Social and Political Aspects of Media Pluralism and Media          Freedom        Alina Dobreva, PhD
Communication and DemocracyFrom Aristotle…      …to McLuhan
Normative expectations of citizens & media            “Rationality-activist model” of citizenship                Constant ...
Freedom of expression   Media freedom        Press      freedom
Media freedom and democracy       Media                  producing   Democracy      freedom                               ...
Market     concentration    Media   freedomMedia pluralism
Normative functions of media freedom &pluralism              Media freedom               Media pluralism Opportunity      ...
Approaches towards media freedom &pluralism            Approach               Risks of limitations     Normative rationale...
Definition of media freedom & pluralism                                      precondition                                 ...
Media freedom“Owner” of the freedom: ordinary citizens, journalists or editors/media owners?  Current de-professionalisati...
Media pluralism    Variety, diversity and the plurality of media supply:Ownership, media outlets, sources of information a...
Measuring Media Pluralism across Social & Political        Contexts          Andrea Calderaro, PhD          Centre for Med...
Measuring Media Pluralism• International Institutions (CoE, 2008 & UNESCO 2007)• Non Governmental Organizations (Ofcom 201...
Challenges• Identifying the indicators:       media-ownership concentration, media market competition,                    ...
Comparing- to identify national peculiarities- to explore the unequal behaviour of our observed  phenomenon- as a componen...
Standardizing Vs Contextualizing            Quantitative Vs   QualitativeBenefits• Focusing on the same national indicator...
Independent Study on Indicators for Media  Pluralism in the Member States – Toward a Risk-                    Based Report...
Quantitative ApproachCriticism• The lens that we use to observe and collect data in one  context, does not imply that is i...
Standardizing Vs Contextualizing               Quantitative Vs QualitativeQualitative methodologies• Ethnographic approach...
ConcludingStandardization/Quantitative        Contextualizing/QualitativeBenefits                            BenefitsIt ge...
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!
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Social and Political Aspects of Media Pluralism and Media Freedom / Measuring Media Pluralism across Social & Political Contexts

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Alina Dobreva / Andrea Calderaro
http://cmpf.eui.eu/events/policy-conference.aspx

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Social and Political Aspects of Media Pluralism and Media Freedom / Measuring Media Pluralism across Social & Political Contexts

