State of the art study :
Hinterland connections
Publication date (final version): 22.03.2012
A project implemented by the
...
Danube Inland Harbour Development
Version
V.0.6
Date of version
March 22, 2012
Status
internal
Main authors
Galati
Municip...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 3 of 42
Document ...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 4 of 42
Abbreviat...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
1 Introduction
a) What is Hinterland connections?
- Hinterland connections o...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 6 of 42
Freight T...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
An Inland Freight Terminal
is “any facility, other than a port or an airport...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
2 Status quo of Hinterland connections in the DaHar countries
European corri...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
2.1 Romania (Galati port)
Romanian road network Romanian railway network
Loc...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
raw materials for the steel / shipyard industry or off- loading bulk for agr...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
Plantelor Channel commercial port - for general goods and leisure activities...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
c) Infrastructure by rail: port is included in the network of European railw...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
2.3 Hungary
Port of Dunaújváros:
It is situated on the right bank of the Dan...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
waterway and the north-south railway connection from the Baltic to the Adria...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
Further development of S10 from Unterweitersdorf till Freistadt North. Due t...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
Serbian IWT network – IWT hinterland connections of the Port of Novi Sad
DaH...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
Serbian railway network - rail hinterland connections of the Port of Novi Sa...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 18 of 42
3. Hinte...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 19 of 42
and envi...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
Austria
Project – Development of Pyhrn-Schober-Axis with future areas (Rhine...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
ii. Minimum navigable fairway depths 2,5 m
iii. Loading depths 2,5 m
iv. Loc...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 22 of 42
 
Trans-...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
Projects meeting the above criteria are considered to be of common interest....
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 24 of 42
comprise...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 25 of 42
o conven...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 26 of 42
o inland...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 27 of 42
KoLEG St...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 28 of 42
accessib...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 29 of 42
(a) to e...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 30 of 42
between ...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 31 of 42
After mo...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 32 of 42
C. Slova...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 33 of 42
completi...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 34 of 42
- Elabor...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 35 of 42
o Analys...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 36 of 42
o Ensuri...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 37 of 42
- Contai...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 38 of 42
Authorit...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 39 of 42
How do y...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 40 of 42
universi...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 41 of 42
(b) the ...
Hinterland connections State of the art study
and troughs in demand to make better use of resources), and often this can b...
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The European Union's Southeast Europe programme supporting …

  1. 1. State of the art study : Hinterland connections Publication date (final version): 22.03.2012 A project implemented by the DaHar partnership DaHar – Danube Inland Harbour Development The European Union's Southeast Europe programme supporting … This project is co-funded by the European Union
  2. 2. Danube Inland Harbour Development Version V.0.6 Date of version March 22, 2012 Status internal Main authors Galati Municipality Ovidiu Costea Title of Report State of the art study Sub-Activity Hinterland connections This project is co-funded by the European Union
  3. 3. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 3 of 42 Document History: Version Comments Date Authorised by V.0.1 First version (Ro input) 31.01.2012 V.0.2 Second version (Ro input) 17.02.2012 V.0.3 Third version (Sk and Hu inputs) 24.02.2012 V.0.4 Fourth version (Au inputs) 28.02.2012 V.0.5 Fifth version (Hu inputs) 02.03.2012 V.0.6 Sixth version (Rs inputs) 03.03.2012 Contributing author(s) of the Document: Organisation(s) Author(s) RO – APDF Giurgiu Niculae Madin SK – Public Ports Plc. Pavol Majernik HU – BAY-LOGI and LP Richard Ladanyi AU – Ennshafen Karin Kainzinger HU – LP Dunaujvaros Szalma Botond RS – Uni Novi Sad Milosav Georgijevic Table of content : 1. Introduction a) What is Hinterland connections? b) Basic definitions 2. Status quo of Hinterland connections in the DaHar countries a) Romania b) Slovakia c) Hungary d) Austria e) Serbia 3. Hinterland connections projects relevant to DaHar 4. Best practices 5. Benchmark 6. Conclusion
  4. 4. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 4 of 42 Abbreviations DaHar Danube Inland Harbour Development DG Ener Directorate-General for Energy DG MOVE Directorate-General for Mobility and Transport EU European Union GTMP General Transport Master Planning (Romania) HGV Heavy goods vehicle HTP Hungarian Transport Policy ILU Intermodal loading units (i.e. containers and swap bodies) ITS Intelligent Transport Systems IWW Inland Waterway NSRF National Strategic Reference Framework OECD/ITF Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD)/ International Transport Forum (ITF) OPT Operational Programme Transport (Slovak Republic) OSCE Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe SOPT Sectoral Operational Programme Transport (Romania) TEN-T Trans-European Transport Network TER Trans-European Railway TEU Twenty-foot equivalent unit UNECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe UTDS Unified Transport Development Strategy References : “Port Competition and Hinterland Connections” - Discussion Paper No. 2008-19 October 2008, OECD, International Transport Forum “Hinterland Connections of Seaports” - United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, New York and Geneva, 2010 “Improving Connection between Gateways and the Hinterland” - SustAccess Project, within the Interreg North Sea Programme, Region Västra Götaland, Göteborg, Sweden White Paper - Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area – Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system DG Ener - creating a competitive internal energy market to lower prices, to develop renewable energy sources, to reduce energy dependence and to reduce energy consumption DG MOVE - transport policy and alternative fuel policy Sectoral Operational Programme Transport - the instrument that elaborates upon the objectives of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF), establishing priorities, goals and the allocation of funds for development of the transport sector in Romania.
