait, foreign companies are 30. The impression I got was that thepresently taxed at 55 per cent of profits, director has completely given up ____whereas the Kuwaitis themselves pay____ hopes he may at one time have cherished.or ____ tax depending on their status. A) as manyA) less / least B) suchB) little / no C) everyC) more / less D) anyD) few / fewer E) so manyE) less / none 02M05M 8
  13. 13. KEY TO DETERMINERSBOŞLUK 26 BDOLDURMA 27 D1D 28 A2C 29 C3C 30 C4E5 E*6B7C8B9A10 B11 C12 C13 D14 B15 A16 E17 E18 D19 E20 C21 E22 D*23 B24 A25 B 9
  14. 14. TENSESThe Simple Present Tense• rutin işler, Jane goes to school by bus.• alışkanlıklar, My grandpa smokes a cigarette after every meal.• fiziksel gerçekler, The moon circles around the world.• programlanmış olaylar, The train departs at 9.30. Lost begins at 7.00 PM.• hikaye yada fıkra anlatırken, One day a crow goes into pub and asks, “Do you have any cookies.”• durum bildiren fiiller (appendix) Children love playing games.• emir yada tarif verirken, Stop yelling at me! First add some milk to the flour…Time Expressions*Every day ,every week, every…NowadaysThese daysOn Sundays, on Summer daysDikkat: he, she, it olumlu cümlelerde ‘s takısı alıyor.* bundan sonra anlatılan her “tense” konusundan sonra Time Expressions bölümü verilecektir. Zaman zarfıdiyebileceğimiz bu kelimeler cümlenin zamanı hakkında bize ip ucu verecektir.Yani “every day “ geçen bir cümlenin “simple present tense” olabileceğini anlayacağız. 11
  15. 15. The Present Continuous Tense• konuşma anında devam eden olaylar, I’m studying English now. Jack is trying to open the jar.• sürekli başımıza gelen ve bizi sinirlendiren olaylar, Melissa is always leaving the light on. The teacher is always warning me.• bir süreç içersinde meydana gelen değişimler, I pods are getting more and more popular. The fear of global warming is rising among people.Time ExpressionsNowFor the time beingAt the moment, at that momentWhile, asWhenCurrentlyAt presentDikkat: be +V ing 12
  16. 16. The Past Simple Tense• geçmişte belirli bir zamanda yaşanmış olaylar, A friend of mine drove me home yesterday. Did he graduate last year?• tarihi olaylar, Mehmet The Conqueror surrendered Đstanbul in 1453. After the revolution, churches lost power.Time ExpressionsAgoLast (last year, last week…)YesterdayDates before now (in 1249, in the 19th century)Dikkat: V2 için Appendix 1 13
  17. 17. The Past Continuous Tense• geçmişte bir noktada başlayıp belirli bir süre devam eden olaylar, I was working in Scotland when the war broke out. We were playing football when it started to rain. Buraya tablo koy******• geçmişte aynı anda süre gelen olaylar, While the journalists were broadcasting it, the firefighters were struggling with the fire. The little girl was sleeping while her mum was cooking diner.• geçmişte planlanan fakat gerçekleşmeyen olaylar, My sisters were visiting us but they had to turn back early.Time ExpressionsWhenWhileDuringAsDikkat: was/were V ing 14
  18. 18. The Present Perfect Tense• geçmişte başlayıp bulunduğumuz zamana kadar devam eden olaylar, They have repaired the car. We can go now. tablo******* I’ve just finished my report.• geçmişte yaşanmış, tarihi önemsiz yada belli olmayan olaylar, Ceyda has told that story before. Has not the puppy caught cold once more?• henüz meydana gelmiş olaylar, I’ve cut my finger! Fetch me some bandages. Oh my God! The car has hit the child!• tekrarlanması muhtemel olaylar, Nuri Bilge Ceylan has won the golden orange twice. Mitch Albom has published his sixth book.For/ since I’ve lived in Eskişehir since 1998. I’ve lived in Eskişehir for ten years. She has never been ill since her childhood. She has never been ill for years.Time ExpressionsJustRecently, latelyBeforeSinceSo farUp until nowAlreadyDikkat: have/has + V3Appendix 1 15
  19. 19. The Present Perfect Continious Tense• geçmişte başlayıp bulunduğumuz zamanda halen devam eden olaylar, Mr. Aeron has been working in Jerusalem since 1983. Tablo***** Prof. Ege has been studying on social science for 35 years.• yada sona erse bile bariz etkisi gözüken olaylar, Have you been smoking in here? I’ve been attending a language course. How is my English?• bir süredir meydana gelen değişimler, Finding a good job has been getting harder day by day. Drug consumption has been increasing for some time.Time ExpressionJustDay by dayForSinceRecently, latelyUp until now ***Dikkat: have/ has been V ing 16
  20. 20. The Past Perfect Tense• geçmişte meydana gelen iki olaydan daha önce meydana gelen olay, Dr. Claude had worked as a soldier before he came here. Mrs. Hanna had closed the shop when new costumers came.• iki olaydan daha önce meydana gelen olayı (already kullanarak) vurgulamak için, The train had already departed when we arrived at the station. Tablo****** When the police came, the burglar had already gone. By the time I called Alan, he had already left home No longer had the locksmith opened the door, did she find her keys.Time ExpressionsBy the timeNo longerNo soonerAlreadyDikkat: had + V3 17
  21. 21. The Past Perfect Continuous• geçmişte başlamış ve bir süre devam ettikten sonra yine geçmişte bir noktada son bulmuş olaylar, When the police found the child, he had been trying to escape from the hut. Tablo***** The dog had been barking all the night when we heard a gun-shot. We had been driving for six hours when we had a flat tire.Dikkat: had been V ing 18
  22. 22. FutureThe Simple futurebe going to• planlanmış olaylar, I’m going to see the headmaster at diner. When are you going to be retired?• gelecekte olacağını bir delil sayesinde tahmin ettiğimiz olaylar, The boy is running too fast. He is going to fall. The man is aiming at the bird. He is going to shoot it!will• planlanmamış; ani kararlar, A: I’m going to see the new movie. B: Awesome! I’ll come too. A: Do you like fish? B: No, not at all. A: Ok. I’ll cook some chicken, then.• tarihi kesin olaylarda present continuous kullanılabilir, They are getting married on the 7th of November. He is flying to New York at 8 o’clock tomorrow morning.• önceden programlanmış olaylarda present simple kullanılabilir, Two and a Half Men begins at 5 PM on CNBC-E. The school board gathers at 10 AM tomorrow.Time ExpressionsNext week, next month, next…TomorrowSoon 19
  23. 23. Future Continuous• gelecekte belirli bir süre devam edecek olaylar, When I arrive at Houston you will be sleeping. They will be pumping oil when we arrive there.• önceden planlanmış olaylar, Edmond will be waiting for us at the airport. I’ll be driving my new car this time next week.Time ExpressionsThis time tomorrow, this time next yearDikkat: will be+ V ing 20