  1. 1. Social and Political Aspects of Media Pluralism and Media Freedom Alina Dobreva, PhD
  2. 2. Communication and DemocracyFrom Aristotle… …to McLuhan
  3. 3. Normative expectations of citizens & media “Rationality-activist model” of citizenship Constant high level of awareness and being informed Constant high level of engagement and involvement Proactive in both forming and expressing their political will Rational citizens How to do it? Free media and interpersonal communication: Facilitates the flow of information about public events to citizens Exposes politicians and governments to public scrutiny Elucidates choices during elections Urges people to participate in the political process Leads to exposure to and exchange of different views (increased political knowledge, understanding, and tolerance Leads to better social orientation and therefore, informed political choice Legitimate democracy
  4. 4. Freedom of expression Media freedom Press freedom
  5. 5. Media freedom and democracy Media producing Democracy freedom Media Democracy producing freedom Democracy Media freedom
  6. 6. Market concentration Media freedomMedia pluralism
  7. 7. Normative functions of media freedom &pluralism Media freedom Media pluralism Opportunity Outcome for all groups (1) to provide a platform for … reflecting the plurality of voices self-expression … without misrepresentation (2) to provide citizens with … by various, easily accessible access to information (not to sources, presenting wide variety ‘truth’)… of viewpoints (3) to foster agonistic public … between all groups in a society debate and deliberation … (Czepek; McConnell & Becker)
  8. 8. Approaches towards media freedom &pluralism Approach Risks of limitations Normative rationale … simplification, turning into Reasoning and motivation inapplicable &wishful political slogans, value statements Analytical tool … perceiving media freedom and Depth and thoroughness pluralism as absolute values and not means to an end Regulatory instrument … simplification of benchmarks; Applicability inflexible, unified formula; practicality compromises
  9. 9. Definition of media freedom & pluralism precondition s Media freedom Media pluralism Independence from government, Independence from disproportionate authorities’ control & intervention; no private control and influence of 1/few governmental monopoly on economic, social and/or political information power(s) framed within the media-government based upon the tolerance and relations inclusiveness in politics and societyEuropean understanding: “freedom to”; proactively related to ensuring representation;“positive right”, i.e., rights and freedoms to do thingsAmerican understanding: “freedom from”; liberal-market approach of small state
  10. 10. Media freedom“Owner” of the freedom: ordinary citizens, journalists or editors/media owners? Current de-professionalisation of journalists – tbd Freedom at the level of media source or freedom at the level of the individual journalist – depending on the particular media system and its emphasis on internal/external pluralism Emphasis on violations versus proactive overall view Minimal definitions of democracy Social, political context &facilitating Focus on the presence or absence of legislation certain indicative problems, e.g., the Focus on overall performance, higher killing of journalists standards of democratic functioning • Reflecting closer the standards, ideals and specificities of the EU • Outlining problematical areas and politically justifying intervention on EU level (guarantor and facilitator of media freedom & pluralism in the Union)
  11. 11. Media pluralism Variety, diversity and the plurality of media supply:Ownership, media outlets, sources of information and range of contents, guaranteed by market rulesand regulations Public sphere, general public and/or audienceActual consumption cannot be regulated, but easy access to pluralistic information should beguaranteedLed by factors beyond commercial viability and profitability Provided by free, independent and autonomous mediaMedia freedom as pre-requisite to media pluralismPolitical and economic independence Results in access and choice of opinions & representations, which reflect the citizens of the state in questionThe result however, depends on social and political factors beyond media as well
  12. 12. Measuring Media Pluralism across Social & Political Contexts Andrea Calderaro, PhD Centre for Media Pluralism and Media Freedom
  13. 13. Measuring Media Pluralism• International Institutions (CoE, 2008 & UNESCO 2007)• Non Governmental Organizations (Ofcom 2012)• Academic Research (Valcke et al. 2009) There is no agreement about how to measure Media Pluralism
  14. 14. Challenges• Identifying the indicators: media-ownership concentration, media market competition, content diversity, freedom of journalists• Framing a comparative research design• Selection a research strategies: Quantitative/Qualitative methodologies
  15. 15. Comparing- to identify national peculiarities- to explore the unequal behaviour of our observed phenomenon- as a component of a larger transnational system
  16. 16. Standardizing Vs Contextualizing Quantitative Vs QualitativeBenefits• Focusing on the same national indicators• Standardize research tools• Collection of neutral empirical data• Which can easily understood in different contexts
  17. 17. Independent Study on Indicators for Media Pluralism in the Member States – Toward a Risk- Based Report Valcke, KU Leuven - 20093 level of analysis• Legal Indicators• Socio-Demographic Indicators• Economic Indicators
  18. 18. Quantitative ApproachCriticism• The lens that we use to observe and collect data in one context, does not imply that is is equal valid in an other contexts (Adcock & Collier, 2001)• By pursuing a neutral data, we risk to lose information which is essential to understand the national context (Peschar 1984)
  19. 19. Standardizing Vs Contextualizing Quantitative Vs QualitativeQualitative methodologies• Ethnographic approaches• Interviews• Observatory participation Produce explanation, instead of dry pictures of facts
  20. 20. ConcludingStandardization/Quantitative Contextualizing/QualitativeBenefits BenefitsIt generates neutral and easily More powerful tool to develop acomparable data deep knowledge of localLimits contexts, in order to understand local Media PluralismIt risks to loose information on Limitsnational peculiarities, which It makes a transnationalmight be the goal of the research comparison more difficult
  21. 21. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!

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