  5. 5. Hinterland connections State of the art study 1 Introduction a) What is Hinterland connections? - Hinterland connections of the port are the collection of infrastructure enabling products to be transported to and from the port. Hinterland connections include all modes of transport. The availability, capacity and quality of the hinterland connections determine to a large extent the competitiveness of a port (Methodological guide); - The hinterland is the land or district behind a coast or the shoreline of a river. Specifically, the word is applied to the inland region lying behind a port, claimed by the state/ region that owns the coast. The area from which products are delivered to a port for shipping elsewhere is that port's hinterland. The term is also used to refer to the area around a city or town (Wikipedia). - The assumed definition of a port’s ‘hinterland’ is the area inland from the port to which imports are distributed and from which exports are collected. For a number of reasons, not least the limited extent and quality of inland transport networks and restrictions on cross border movements, ports traditionally each tended to have a relatively clearly defined independent hinterland. This situation changed considerably in the second half of the 20th century as a consequence of infrastructural, political and technological developments, when it is no longer possible to talk about captive traffic in a port but rather volatile traffic which can be captured by several ports. This report adopts this concept that port hinterlands are generally indistinct and overlapping, with considerable variability in their characteristics in both the short and long term. The availability and cost of inland transport services have typically been the determining factors, but others such as journey time and service quality factors (e.g. variability of transit time, in- transit risk and damage, provision of value-added services) have increasingly influenced the nature and extent of ports’ hinterlands. b) Basic definitions DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 5 of 42
  6. 6. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 6 of 42 Freight Transport System Freight transport systems are characterized by transfers of goods between points of origin and destinations, generally defined as nodes. Activities, such as consolidation, sorting, storage and transshipment between vehicles and traffic modes, are carried out in nodes. The globalization of supply chains implies that it is often attractive for shippers to outsource value-adding services such as customization; packaging or sequencing to logistics service providers at strategically placed nodes. A node is a transshipment location in the network of the transport firms. The nodes are points of consolidation and distribution in the networks of the transport firms. The term thus relates to the individual transport firms’ organization of their network. Links represent transport and transfer activities connecting nodes, and together with the nodes the links compose the transportation network. By connecting all sources and links with a sufficient number of transshipment nodes, a network can be defined. Links and nodes are abstract terms used for modeling. In the real system, links are served by vehicles and vessels using infrastructure. For the physical unit corresponding to transshipment nodes, the word terminal is used although the traffic mode specific terms airport, seaport, riverport and station are more common in. Transshipment nodes with a central role in a network are, varyingly and often inconsistently, called hub, dock, gateway, turntable etc. in the transport industry. Gateway A gateway is a broad termination for a node in the transport systems. It can be an international container port, a terminal for combined goods, or a transport and logistics centre. A gateway secures consolidation of goods, knowledge, information systems etc, and is thus in charge of the coupling of the regional transport flow in the global transport system. In an intermodal gateway, networks based on different traffic modes are linked, while intramodal gateways link networks using the same traffic mode. Traditional examples of intermodal gateways are seaports, airports and intermodal road-rail terminals. Intramodal gateways include consolidation terminals where lorries operating long-distances and pick-up and delivery routes respectively are coordinated and ports offering transshipment between trans-ocean container vessels and feeder vessels or barges. International rail services is still commonly operated by use of intramodal gateways compensating for incompatible legislation, electric power supply systems, signaling systems, loading profiles and sometimes also rail gauge between neighboring countries. An intermodal road-rail terminal can simply be described as a place equipped for the transshipment and storage of intermodal loading units (ILUs) between road and rail. There are intermodal terminals in a great variety of shapes and sizes and a number of value-added services such as stuffing and stripping, storing and repair of ILUs might be offered. Intermodal terminals can be classified according to some basic functional criteria like transport modes, transshipment techniques, network position or geographical location. Nevertheless, the transshipment between traffic modes is the characterizing activity. A specific class of terminals has evolved around the need for connecting inland conurbations with ports. Depending on the role and the offered services, the transport industry operates this kind of terminals under different names. From a legal point of view, it is of particular importance if customs services are provided.