  24. 24. Future Perfect• gelecekte belli bir zamanda tamamlanacak olaylar, By the time I finish my homework, I’ll have written 15 pages. In two years time you will have learnt Chinese. The trees will have given fruit, the next time you visit us. They will have painted the house, by the time we arrive there. Tablo*****Dikkat: will have+V3The Future Pefect• daha önceden başlamış olay gelecekte hala devam ediyorsa, They will have been painting the house for two hours, by the time we arrive there. Tablo******** Samantha will have holding her breath for five minutes when the bell rings.the future perfect or the future perfect continuous Next week I’ll have worked here for six years. (haftaya 6 yılı tamamlayıp işi bırakıyorum.) Next week I’ll have been working here for six years. (haftaya 6 yılı tamamlıyorum, fakat çalışmaya devam ediyorum.)Time ExpressionsBy the timeBy this time next week, by this time next year…in two years time, in six months timeby next week, by next yearDikkat: will have been + V ing 21
  25. 25. Which Tense?The simple past or the present perfect Beatles wrote 186 songs all their life. (bir daha yazamayacaklar.) Black Eyed Peas has written 75 songs up until now. (hala yazabilirler.) Marlin Monroe acted in many films during her life. (artık rol alamaz.) Müjde Ar has acted in 36 films so far. (yeni bir filmde rol alabilir.)The present perfect or the present perfect continious She has been learning how to drive a car. (hala öğreniyor.) She has been learnt how to drive a car. (artık öğrendi.)The past perfect or the past simple When the teacher came in, the boys had stopped fighting. (öğretmen gelmeden önce kavgayı kestiler.) When the teacher came in, the boys stopped fighting. (öğretmen gelince kavgayı kestiler.)The past perfect continuous or the past continuous When I saw him, he was moving his house. (gördüğümde hala taşınıyordu.) When I saw him, he had been moving his house. (gördüğümde taşınmayı bitirmişti.) 22
  26. 26. TENSE UYUMU Aynı cümle içersinde kullanılan iki farklı tense in birbirleriyle uyumlu olması gerekir.Mesela simple present tense kullandıktan sonra simple past tense kullanamayız. Sorularıçözerken de bu kuralı göz önünde bulundurmamız gerekir.Beraber kullanılabilen tense grupları:the simple present - the simple present The She cries whenever she sees a dog. Every time I phone her, she hangs up.the Simple past - the simple past The officer looked at me when ı entered his room. After I finished writing the letter, I sent it to Martin.the Simple past - the past continuous She was preparing the meal when I called her. When her daughter came in, Mrs. Darko was sleeping.the past continuous - the past continuous He was watching tv while he was drinking a cup of coffee. She was palying a computer game while I was reading a science book.the present perfect - the simple past Brenda has never laughed since she lost her father. I’ve not heard of tom since he went to Paris.the present perfect continuous - the simple past Mr. Nerd has been teaching since he graduated in 1990. US troops have been struggling with suicide attacks since they attacked Iraq.the simple past - the past perfect The robbers had left the bank when the police arrived at the crime scene. By the time the electricity went off, I had finished drawing. 23
  27. 27. the past perfect continuous - the simple past Mr. Seyhan had been carrying the coal when his son came to help him. The doctor had been operating on her when I went to see her.the simple future - the simple present I will call you as soon as get off the plane. Susan will be very angry when she sees the broken vase.the simple future - the present perfect You won’t go out until you have finished your homework. As soon as we have taken the permission, we will start building the house.the future perfect - the simple present I will have taken more than 200 photos by the time I turn back to Turkey. Judy will have grown much older the next time we see her.the simple future continuous - the simple present Larry will have been working as a postman for 30 years when he retires next week. The road workers will have been working for six days by the time we pass by them. 24
  28. 28. TENSESÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları1. As the decade ____ to wind down, Mark 4. There have been some art critics whoMorris ____ as our century’s youngest ____ in depreciation of Van Gogh that hegreat choreographer. ____ a draughtsman all his life.A) has begun / had stood A) had maintained / has remainedB) will begin / is standing B) have maintained / remainedC) was beginning / has stood C) were maintaining / had remainedD) begins / stands D) maintained / would have remainedE) is beginning / has been standing E) will maintain / remains98K 99K2. In the past few months, our company 5. The Romanian Privatization Authoritydirector ____ more mettle than most announced last week that Renault of Franceindustrialists ____ in an entire career. ____ to be the sole bidder for a majority stake in the national car company, Dacia,A) had shown / have done which ____ cheap cars for the domesticB) showed / would do market.C) shows / didD) has shown / do A) would turn out / had madeE) was showing / may have done B) has turned out / made98K C) would have turned out / is making D) is turning out / has made E) might turn out / makes 99K3. For a hundred years or so some critics 6. At the Brussels meeting over the last____ that poetry is dying and all that time weekend Madeleine Albright, The Americanpoets ____ poems that later generations secretary of State, ____ her allies thatrecognize as great. future NATO missions ____ them further a field, but not all over the world.A) have maintained / have been writingB) maintained / wrote A) assures / is takingC) had maintained / were writing B) has assured / will have takenD) maintain / are writing C) assured / would takeE) would maintain / had been writing D) had assured / took98M E) was assuring / will take 99K 25
  29. 29. 7. Marxism ____ an important movement in 11. Over the last few years, consumerBritain even though it ____ its origin here. interest in organic agriculture ____ up dramatically, and demand ____ currentlyA) would never have been / takes ahead of supply.B) had never been / would takeC) never was / has taken A) has shot / isD) would never be / would have taken B) shot / wasE) has never been / took C) had shot / had been99M D) is shooting / has been E) was shooting / would be 00K8. The history of the Venetian Republic 12. Orwell ____ at that moment that when____ to an end in 1797 when Venice ____ the white man ____ tyrant it is his ownover to Austria by Napoleon. freedom that he destroys.A) was coming / would have been handed A) perceived / would turnB) had come / has been handed B) has perceived / turnedC) comes / had been handed C) had perceived / has turnedD) came / was handed D) would perceive / will turnE) would come / was being handed E) perceived / turns99M 00K9. Over the past two decades, the Corsicans 13. With the help of satellite images, the____ their idyllic island, which was wrested Indonesian government ____ that it is theby France from the Genoese in 1768, ____ timber companies which ____ the massinto terrorism, corruption and economic destruction of their rain forests.decline. A) will show / would have causedA) have seen / sink B) would have shown / had causedB) had seen / sank C) had shown / were causingC) saw / to sink D) shows / had been causingD) would have seen / had sunk E) has shown / are causingE) would see / had been sinking 00M99M10. It ____ a mistake to think that all 14. By the late 1980s, a surge of prosperitybacteria are harmful, for, without some ____ across southeast Asia, but in somespecies, we ____ for long. countries of the region the economic structure ____ sufficiently to the benefitA) is / had not survived from this trend.B) would be / could not surviveC) will be / have not survived A) would sweep / could not have developedD) has been / would not have survived B) would have swept / has not developedE) had been / did not survive C) was sweeping / had not developed00K D) has swept / was not developed E) could have swept / was not developing 00M 26
  30. 30. 15. The ridicule that ____ upon him by 19. He insisted that mountaineering ____ aleading scientists of the day ____ to the sport for him, but a passion that ____ hisnovelty of his thinking. whole life.A) is being heaped / would testify A) hadnt been / would dominateB) has been heaped / testified B) isnt / has dominatedC) had heaped / has testified C) hasnt been / is dominatingD) was heaping / had testified D) wouldnt be / is dominatingE) was heaped / testifies E) wasnt / had dominated00M 02M16. Early in 1940, when Europe was already 20. When he moved from Ethiopia where heat war, Hitler ____ the sale of uranium ____, to England, his experiences____from the Czech mines he ____ over. quite unlike those of his contemporaries at school.A) has banned / has takenB) had banned / took A) had been born / wereC) banned / had taken B) is born / will beD) bans / was taking C) would be born / would beE) was banning / had been taking D) has been born / are01K E) was born / will be 02M17. Sometimes people select certain foods 21. Once the director _____ just how muchthat they believe ____ their physical was at stake, he _____ immediate steps toappearance and avoid those they believe deal with the dispute.____ detrimental. A) realizes / will takeA) have improved / would have been B) has realized / had takenB) are improving / were C) had realized / tookC) improve / might be D) realized / takesD) improved / had been E) would realize / has takenE) would have improved / have been 03M01K18. While the parades for the opening of 22. The once radical notion that birdsparliament ____, the president ____a _____ from dinosaurs ____ stronger andsobering message for his countrymen. stronger since paleontologists first started taking it seriously a couple of decades ago.A) had rehearsed / preparedB) have been rehearsed / has prepared A) descended / has grownC) were being rehearsed / was preparing B) have descended / grewD) are rehearsing / is preparing C) had descended / had grownE) had been rehearsed / would prepare D) descend / is growing02K E) are descending / was growing 03M 27
  31. 31. 23. Is seems that, even if big western 26. Many parts of rural America ____tocompanies____ to help develop lifesaving reflect the values and traditions of theGM ( genetically modified ) seeds for the European immigrants who ____in theunderdeveloped countries, only South country during the nineteenth century.Africa ____to accept them. A) continued / have arrivedA) will be willing / is ready B) have continued / would have arrivedB) has been willing / will be ready C) continue / arrivedC) had been willing / would be ready D) would have continued / were arrivingD) would be willing / was ready E) will continue / would arriveE) were willing / would be ready 06K04M24. China, which_____ much of Mongolia 27. With few exceptions, most totalitarianfrom the end of the seventieth century until governments ____ more liberal since 1989the early twentieth century, still, ____ the when the Berlin Wall____.oil, coal, uranium, and empty grasslands ofits former possessions. A) became / falls B) are becoming / would fallA) was ruling / has coveted C) were becoming / has fallenB) had ruled / may have coveted D) had become / was fallingC) has ruled / coveted E) have become / fellD) ruled / covets 06KE) rules / is coveting05K25. Old Danish, one of the languages of the 28. Of all the arts it ____ to classical musicVikings who ____ in parts of Britain during that Germany ____ the greatestthe 9th to 11 centuries, ____a strong contribution.influence on the development of English. A) had been / madeA) have settled / had had B) is / has madeB) had settled /would have C) has been / had madeC) settle / has D) was / will have madeD) settled / had E) might be / would have madeE) would settle / will have 06K05M 28
  32. 32. Çeviri soruları29. He certainly ____ party members last 1. During the Gulf War in 1991, the Iraqiweekend when he announced that he ____ troops caused the worst ever man-madeto regain his party chairmanship. environmental disaster by setting fire to 650 of Kuwaits 950 oil wells.A) has shocked / had not soughtB) would have shocked / will not seek A) Đnsan tarafından şimdiye kadar oluşturulmuşC) had shocked / would not have sought çevre felaketlerinden biri, 1991deki KörfezD) was to shock / is not seeking Savaşı sırasında Irak birliklerinin Kuveytin 950E) shocked / would not seek petrol kuyusundan 650sini ateşe vermesiyle06M meydana gelmiştir. B) 1991deki Körfez Savaşı sırasında, Irak birliklerinin Kuveyte ait 950 petrol kuyusundan 650sini yakması, şimdiye kadar insandan kaynaklanan en korkunç cevre felaketlerinden biriyle sonuçlandı. C) 1991deki Körfez Savaşı sırasında, Irak birlikleri Kuveytin 950 petrol kuyusundan 650sini ateşe vererek insan tarafından şimdiye kadar oluşturulmuş en kötü cevre felaketine neden oldular. D) Đnsandan kaynaklanmış en korkunç cevre felaketi 1991deki Körfez Savaşı sırasında meydana gelmiştir; çünkü bu savaşta Irak güçleri Kuveytin 950 petrol kuyusundan en az 650sini ateşe vermiştir. E) 1991 yılında yalnız Körfez Savaşından dolayı değil, bu savaş sırasında Irak güçlerinin Kuveyte ait 950 petrol kuyusundan 650sini ateşe vermesi yüzünden de insan tarafından şimdiye kadar oluşturulmuş en korkunç cevre felaketi yaşanmıştır. 