  7. 7. Hinterland connections State of the art study An Inland Freight Terminal is “any facility, other than a port or an airport, operated on a common-user basis, at which cargo in inter national trade is received or dispatched”. An Inland Port, a Dryport is located inland, generally far from seaport/ riverport terminals. They supply regions with an intermodal terminal or a merging point for different traffic modes. The Dryports are mostly located interior to the coast, thus the name Dryport, but it does not exclude cities with sea access. A competency cluster is a regionally or nationally zoned group of transport firms, sub contractors and other actors that collectively contribute to giving the transport trade in the region special competitive strength positions in the international transport market. A transport-logistics centre is a zoned region, in which a great number of transport and logistics firms and their sub- contractors are located. A transport-logistics centre is characterized through specialization, coherence between the firms and the level of activity. A transport centre is a zoned industrial area that mainly consists of transport firms and service firms connected. A legal unit responsible for development of the area may be established. Some foreign establishments require that the area have an intermodal terminal. A transport centre is potentially part of a ”transport-logistics centre.” A transport service centre is a geographically zoned area with service facilities to road freight transport: Filling station, garages, cafeteria and other facilities for drivers. A terminal has facilities that enable shift between transport modes, typically in connection with transport of carriers (containers, swap bodies, semi-trailer). Examples of terminals: Ro-Ro berths, container ports, ferry ports, bulk ports, terminals for combined transport Ro-La. DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 7 of 42
  8. 8. Hinterland connections State of the art study 2 Status quo of Hinterland connections in the DaHar countries European corridors DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 8 of 42
  9. 9. Hinterland connections State of the art study 2.1 Romania (Galati port) Romanian road network Romanian railway network Located on the left bank of the Danube at 150 Km (81 nautical miles) from the Black Sea, at the confluence of the Danube with Siret and Prut rivers, Galati developed very early as a main commercial centre, the biggest Romanian inland harbour for sea-going ships, about 200 Km (124 miles) North-East of the capital Bucharest, on the border with Ukraine and Republic of Moldova. Although it is situated along the Danube (Corridor 7) it is not on the main route (existing Constanta canal), about 80-100 km away from Corridor 4 and Corridor 9 and gateway EU- Moldova- Ukraine. a) Infrastructure by water : Situated along the Danube (Corridor 7) but not on the main route : the 64 km canal Cernavoda – Constanta reduces the distance to the Black Sea with 400 km; However, easy accessible for delivering goods (example: providing DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 9 of 42
  10. 10. Hinterland connections State of the art study raw materials for the steel / shipyard industry or off- loading bulk for agricultural purposes); Has four terminals: - Docks Terminal for general cargo and containers - New Basin Terminal for general cargo - Oil Terminal for oil products - Mineral Terminal – serving the Arcelor Mittal Steel Plant The general cargo terminals are directly connected to the wide Russian railway network. CONTAINER TERMINAL- First river-sea container terminal in the Romanian sector; part of the Ministry of Transport Development Strategy. Terminal offers: running mooring operations, vessel operating; loading/unloading containers; from ships to transport; handling / storage containers in the warehouse; grouping goods in containers by destinations and development other related activities. b) Infrastructure by road : About 80-100 km away from Corridor 4 and Corridor 9, with roads of moderate quality - national road DN 2B; c) Infrastructure by rail : railway transport within the region is linked both to the wide gauge railway line used in Moldavia, Ukraine, Russia and some Asian countries as well as the standard European railway network; d) Infrastructure by air : Nearest international airports (Bucharest, Constanta) at substantial distance (more than 200 Km.) Giurgiu port Giurgiu Port Complex is located on the left bank of the Danube river, at km 493, 60 km from the capital city - Bucharest, and has developed since the beginning as an inland port, which provides Romania’s main links with the Black Sea area and Western Europe. Giurgiu port complex consists of: Port of Giurgiu Ramadan - for general cargo and passengers It is situated on the Danube, at 493 km, 1.5 km from the city of Giurgiu. At km 492+500, it is located the entrance to the Veriga port basin, which serves Giurgiu Free Zone (which has a container terminal), the shipyard and the ships repair shops. In the winter is utilized as shelter for ships. Landing front is of 1,500 m. with a capacity of 500,000 operating T/year. In recent years, there has been a passenger flow of approximately 60,000 people, that have transited the port to the Danube Delta. Also, the transshipment of passengers on the route water – air (through the Otopeni airport), it is available. Passenger river station of Giurgiu port Cioroiu Giurgiu Port oil terminal (Ploieşti - Bucharest - Giurgiu) It is located between km 490 and km 492, being connected to the Danube by Smârda- Danube channel. Operating capacity is approx. 1,500,000 T/year. DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 10 of 42