05M30. The patchwork of Anglo-Saxon and 2. A key problem throughout Japans longCeltic nations, the myths of a rural idyll years of economic stagnation has been thatcreated by rapid urbanization, the close the government and the central bank haverelationship with America and the been at odds.immigration from the West Indies, southAsia and Africa – all____ to the wealth of A) Hükümet ile merkez bankasının arası açıkmusic literature and recordings. olduğu için, Japonyadaki ekonomik durgunluğun uzun yıllar devam etmesi, temel bir sorunA) have contributed olmuştur.B) would contribute B) Japonyada ekonomik durgunluk uzun yıllarC) had contributed sürdüğü için, hükümet ile merkez bankasınınD) will contribute anlaşamaması ana sorun olmuştur.E) to have contributed C) Japonyanın uzun yıllar devam eden ekonomik07M durgunluk dönemindeki temel sorunu, hükümet ile merkez bankasının arasının açık olmasıdır. D) Japonyanın uzun yıllar süren ekonomik durgunluğu boyunca en temel sorunu, hükümet ile merkez bankasının hiçbir zaman uzlaşamamasıdır. E) Hükümet ile merkez bankası anlaşmamakta inat ettikleri için, Japonya’nın ekonomik durgunluğu temel bir sorun olarak yıllarca sürmüştür. 05K 29
  33. 33. 3. According to the UN observers in ihe 5. Birleşmiş Milletlerin, Filistinin Yahudi veregion, Rwandan troops have reentered Arap bölgelerine bölünmesini onaylamasıCongo in violation of the peace treaty üzerine, 14 Mayıs 1948de Đsrail devleti ilansigned between the two countries last year. edildi.A) Bölgedeki BM gözlemcilerine göre, Ruanda A) Once The United Nations had recommendedaskerleri, geçen yıl iki ülke arasında imzalanan partitioning Palestine into Jewish and Arabbarış antlaşmasına aykırı olarak, yeniden regions, the state of Israel could have beenKongoya girmiştir. , proclaimed on 14 May 1948.B) Bölgedeki BM görevlilerine göre, geçen yıl iki B) Once the partition of Palestine into Jewishülke arasında yapılan barış antlaşmasını and Arab regions had been approved by theçiğneyen Ruanda askerleri, Kongoya tekrar United Nations, the state of Israel wasgirmiştir. immediately proclaimed an 14 May 1948.C) Bölgede bulunan BM görevlilerine göre, C) Upon the United Nations approval of theRuanda askerleri Kongoya tekrar girerek geçen partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arabyıl yapılan barış antlaşmasını bozmuştur. territories, the state o Israel was proclaimed onD) Bölgede görev yapan BM sorumlularına göre, 14 May 1948.Ruanda askerleri Kongoya yeniden girmiş ve D) The state of Israel was proclaimed on 14 Mayböylelikle geçen yıl iki ülke arasında imzalanmış 1948 since the United Nations wasolan barış antlaşmasını ihlal etmiştir. recommending the partitioning of Palestine intoE) Bölgede bulunan BM gözlemcilerine göre, Jewish and Arab parts.geçen yıl iki ülke arasında imzalanan barış E) The state of Israel was proclaimed on 14 Mayantlaşmasına rağmen, Ruanda askerlerinin çoğu 1948 following there commendation of theKongoya bir kez daha girmiştir United Nations that Palestine should be divided04K into Jewish and Arab territories. 03M4. Hükümet giriş ücretlerini kaldırır 6. 1980lerden bu yana, dünyadaki nükleerkaldırmaz, çok daha fazla kişi müzeleri ve sanayi hızlı bir şekilde düşmektedir vesanat galerilerini ziyaret etmeye başladı. Avrupa Birliği içinde on beş ülkeden yedisi nükleer enerjiden aşama aşamaA) Following the governments ruling for no vazgeçmiştir.entrance charges for museums and art galleries,more and more people will start to visit them. A) Since the 1980s, the nuclear industry in theB) An increasing number of people had begun to world has been declining rapidly, and within thevisit the museums and art galleries even before European Union, seven out of fifteen countriesthe government abolished entrance fees. have phased out nuclear power.C) If the government decides to stop charging B) Starting with the 1980s, there has been aentrance fees for museums and art galleries, steep decline in the nuclear industry throughoutmany more people will start to visit them the world, especially in the European UnionD) As soon as the government had abolished where only seven of the fifteen continue to useentrance charges, many more people started to nuclear power.visit the museums and art galleries. C) The worlds nuclear industry has continued toE) Now, as there are no admission charges for decline since the 1980s; in particular, this is truemuseums and art galleries, following a of the fifteen countries of the European Union,government ruling, an increasing number of seven of which have slowly ceased to use itpeople are visiting them. altogether.03M D) Seven of the fifteen countries of the European Union have gradually put an end to the use of nuclear power; the movement started in the 1980s and has continued world-wide ever since. E) After the 1980s, the nuclear industries of the world have fallen into disrepute, especially in the European Union where seven of the fifteen countries have, step by step, stopped using it altogether. 00M 30
  34. 34. 7. Sonunda ormanın kenarına 9. When, in the mid-19th century, the woolulaştığımızda, uzun süre orada durduk ve trade boomed in Yorkshire, almost a tenthönümüzde uzayıp giden manzarayı of the population of Bradford consisted ofseyrettik. Irish immigrants.A) With the forest finally behind us, we stood for A) On dokuzuncu yüzyılın ortalarına doğrua long time looking at the countryside ahead of Bradford’da yaşayan ve nüfusun onda birinius. oluşturan Đrlandalı göçmenler Yorkshire’da hızlıB) On finally getting through to the edge of the bir gelişme gösteren yün ticaretini ellerindeforest we paused for a while, to look at the tutuyorlardı.landscape that stretched out before us. B) On dokuzuncu yüzyılın ortalarındaC) Once we had got through the forest, we Yorkshire’da yün sanayinin hızla gelişmesipaused to look at the landscape that lay ahead Bradford’a yerleşen Đrlandalı göçmenlerinof us. nüfusunun on kat artmasına neden oldu.D) When we finally got to the edge of the forest, C) Bradford nüfusunun onda birini oluşturanwe stood there for a long while and looked at Đrlandalı göçmenler, on dokuzuncu yüzyılınthe landscape that stretched out before us. ortalarında Yorkshire’da hızlı bir gelişmeE) When we finally came out of the forest we gösteren yün dokumacılığının temelinistood there, gazing for a long time at the oluşturuyordu.countryside in front of us. D) On dokuzuncu yüzyılın ortalarında,01M Yorkshire’da yün ticareti hızlı bir gelişme gösterdiğinde, Bradford nüfusunun hemen hemen onda biri Đrlandalı göçmenlerden oluşuyordu. E) On dokuzuncu yüzyılın ortalarına doğru Yorkshire’da yün ticaretinin hızla gelişmesi Bradford’daki Đrlandalıların hemen hemen onda birinin göç etmesi ile sonuçlandı. 98M8. Mozart iki yüz yedi yıl önce bu ay 10. Đspanya Kralı II. Philip 1580’deöldüğünde, daha sonra öğrencisi Süssmayr Portekiz’i aldığından bu yana Portekizlilertarafından tamamlanan Requiemini hep derin bir işgal korkusu taşımışlardır.bitirememişti. A) Since the Spanish King Philip II took overA) It was Süssmayr, one of Mozarts students, Portugal in 1580, the Portuguese have alwayswho completed the Requiem, left unfinished by had a deep fear of invasion.the composer when he died two hundred and B) After Philip II, King of Spain, conqueredseven years ago this month. Portugal in 1580, the Portuguese wereB) When Mozart died two hundred and seven extremely afraid of the consequences of hisyears ago this month, he had been unable to invasion.finish his Requiem, which was later completed C) Ever since Portugal was captured in 1580 byby his student Süssmayr. the Spaniards under Philip II, the PortugueseC) Two hundred and seven years ago this people have been unremittingly fearful ofmonth, when Mozart died, he left his Requiem another invasion.unfinished for his student Süssmayr to complete. D) The Portuguese had always been afraid of aD) Upon Mozarts death two hundred and seven Spanish invasion even before Portugal was takenyears ago this month, his student Süssmayr over in 1580 by Philip II, the King of Spain.completed the Requiem which the composer had E) The Portuguese people’s deep-seated fear offailed to finish. invasion dates back to 1580 when Philip II ofE) The Requiem, which Mozart had been unable Spain conquered Portugal.to complete before his death two hundred and 98Mseven years ago this month, was finished by hisstudent Süssmavr.99M 31
  35. 35. 11. Başkan Yeltsin Đtalya’ya yaptığı geziyi 13. On dokuzuncu yüzyılın sonlarında Xtamamlarken, Rusya’nın ulusal gaz şirketi ışınları keşfedildiğinde, bilim adamlarıGazprom da Đtalyan enerji grubu ENI ile 2 benzer tür başka ışınlar bulmak için hemenmilyar dolarlık bir sözleşme imzaladı. yoğun araştırmalara giriştiler.A) President Yeltsin’s visit to Italy ended with A) It was in the late nineteenth century that,the signing of a $2 billion contract between following the discovery of X-rays, scientistsRussia’s national gas company Gazprom and suddenly embarked on a serious researchItaly’s energy group ENI. programme to trace various other similar rays.B) During President Yeltsin’s last visit to Italy, a B) Following the discovery of X-rays in the$2 billion contract was signed between Russia’s nineteenth century, comprehensive research wasnational gas company Gazprom and Italy’s soon undertaken by scientists in order to detectenergy group ENI. other rays of the same kind.C) The $2 billion contract between Gazprom C) Towards the end of the nineteenth century,which is Russia’s gas company and ENI which is when X-rays were discovered, scientists wereItaly’s energy group was signed just as already involved in extensive research in orderpresident Yeltsin ended his tour of Italy. to study other kinds of rays.D) As the President Yeltsin rounded up his visit D) The discovery of X-rays in the late nineteenthto Italy, Gazprom, Russia’s national gas century motivated scientists to carry outcompany, signed a $2 billion contract with the exhaustive research in order to detect otherItalian energy group ENI. types of rays.E) While President Yeltsin’s visit to Italy was E) When X-rays were discovered in the latenearing its end, the $2 billion contract between nineteenth century, scientists immediately setthe Russian gas company Gazprom and the out on intensive research to find other similarItalian energy group ENI was finally signed. types of rays.98M 06K12. When the Sirkeci train station went into 14. Ortaçağ haritaları Hollanda’nınservice on November 3, 1890, the waiting neredeyse yarısını su altında gösterir, amaroom was heated with stoves brought from o zamandan beri denizden geniş alanlarAustria and lit by coal-gas lamps. kazanılmıştır.A) 3 Kasım 1890’da hizmete giren Sirkeci tren A) In medieval maps nearly half of theistasyonunun hava gazı lambalarıyla aydınlatılan Netherlands is under water, but since then thebekleme salonu, çoğu Avusturya’dan ithal edilen sea has withdrawn from large areas.sobalarla ısıtılıyordu. B) Large areas of what is now the NetherlandsB) Sirkeci tren istasyonu 3 Kasım 1890’da have often been claimed from the sea, but inhizmete girdiğinde, bekleme salonu medieval maps they were under water.Avusturya’dan getirtilen sobalarla ısıtılıyor ve C) Nearly half of the Netherlands does not existhava gazı lambalarıyla aydınlatılıyordu. on medieval maps but later large areas wereC) 3 Kasım 1890’da, bekleme salonu hava gazı recovered from the sea.lambalarıyla aydınlatılan ve Avusturya’dan ithal D) Medieval maps show that large areas of theedilen sobalarla ısıtılan Sirkeci tren istasyonu Netherlands used to be under the sea, but theyhizmete girdi. have since been reclaimed.D) Sirkeci tren istasyonu 3 Kasım 1890’da E) Medieval maps show nearly half of thehizmete girdiğinde, hava gazı lambalarıyla Netherlands under water, but since then largeaydınlatılan bekleme salonunu ısıtmak için areas have been claimed from the sea.Avusturya’dan soba ithal edilmişti. 06ME) Sirkeci tren istasyonunun Avusturyasobalarıyla ısıtılan ve hava gazı lambalarıylaaydınlatılan bekleme salonu, 3 Kasım 1890’dahizmete girmişti.06K 32