  11. 11. Hinterland connections State of the art study Plantelor Channel commercial port - for general goods and leisure activities It is situated on the Danube, from km 490+500 to km. 491+500, and it is specialized for loading petroleum products in tanks river, with an annual capacity of approx. 500,000 T. Hinterland connections: a) water infrastructure - Giurgiu port complex is located along the Danube Corridor 7, with access to the Danube - Black Sea channel; b) road infrastructure – Giurgiu port is located on the European Corridor 9 (Ruse – Giurgiu - Bucharest), with links to European Corridor 4 (Giurgiu - Bucharest, Giurgiu - Ruse). c) rail infrastructure – The rail device of the port provides a link with the national railway network (Giurgiu - Bucharest, Giurgiu - Craiova), and therefore, the European railway system. d) Air infrastructure – Giurgiu port is located at 80 km from Otopeni International Airport, and approx. 10 km away from Ruse city (Bulgaria). 2.2 Slovakia 2.2.1 Port of Bratislava The port of Bratislava, which is situated on the left bank of the Danube River (rkm 1886) has an advantageous geographic location. It is directly connected to rail, road (D1, D2) and internal pipeline from the Slovnaft refinery. The proximity of such centers as Vienna and Budapest, the above mentioned railway and road connections to the Slovak industrial and economical areas and to other countries predestines the Port of Bratislava to play an important role in goods exchange in all possible directions, whereas the present and future importance are in transit, combined, Ro-Ro and container transport. Port of Bratislava is the only port on the Danube, which has the possibility of transshipment of heavy and oversized pieces to a maximum weight of 560 tons. Port consists of the Old basin, North and South basin and Pálenisko basin. Figure 1: Map of the Port of Bratislava a) Infrastructure by water : Situated on the left bank of the Danube, river kilometer 1886 (Corridor 7) b) Infrastructure by road : direct connection to Corridor 4 and Corridor 5 DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 11 of 42
  12. 12. Hinterland connections State of the art study c) Infrastructure by rail: port is included in the network of European railway lines: C-E63, C-E61 Figure 2: Railways and terminals in Slovakia included in AGTC agreement d) Infrastructure by air: Nearest international airports are Bratislava airport (7km), Vienna airport 70km) Košice airport (more than 400 km). 2.2.2 Port of Komárno This port is the second biggest in the Slovak republic. It is situated 100 kilometers far downstream from Bratislava, on the river km 1769. Nowadays this port is not as significant as the port in Bratislava but in the future, after completing the construction of the Váh waterway, The Port of Komárno should play very important role in handling cargo, arriving by Danube ships to Komárno and continuing its way to northern parts of Slovak republic. Figure 3: The port of Komarno Since Komárno port is situated near the Bratislava port, the infrastructure connections are very similar. DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 12 of 42
  13. 13. Hinterland connections State of the art study 2.3 Hungary Port of Dunaújváros: It is situated on the right bank of the Danube River (river km 1580-1579), 67 kilometres from the capital, Budapest. The city is bounded of the Danube about 10 kilometres in the east. As it is located one of the most significant transit route in Europe, play a central role in the European transport. It is part of the Rhine-Main-Danube waterway, and it has a direct connection to Corridor Nr.VII (Danube). It is become one of the most important industrial institutions of the country. Hinterland connections: a) water infrastructure: It is located along the Corridor VII, with access to the Rhine- Main-Danube channel, it is on the main route. b) road infrastructure: It is situated on 67 km from the European Corridor Nr. IV. (Drezda/Nürnberg - Prága - Brno - Pozsony (Bratislava) - Győr - Budapest - Arad - Craiova - Szófia - Isztambul) c) rail infrastructure: The port is connected to the national railway network, Corridor Nr.V. (Velence - Trieszt/Fiume - Ljubljana - Maribor - Budapest - Ungvár - Lviv - Kijev) d) air infrastructure: The nearest international airports are in Budapest (67 km), in Sármellék (abt. 125 km)and in Debrecen (more than 300 km). 2.4 Austria 2.4.1 Port of Ennshafen Located at the heart of Europe The Ennshafen has all essential requirements for modern logistics. It is situated along the main arteries of the international transportation network – the Rhine-Main-Danube DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 13 of 42
  14. 14. Hinterland connections State of the art study waterway and the north-south railway connection from the Baltic to the Adriatic Seas. The Ennshafen is linked to the most significant sea ports in Europe and is extremely well connected to the international motorway network via the A1 west motorway,the B1 Vienna road and the B309a (Enns-Steyr). At the border between Upper and Lower Austria and covering an area of 3.5 million square meters, the Ennshafen is the largest connected industrial construction area in the Upper Danube region. There is still 300,000 m² of free space with ideal infrastructure available in the port area and in the Enns and Ennsdorf industrial parks. Zone of Attraction surrounding the port Stuttgart Bozen Straße DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 14 of 42 Schiene Wasserstraße Donau Donauhäfen Flughäfen Villach Klagenfurt Graz Eisenstadt Linz Bregenz Salzburg St.Pölten Wien Sopron Innsbruck Regensburg Ingolstadt Budweis Bratislava München B309 – Hinterland connection – economic area Steyr to Ennshafen B1 – northern bypass of Enns – connection to economic area Linz – Ennshafen – connection to A1 western highway S 10 Mühlviertler Schnellstraße The S 10 Mühlviertler Schnellstraße runs from Unterweitersdorf (A 7) over Freistadt till the border of Wullowitz [gemäß Verzeichnis 2 des Bundesstraßengesetzes 1971 in der geltenden Fassung].