  36. 36. Cümle tamamlama soruları1. ____ even though certain difficult 4. While most people still saw computers aseconomic conditions prevail. science fiction, ____.A) European equities display strong profit A) the discriminating few immediatelygrowth appreciated their advantagesB) In 2004, the European economy remained B) the early ones were large in size and low infundamentally sound performanceC) Inflation had actually begun to improve C) they continue to get smaller and moreD) There were several other encouraging signs versatileE) It should have been easy to maintain the D) it is hard to imagine how banks earned oncompetitiveness their work without them05M E) a majority still wish they had never been invented 04M2. ____ when the occupancy levels in the 5. ____ so long as you pay attention andhotel fall off steeply. stick to the rules.A) There are no profits to be made during the A) There is a huge number of fascinating wreckscold winter months around BritainB) The hotel regained its five-star rating in 1996 B) Wrecks under the sea can contain hazardousC) The rebuilt Star has retained the original materials like oil and mutionsshell, but scarcely any of the fittings C) Scuba diving is very safeD) Training schemes were receiving even D) Scuba was first patented in 1865 and wasgreater attention perfected over the yearsE) Outside temperatures reached 50°C E) Scuba divers get a great deal of pleasure05M from exploring wrecks 04M3. When the feminist movement came into 6. ____, when Eveready introduced thebeing, _____. alkaline battery.A) a major issue is still the right to vote A) Their technological success is stili beingB) the aim had been to combat oppression questionedC) women were seen as constituting a single B) Many new materials have been adapted forclass battery useD) discrimination against women still continues C) Mercury, too, has recently been eliminatedin the workplace from batteries on account of its toxicityE) The professional-class working mother is D) The lifespan of these batteries are expectedanother exception to improve05K E) The first major advance in flashlight batteries came in 1959 04K 33
  37. 37. 7. In good hands, the harpsichord will 10. ____ that basic evolutionary processesalways have things to offer____. in the future will differ substantially from those in the past.A) that its value has never been doubtedB) which other musical instruments cannot A) The breaking up of habitats will createC) if yet another challenge had to be faced populationsD) even when the performances were not quite B) Nobody had thought to ask themselvesflawless C) They are carrying out a study of islandE) since a substantial amount of his earthy biogeographyperiod has been recorded D) There is no reason whatsoever to assume04K E) The argument was further supported 02M8. Kerrich carried out exhaustive 11. Though some scholars argue that ____,experiments in probability ____. others say that the beginning of the 15th century saw its real rise.A) until the coin has been tossed a thousandtimes A) by the latter part of the 12th century most ofB) if he had been arrested when the Germans the literary conventions of Urdu literature haveinvaded Denmark already been well establishedC) whether the coin toss is truly random B) the 12th century was the time of the greatD) while he was interned in a camp in Jutland religious movements in Indiafor the duration of the war C) Urdu literature dates back to the 12th centuryE) that he has been acclaimed as one of South D) most of the literary writings in India in theAfricas leading mathematicians 12th century consisted of religious tracts and02M allegories E) most Urdu poets in the 12th century turned to romances and narratives of heroic deeds 02K9. After he had learned my side of the story 12. ____, there just wasnt enoughfrom Molly, ____. evidence to convict him.A) his apologies are obviously worthless A) If the trial had been postponed to a later dateB) he phoned me to apologize for his attitude B) Since almost nothing the accused himself saidC) I dont even want to listen to his apologies could be substantiatedD) hes still too proud to admit he behaved badly C) Though he seemed extremely reluctant toE) it will obviously be better to forget all about it sign the statement02M D) Even before the judge had finished summing up the case E) Although everyone was convinced that Smith had committed the murder 02K 34
  38. 38. 13. _____, so the introduction of 16. ____ ,we need to find ways to copemetalworking made trade with the outside with it.world inevitable. A) As the disease wasn’t curedA) Compared with those of the iron ages, stone B) If relaxation was essential for a healthy mindage tools were very primitive and bodyB) Many ores, such as copper and tin are not C) After we had learned the living conditionsfound in all countries D) Whether he has confidence in our plans orC) The "bronze age" is a term used in prehistoric notarcheology E) Since we can not remove stress from ourD) The chemical processes involved in the livessmelting of ores were not as complicated 01ME) Subsequently the knowledge of metalworkingmust have spread among the less advancedcommunities around01M14. Iron deficiency is one of the commonest 17. ____ , Japanese firms moved the morecauses of anemia _____. intensive phases of their production process to cheap labour sites in East Asia.A) since even in a good diet the supply of iron isonly just adequate A) As production cost in Japan had becomeB) why adolescents outgrow their stores of iron excessiveC) which would result in brittle nails B) Unless the working day is kept at eight hoursD) though new ways of treating pernicious C) Once the trade unions in Japan have won aanemia were soon introduced few more victoriesE) as numerous iron preparations are available D) So long as a reduction in costs remains thefor treatment primary goal01M E) If interest rates in Japan had remained high 00M15. Pharmaceutical companies are unlikely 18. ____ a greet many alarming theoriesto develop a vaccine for an uncommon are sure to spring to the fore.disease like leprosy______. A) Before the truth had been verifiedA) how early diagnosis could help B) Even though his death had almost certainlyB) so that pressure would be put on them been from natural causesC) if the choice had been given to them C) If several perfectly natural explanations hadD) until the various charities were informed been put forwardE) that can be treated with drugs D) Whenever there are anonymous terrorist01M attacks E) As soon as this admittedly unpleasant incident got forgotten 00K 35
  39. 39. 19. While businesses and stores have 22. Before Freud shed light on dreams andstarted to perform well and make profits, extraordinary role of the subconscious,____ . ____ .A) only a crack in the stock market was to be A) there are many who have grasped theirfeared significanceB) inflation and unemployment have been held B) educated people in particular regardedin check dreams as meaningless and pointlessC) the economy ought to be able to withstand a C) many traditional ways of interpreting dreamsrecession are being analyzedD) the Euro currency could stand up to so much D) the relationship between stress and dreamscriticism would surely have been recognizedE) fiscal transfers across European nation states E) many great writers still draw on the principleswere of minimal importance of human psychology99K 98K20. ____ , there will be a notable decrease 23. ____ until Thomas Paine published Thein the profits of most businesses. Common Sense and sparked off the American Revolution.A) If people start to spend less and save moreB) However efficiently the inflation was curbed A) George Washington considered himself a loyalC) Had these reasonable measures been British subjectintroduced earlier B) Idealism hasn’t often been a determiningD) Before the financial situation could be fully factorunderstood C) Voltaire’s influence would have been moreE) Though the leading economists had started to pervasive,grow more hopeful D) That was a period of radical change in all99K spheres E) They were the people responsible for shaping the national character of the United States 98K21. As heavy rain had been forecast for the 24. ____ that scientists are now sendingarea, ____ . out “e prints” instead of preprints of unpublished articles.A) record harvest are expected this yearB) they would presumably cancel the excursion A) Prior to the internet, it was not possibleto the ruins in the valley B) One change that the advent of the internetC) I can’t imagine why they neglected to take all has brought isnecessary precautions to avoid flooding C) The internet has indeed opened many doorsD) farm labors would have to work overtime and D) The benefits of technology should not beweekends overratedE) the resulting floods caused widespread E) Among academics, technological advanceshardships attract less attention98M 98K 36
  40. 40. 25. ____ while such African languages as 28. In general, when credit demand is low,Hausa and Swahili continued to serve the ____.everyday needs of the masses. A) it is not sensible to take out loans duringA) During the colonial era in Africa, English deflationbecame the shared language of the B) following the wrong guideline could haveadministration and a Western-educated elite, been catastrophicB) In colonial Africa, the teaching of English C) interest rates measure the cost of credit, notliterature is no longer popular the price of moneyC) Modern African writers have found it D) interest rates are correspondingly lownecessary to adapt certain aspects of English, E) precautionary savings were rising at this timeD) Today, English is the official language of 06Msixteen countries in Africa,E) English as a second language has been taughtin Africa for nearly four hundred years,06K26. Before the 21st century has run its 29. ____ when countered by antistresscourse, ____. measures such as exercising, enjoying time with friends and cultivating a hobby.A) the powers of computers have expandedvastly due to advanced research A) The ladder of success is a hard oneB) countless technologies not envisioned yet will B) There must be a balance between tension andbe available to us relaxationC) a great deal of scientific effort is being made C) Workloads seem lighterto find solutions to complex problems D) Relaxation techniques are easy to learnD) most people in developed countries enjoy a E) Stress can be understood in a variety of waysstate of true health throughout their lives 07ME) our knowledge of the world around us hasimproved to a great extent06K27. By 1809, Sweden’s military power had 30. The United Nations officially recognizedwaned to such an extent ____. the greenhouse effect in 1995, ____.A) as a new constitution transferred power from A) when its International Panel on Climate notedthe king to Parliament that human activity had a discernible influenceB) so that it could no longer continue as a great on global temperaturespower B) as the economies of developing nations willC) that the country was forced to surrender part grow over the next few decadesof its territory to Russia C) if developing nations were exempted from theD) in that nearly one million Swedes migrated, Kyoto Agreementmostly to America D) since the US government announced that itE) even though the Swedes had contributed to would not participate in Kyoto AgreementEurope’s Age of Enlightenment with advances in E) that the participating nations must makescience large and costly changes in their energy systems06K 07M 37
  41. 41. Benzer cümle soruları31. Oxygen, sugars and amino acids are 1. Until recently people felt that Nigerianallowed into the brain ____. ministers were being too optimistic, but there is now no question that the country’sA) as toxins could severely impair the brain’s financial position is growing steadilyfunctioning stronger.B) which provided early evidence of the blood-brain barrier A) It is now clear that Nigeria’s economy is in aC) but most other substances are kept out strong upward cycle but previously peopleD) that controls which molecules in the doubted the hopeful attitude of Nigerianbloodstream can enter the brain ministers.E) just as no other organ is equally efficient B) Nigerian ministers today have no07M apprehensions about their country’s financial status, as it is plain that it is constantly getting better. C) In the past, even though Nigeria’s economic status was constantly improving, people were often mistrustful of its ministers’ confident views. D) Though Nigerian ministers were previously skeptical of positive ideas about their country’s financial status, it has become obvious that its economy is advancing day by day. E) Today we see that Nigeria is progressing economically, but in the recent past, this was not the case and economists were wary of the optimistic views of its leaders. 06K 38