  15. 15. Hinterland connections State of the art study Further development of S10 from Unterweitersdorf till Freistadt North. Due to the traffic situation the construction section 1 (Unterweitersdorf) and 4 (bypass Freistadt) is preferred. Traffic clearance is planned in autumn 2012. The traffic clearance for the construction section 4 is planned for the end 2014. The overall traffic clearance is planned end 2015. 2.5 Serbia 2.5.1 Port of Novi Sad The Port of Novi Sad is situated on the left bank of the Danube, at 1254 km, more precisely on the entrance of the Danube – Tisza - Danube canal - section Novi Sad - Savino Selo, from km 0.4 to km 1.2. It is located on the corridor 7 and has a direct connection to the road – railway corridor 10. The Port has a 2 km long road link to the road E75 which represents a part of the road corridor 10. At the same time, there is an obsolete but very extensive network of regional and local roads that connects the port with other municipalities in Serbia and in the region. The Port of Novi Sad disposes of the industrial railway track that connects it directly with the railway corridor 10. The Port is situated on the entrance of the Danube – Tisza - Danube canal which makes it directly connected with the 600 km long DTD canal network. The nearest airport is located 90 km from the port. The port is very integrated with the city of Novi Sad, considering that it is situated only 2 km of the city center. From that reason, development of further port’s terminals will likely occur on another location. The suggested location (approximately 90ha) is at approximately 4 km downstream from Novi Sad, also on the left bank of the Danube what is very suitable concerning the existing hinterland connections of the port. Serbian road network – road hinterland connections of the Port of Novi Sad DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 15 of 42
  16. 16. Hinterland connections State of the art study Serbian IWT network – IWT hinterland connections of the Port of Novi Sad DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 16 of 42
  17. 17. Hinterland connections State of the art study Serbian railway network - rail hinterland connections of the Port of Novi Sad DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 17 of 42
  18. 18. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 18 of 42 3. Hinterland connections projects relevant to DaHar Giurgiu port Concerning shipping infrastructure modernization and development of port services into the TEN-T network ports, CN APDF SA Giurgiu, it is promoting the project „D.A.N.U.B.E. – “Danube Access Network – Unlocking Bottlenecks in Europe, by developing a high – quality TEN-T ports infrastructure in Romania, on optimal economic terms”, in the field of trans European network (TEN-T)”. The general objective of the project is to promote in Romania a well developed system by ensuring constant access to port networks and the availability of berths for loading/downloading operations, as well as excluding delays and crams, simultaneous to safety increase and facilitation of cargo and person transport, at a European level. Complying with the national legislation and also with the EU requirements on port reception facilities for ship-generated waste and cargo residues, CN APDF SA Giurgiu is implementing the project “Ship waste taking over and processing system and intervention in case of pollution on the sector of the Danube administered by CN APDF SA Giurgiu”. This project, amounting over 10 Million Euro, proposes modern technical and economic procedures for collecting and processing of waste, bilge waters, cargo waste from ships, for the protection of Danube ecosystems. Also, Giurgiu port complex has port land areas available for the development of a future container terminal that can be promoted within a European funding program, or through a public-private partnership. Port of Bratislava Based on “The study of possibilities for intermodal transport in Western Slovakia Region” the public procurement for elaboration of documentation for construction intent and documentation for territorial decision concerning tri-modal terminal in Bratislava was announced in 2009. Bratislava intermodal terminal is planned as a tri-modal terminal located in Bratislava port. This terminal will have the water, road and rail connection and with the others terminals (Leopoldov, Žilina, Košice) will create the basic infrastructure for intermodal transport development. The Feasibility study and Cost benefit analysis have been already elaborated. EIA intent has been already elaborated as well. The terminal will be constructed in two phases. These days the public procurement for construction works in the first phase is being prepared. Estimated costs are 30 million EUR and the first phase should be finished in 2014. This project is co-funded by the Cohesion fund within the Operational Programme on Transport. Hungary Produna: This action shall, in line with the requirements and regulations of the European Union, target to support the related governmental organizations and bodies to improve domestic inland waterway traffic as a way of modality, to manage, with a certain project aspect, all tasks that are related to inland waterway traffic (such as management, promotion, education and training, operational issues and other professional queries), and to aid domestic market participants to become adequately competitive. Platina (NAIADES): The NAIADES action plan is a Commission initiative to enhance the use of inland navigation as part of intermodal freight solutions, in order to create a sustainable, competitive
  19. 19. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 19 of 42 and environmentally friendly European wide transport network. This objective was embraced by the inland navigation sector, who, together with the Commission have created PLATINA, an FP7 project consisting of 23 partners from nine different countries, in order to accelerate the achievement of the NAIADES aims. This multi-disciplinary knowledge network will allow PLATINA to create the momentum necessary to achieve the NAIADES objectives. Watermode: The programme area is crossed by relevant freight traffic flows, originated and directed in- and outside it. This traffic is mainly supported by road infrastructures, that were not planned for these flows. This involves a negative impact on the territorial competitiveness and environment, due to air pollution, noise and reduced mobility. The project objective is to promote the coordination between actors dealing with logistics for a better management of the transport policies and an efficient implementation of the multimodal logistics cooperation, especially exploiting the ground/water connections. This will be achieved through a monitoring on the existing multimodal platforms, the coordination of strategies for the promotion of the water/ground multimodality, the definition of common quality standards in transport and logistics services, the implementation of pilot studies for multimodality based on sea and inland waterways as factor of competitiveness and environmental sustainability. Hajózzunk a Dunán! - related to TEN-T: WANDA: The core objectives of WANDA are the protection of the river Danube from pollution in order to preserve its valuable ecosystem and water resources and the establishment of a cross-border coordinated ship waste management system along the Danube. RISING: RIS Services for Improving the Integration of Inland Waterway Transports into Intermodal Chains Newada: The project NEWADA (Network of Danube Waterway Administrations) is part of the South-East-European Transnational Cooperation Programme , which aims to develop transnational partnerships on matters of strategic importance, in order to improve the territorial, economic and social integration process and to contribute to cohesion, stability and competitiveness of the region. IRIS Europe II: RIS Europe I was a TEN-T co-financed project for the improvement and pilot implementation of River Information Services (RIS) in which 8 countries (AT, BE, BG, FR, HU, NL, RO, SK) participated. It was successfully closed at the end of 2008 after a duration of three years. IRIS Europe II continues – from January 2009 until December 2011 – the expansion and enhancement of RIS within an extended geographical and functional scope. IRIS Europe II will contribute to establish safe, secure and efficient transport on the European waterway network bringing advantages to governmental users as well as users in the logistics sector. NELI: Cooperation-Network for Logistics and nautical education focusing on Inland Waterway Transport in the Danube corridor supported by innovative solutions.
  20. 20. Hinterland connections State of the art study Austria Project – Development of Pyhrn-Schober-Axis with future areas (Rhine-Mine-Danube, Baltic Sea, Balkans) important for the economy of Upper Austria. f The port of Koper is the most important Austrian sea port, with a cargo handling of 5 Mio. to. More than 70% of the volume of Austria is going to Upper Austria and Styria. Therefore this axis is the most important axis in Austria. This transport route has to be developed, because today only trains with a maximum of 1,300 to can pass the Pyhrn while on the western railway, trains with 1,600 to can be transported. The part between Bruck a.d. Mur and Linz is the missing link in the North-South Axis, that connects the economic area in the North of the Alps (Czech Republic, Germany, Austria) with the Baltic-Adriatic-Axis. This describes the shortest connection between the economic areas of the North and South of the Alps and represents the most important hinterland connection of the transport axis Danube. Future Project – East-bypass of Linz (capital city of Upper Austria) Feasibility study about the corridor A7 (Mühlkreisautobahn) connection to A1 western highway – as street hinterland connection (A7/A1 – Ennshafen) Pro Danube Austria Association The General Manager of the port of Ennshafen, Mr. Christian Steindl is president of the Pro Danube Austria Association, which is focused on the increase of competitiveness of Inland Navigation. Strategy: 1. Infrastructure Danube (elimination low water fees) a. Support via donau (Austrian Waterway Company) i. Monitoring of weaknesses and implementation of Inland Navigation DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 20 of 42
  21. 21. Hinterland connections State of the art study ii. Minimum navigable fairway depths 2,5 m iii. Loading depths 2,5 m iv. Lock maintenance v. Port performances b. Austria as best practice example c. Support via donau i. Coordination in 1a)EU Danube Strategy: improve mobility and multimodality for inland waterways 2. Modern Fleets (elimination “bunker” fees) a. Alternative drive systems b. Technical, infrastructure and economic feasibility c. CO² topic (in general) d. Standardized utilization of RIS-System (River Information Services) e. Funds 3. Platform Danube International (all neighbouring countries) a. Development and implementation of an “international network” and organizational framework requirements at land level along the Danube b. Project deduction of POINT 1. and 2. on EU level c. Further education of “nautical personnel” EU funds  d. EU standards by legal security  Advisory Board: (active supporting groups) 1. Working- and Expert group INFRASTRUCTURE 2. Working- and Expert group MODERN FLEET 3. Working- and Expert group PLATFORM PRO DANUBE INTERNATIONAL „Pro DanubeAustria“ Verein zur Steigerung  der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der Schifffahrt • via donau unterstützen bei  Monitoring der Schwachstellen  bzw. Umsetzung für Schifffahrt   ‐ Mindest‐Fahrwassertiefe  2,5m            ‐ Schritt 2: Abladetiefe 2,5m         ‐ Schleuseninstandhaltung            ‐ Leistungsfähigkeit der Häfen • Österreich wird  „best practice“  • via donau unterstützen bei  Koordination Pkt 1a) der                          EU Donauraumstrategie :  improve mobility‐&multimodality   for inland waterways • Alternativ‐Antriebe zu Gasöl ‐ LNG Antrieb ? • Technische, infrastrukturelle  und wirtschaftliche  Machbarkeit ? • „CO² ‐ Thematik“ generell • Standardisierte Nutzung                               „River‐Information‐Services“  • Fördermittel ? • Aufbau bzw.  Implementierung  „internationales Netzwerk“ und  „organisatorische  Rahmenbedingungen“ auf  Länderebene entlang der Donau • Projektableitung aus  strategischer Stoßrichtung 1 und  2 auf EU‐Ebene • Aus‐ und Weiterbildung   „Nautisches Personal“ • „EU Fördergelder“ lukrieren • EU‐Standards bei  Rechtssicherheit  (Haftungen) Hr. Mokry / Hr. Schwetz Hr. Leitner / Hr. Steindl Hr. Seitz / Hr. Gallob Stoßrichtung   1 INFRASTRUKTUR  DONAU „Eliminierung KWZ“ Mentoren: Stoßrichtung   2 „Modernere  FLOTTEN“ „Eliminierung BZ“ Stoßrichtung   3 „Plattform Donau  INTERNATIONAL“ Alle Anrainerstaaten Strategische  Ausrichtung :   DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 21 of 42
  22. 22. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 22 of 42   Trans-European Transport Network Community guidelines for the development of the trans-European transport network The creation of the trans-European transport network is promoting the smooth operation of the internal market and strengthening economic and social cohesion. The objectives, priorities and broad lines of action and the projects which implement them are key aspects of this network. Decision No 1692/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 July 1996 on Community guidelines for the development of the trans-European transport network [See amending acts]. The objectives of the trans-European transport network (TEN-T) are to: • ensure the mobility of persons and goods; • offer users high-quality infrastructure; • include all modes of transport; • allow the optimal use of existing capacities; • be interoperable in all its components; • be economically viable; • cover the whole territory of the European Union (EU); • allow for its extension to the Member States of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), the countries of central and eastern Europe and the Mediterranean countries. The trans-European transport network comprises infrastructures (roads, railways, waterways, ports, airports, navigation aids, intermodal freight terminals and product pipelines), together with the services necessary for the operation of these infrastructures. The priority measures concern: • completion of the connections needed to facilitate transport; • optimisation of the efficiency of existing infrastructure; • achievement of interoperability of network components; • integration of the environmental dimension into the network.