  42. 42. Paragrafa uymayan cümle soruları1. (I) X-rays, chemical analysis of paint and 3. (I) In 1912 some of the topclose scrutiny by expert eyes are all used to mathematicians in the world receivedtell art forgeries from the real thing. (II) letters full of incredibly complex formulas.But now computer scientists at Americas (II) They came from Madras, India, from aDartmouth College have come up with a 23-year-old accounts clerk named Srinivasadigital method for sorting the real from the Ramanujan. (Ill) He claimed to havecounterfeit. (III) Drawings or paintings are worked them out in his spare time afterscanned at high resolution and a computer leaving school. (IV) It is an ambition onebreaks them down into digital elements shares with lots of people, of all ages andcalled wavelets. (IV) An analysis of backgrounds. (V) One of the lettersMadonna with Child by the Renaissance reached Professor G.H. Hardy of Trinitypainter Perugino showed that at least four College, Cambridge, who soon realized thatpeople had worked on the six faces in the the formulas were the work of one of thepainting. (V) The wavelets are then greatest mathematical geniuses of all time.analyzed statistically to find consistenciesor differences. A) I B) IIA) I C) IIIB) II D) IVC) III E) VD) IV 02KE) V05M2. (I) in India, a lower-middle-class group 4. (I) Global warming is bringing newis steadily emerging, (II) it was a long time arrivals to British shores. (II) Sincebefore any improvements were made to the 1980,18 new fish species have been caughtinfrastructure, (III) Further, with the off the coast of Cornwall. (Ill) As the waterarrival of television, the expectations of warms up, they feel the need to movethese people have risen considerably. (IV) northward. (IV) Since they are cold-Indians are now demanding better blooded creatures, they have to findeducation for their children. (V) They are suitable surroundings in which to regulatealso asking for tarred roads to facilitate their temperature. (V) Indeed, betweenbusiness, and better products and services 1960 and 1980 no new species wereto make their lives easier. reported any where in the area.A) l A) IB) II B) IIC) III C) IIID) IV D) IVE) V E) V04M 02K 39
  43. 43. 5. (I) It should be stated at the outset that 7. (I) In Brazil, as in much of Latinit is the successful farmers with the best America, oil in particular has long been aquality land who have generally benefited political symbol. (II) This has beenfrom all the government support. (II) represented by the countrys federal oilTraditionally the farmers on plateau in company Petrobras. (III) Consequently,Central India cultivated a large number of mismanagement and subsidized pricingunirrigated wheat varieties. (III) With the paralyzed the system with debt. (IV) Whenintroduction to this region in the late founded in 1962, it was regarded as an iconsixties of electricity, and the technology for of emancipation from foreign economicdigging deep wells, they were induced to domination. (V) Yet, today the Brazilianchange to irrigated farming. (IV) Moreover, government has taken serious steps to end,to develop high-yielding varieties of wheat through privatization, Petrobrass oilappropriate for irrigated farming, the monopoly.government set up a wheat research centrein the area. (V) This was then backed up A) Iwith the organization of special training B) IIcourses for farmers. C) III D) IVA) I E) VB) II 99KC) IIID) IVE) V00M6. (I) The collapse of the economies ofsouth east Asia in the early years of thedecade was later followed by that of Korea,the classic tiger economy. (II) Whathappens next in a region that is nowstrewn with the wrecks of so-calledeconomic miracles? (Ill) This leaves Europeand United States as significant massmarkets. (IV) The assumption thatrecession will spread in the region owing tocapital flight and belt-tightening is mostplausible. (V) This will deepen as foreigninvestors increasingly reduce their profilein south east Asia.A) IB) IIC) IIID) IVE) V00M 40
  44. 44. KEY TO TENSES 26 C 4ABOŞLUK 27 E 5C BENZER CÜMLEDOLDURMA 28 B 6E 1A1E 29 E 7B2D 30 A 8D PARAGRAF3A 9B 1D4B ÇEVĐRĐ 10 D* 2B5E 1C 11 C 3D6C 2C 12 E 4E7E 3A 13 E 5A8D 4D 14 A 6 A*9C 5C 15 E 7 C*10 B* 6A 16 E11 A 7D 17 A12 E 8B 18 D13 E 9D 19 B*14 C 10 A 20 A15 E 11 D 21 C*16 C 12 B 22 B17 C 13 E 23 A*18 C 14 E 24 B19 E 25 A20 A CÜMLE 26 B21 C TAMAMLAMA 27 C22 A 1A 28 D23 E 2A 29 C24 D 3C 30 A25 D 31 C 41
  45. 45. OUTLINE OF MODALS MODAL KULLANIM PRESENT / FUTURE PAST 1- kibar ricalar May I use your internet? X 2- izin isterken may You may wait in the lobby. X (resmi) 3- düşük ihtimaller She may forget to bring the camera. She may have forgot to bring the camera. might düşük ihtimaller She might forget to bring the camera. She might have forgot to bring the camera. 1- tavsiyeler I should stop smoking. I should have stopped smoking.should-ought to He should be delayed in the traffic. He should have been delayed in the traffic. 2- yüksek ihtimaller had better You had better come early, or else we start eating without X tehditkar tavsiyeler you.be supposed to öngörü You are to be here at 9:00. You were to be here at 9:00. 1- kendimiz için emir I must see the headmaster. I had to go to class yesterday. must You must not enter that room. X 2- yasaklar I heard a voice. There must have been somebody 3- yüksek ihtimal I hear a voice. There must be somebody outside. outside. 1- dıştan gelen emir I have to see the headmaster. He asked for me. I had to see the headmaster. He had asked for me. have to 2- gereksizlik You dont have to buy onions. We have enough. You didnt have to buy onions. We had enough. 1- kesinlik (gelecek) X I will be at the meeting at 3:00. will 2- kibar ricalar Will you please show me the way? X 1- kabiliyet Can you ride a horse? Could you ride a horse when you were a child? can 2- izin isterken Can I borrow your ruler? X 3 - ihtimal Diving can be dangerous. Diving could have been dangerous. need gereklilik The room needs cleaning. The room needed cleaning. You neednt buy eggs. We have enough. You neednt have bought eggs. We had enough. used to eski alışkanlıklar X I used to like fish before.(would kullanılmaz) * would eski alışkanlıklar * X I would see the dentist every week before. ** durum bildiren fiillerle kullanılamaz. bkz. appendix 2 43
  46. 46. MODALSÇIKMIŞ SORULARBoşluk doldurma soruları1. Its not considered safe to leave your 4. Cross-border shopping is a fundamentalcomputer on when you are not in the office, right under EU law and ____ as a form ofso you____ do so. tax evasion.A) dont have to A) must not have been regardedB) mustnt B) had not been regardedC) neednt C) should not be regardedD) havent got to D) would not have been regardedE) dont need to E) was not being regarded02M 06M2. Applicants ____ the ability to work well 5. If a financial gain is thereby achieved,in a multicultural environment and ____ to then the time spent in the educationalwork to tight deadlines. process____ seen as an investment.A) have had / had been able A) might have beenB) should have / be able B) would beC) must have / were able C) wasD) will have / had had D) had beenE) could have / have had E) can be05M 07M3. All hay fever sufferers will be aware ofthe pollen “rain” that ____ them in thespring and summer.A) should afflictB) can afflictC) had afflictedD) would afflictE) afflicted06K 44

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