  23. 23. Hinterland connections State of the art study Projects meeting the above criteria are considered to be of common interest. Characteristics of the various transport networks Characteristics of the road network: • it comprises motorways and high-quality roads and will be supplemented by new or adapted links; • it comprises infrastructure for traffic management and user information, based on active cooperation between traffic management systems at European, national and regional levels; • it guarantees users a high, uniform and continuous level of services, comfort and safety. Characteristics of the rail network: • it comprises the high-speed network and conventional lines; • it offers users a high level of quality and safety thanks to its continuity and interoperability and thanks to a harmonised command and control system. Characteristics of the inland waterway network and inland ports: • this system comprises a network consisting of rivers and canals, a network consisting of branch canals, port infrastructure and efficient traffic management systems; • the technical specifications correspond at least to IV. Ports provide the link between sea transport and other modes of transport. They provide equipment and services for passengers and goods (ferry services, etc.). The motorways of the sea network improves existing maritime links and establishes new viable, regular and frequent links for the transport of goods between Member States. It concentrates flows of freight on sea-based logistical routes in such a way as to reduce road congestion and improve access to outlying and island regions and states. The airport network consists of airports of common interest situated within the EU which are open to commercial air traffic and comply with certain criteria. The core of the network DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 23 of 42
  24. 24. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 24 of 42 comprises the international and EU connecting points which provide links within the EU and between the EU and the rest of the world. These connecting points are gradually being linked to the high-speed lines of the rail network. In addition, the regional components of the network facilitate access to the core of the network or help to open up outlying and isolated regions. The combined transport network comprises railways and inland waterways which, combined where appropriate with initial and/or terminal road haulage, permit the long-distance transport of goods between all Member States. It also comprises installations permitting transhipment between the different networks. The information and management network concerns coastal and port shipping services, vessel positioning systems, reporting systems for vessels transporting dangerous goods, and communication systems for distress and safety at sea. The air traffic control network comprises the aviation plan (air space reserved for general aviation, aviation routes and aviation aids), the traffic management system and the air traffic control system. The positioning and navigation systems network comprises the satellite positioning and navigation systems and the systems to be defined in the future European Radio Navigation Plan. A limited number of new priority projects Following the recommendations of 2003 from the Van Miert high-level group on the TEN-T, the Commission compiled a new list of 30 priority projects to be launched before 2010. Total estimated cost: 225 billion euros. The list takes full account of the recent enlargement and will establish more sustainable mobility plans by concentrating investment on rail and waterway transport. All 30 priority projects are declared to be of European interest so as to speed up the completion of the cross-border sections. They are: o rail axis Berlin–Verona/Milan–Bologna–Naples– Messina; o high-speed train Paris–Brussels/Brussels– Cologne–Amsterdam–London; o high-speed rail axis of south-west Europe; o high-speed rail axis East (including Paris– Strasbourg/Luxembourg);
  25. 25. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 25 of 42 o conventional rail/combined transport (or Betuwe line 2007); o rail axis Lyon–Trieste–Divaca/Koper–Ljubljana– Budapest–Ukrainian border; o motorway axis Igoumenitsa/Patra–Athens–Sofia– Budapest; o multimodal axis Portugal/Spain–rest of Europe; o rail axis Cork–Dublin–Belfast–Stanraer (2001); o Malpensa airport in Milan (completed in 2001); o the Øresund Link (completed in 2000); o rail/road axis Nordic triangle; o road axis Ireland/United Kingdom/Benelux (2010); o rail link West Coast Main Line (2007); o Galileo global navigation and positioning satellite system (2008); o rail freight axis across the Pyrenees Sine/Algeciras–Madrid–Paris; o rail axis Paris–Stuttgart–Vienna–Bratislava; o inland waterway axis Rhine/Meuse–Main–Danube; o interoperability of the Iberian Peninsula high-speed rail network; o rail axis between Germany and Denmark (Fehmarn Belt); o “motorways of the sea”: Baltic Sea, Atlantic Arc, south-east Europe, western Mediterranean; o rail axis Athens–Sofia–Budapest–Vienna–Prague– Nürnberg/Dresden; o rail axis Gdansk–Warsaw–Brno/Bratislava–Vienna; o rail axis Lyon/Geneva–Basel–Duisburg– Rotterdam/Antwerp; o motorway axis Gdansk–Brno/Bratislava–Vienna; o rail/road axis Ireland/UK/continental Europe; o “Rail Baltica” rail axis Warsaw–Kaunas–Riga– Tallinn–Helsinki; o "Eurocaprail" on the Brussels–Luxembourg– Strasbourg rail axis; o rail axis on the Ionian Sea/Adriatic intermodal corridor;
  26. 26. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 26 of 42 o inland waterway link Seine–Scheldt. Appointment of a European coordinator To facilitate the coordinated implementation of the priority projects, the Commission may designate, by agreement with the Member States concerned, a person to be known as the European coordinator. This person will act in the name and on behalf of the Commission for a particular project or a major axis. He/she will draw up a working plan for his/her activities in consultation with those concerned, as well as a report on progress achieved. In order to carry out his/her work he/she will consult the Member States, regional and local authorities, operators and users of the means of transport in question, and representatives of civil society. A new mechanism to promote motorways of the sea Motorways of the sea are alternative routes which should relieve bottlenecks on land. One of the 30 new priority projects is intended to concentrate flows of goods through a limited number of ports. The Member States are jointly invited to establish transnational maritime links on the basis of invitations to tender. The Decision also places seaports in one of three categories: • Category A comprises seaports of international importance with a total annual traffic volume of not less than 1.5 million tonnes of freight or 200 000 passengers. The list of Category A seaports (Annex 1) comprises Europe, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean; • Category B concerns ports of EU importance with a total annual traffic volume of not less than 0.5 million tonnes of freight or between 100 000 and 200 000 passengers; • Category C includes ports providing regional access situated in island, peripheral or outermost regions. A Committee on the Trans-European Transport Network is set up at the Commission. The Commission reports every two years on the implementation of the guidelines described in this Decision. Every five years, it evaluates progress made in setting up the network and states whether the guidelines need to be adapted.
  27. 27. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 27 of 42 KoLEG Study – combined liner service between Ennshafen / Galati - For the promotion of Inland Waterway as transport mode Port of Novi Sad The Port of Novi Sad was a part of the EU projects INTERIM and WATERMODE. The INTERIM project (Integration in the intermodal goods transport of non EU states: Rail, inland/coastal waterway modes) was part-financed by the INTERREG III B CADSES Neighborhood Programme of the European Union, and was dealing with the further integration of the neighborhood countries of the EU. The INTERIM project defined the following strategic objectives to be achieved in the long term perspective: 1. Improvement of cooperation in the CADSES area This includes the improvement of administrative, economic and transport structures related to spatial planning and development in general and intermodal transport planning and operations specifically. Coordinated operation of the institutions meets in more effective management and more profound decisions. 2. Integration of intermodal transport issues into spatial planning and regional development concepts This is a step to cross-sectional coordination and harmonization of spatial planning and development instruments in the respective countries and the wider CADSES area. 3. Joint use of IT-based planning and information tools (pilot: intermodal goods transport) These results generate a European added value beyond CADSES itself as the tools can be adapted to further countries and to Trans-European transport network's demands. The WATERMODE project was funded by the Transnational Cooperation Programme South East Europe. The project’s general objective was to promote the coordination between the private and public actors dealing with logistics and spatial planning, for a better management of the multi-modal transport solutions. In particular, the project aimed at increasing the integration of the waterborne transport modes in the logistics chain, supporting the transnational dimension in the national and local strategies for the valorization of the sea and inland waterways port infrastructures. 4. Best practices A. European Union transport policy The policy context has evolved considerably since the early 1990s, when the EU first turned its attention to the development of a Europe-wide transport strategy, with an increasing role for port-related policies in the last decade. EU Transport White Papers have been produced in 1992 and 2001 (European Commission, 2001), followed more recently by a review of the 2001 White Paper (European Commission, 2006a) which sought to evaluate and give new direction to EU transport policy to reflect the changing situation, notably resulting from the EU enlargement from 15 to 27 countries since 2004. The enlargement has led to more variability in the concerns relating to freight transport flows, from the increasing focus on the environment and congestion in the western member countries to the more traditional concerns about infrastructure provision and accessibility in many of the new member states. As a consequence of this and other changes (e.g. continued globalization of logistics activity, increasing evidence of climate change, adoption of new technologies), the EU argues that a “broader, more flexible transport policy toolbox is needed” (European Commission, 2006a, p.6). The policy focus is very much on sustainable mobility, though there is still tension between the efforts to promote economic growth and improve
  28. 28. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 28 of 42 accessibility and the stated need to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. The review calls for public policy to align itself with the concept of ‘co-modality’, defined as the optimal and sustainable use and combination of the various modes of transport, in combination with measures to fully internalize the costs of the different modes. Specific EU initiatives Recognizing the widely differing approaches in EU member States, the Green Paper on Sea Ports and Maritime Infrastructure (European Commission, 1997) focused the policy- makers’ attention on goods flows through ports, primarily concerning itself with the role of ports within the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) programme, the finance and charging regimes for ports and the organization of port services. By this time, it was recognized that ports were important transfer points in the intermodal transport chain, and consequently that the growth in maritime goods transport and the concentration of activity at a relatively limited number of ports in combination were factors influencing land-based transport activity. More recently, the EU has produced two communication documents that are relevant to this study: a Communication on an Integrated Maritime Policy for the EU (European Commission, 2007a) and a Communication on a Ports Policy (European Commission, 2007b). The former has a very broad remit, recognizing the supranational nature of many issues relating to the maritime environment, and identifying interrelationships between trade, fishing, national security, environmental impacts, etc. The latter communication focuses its attention specifically on the ports sector, identifying the following key challenges: (a) increasing demand for international transport; (b) technological changes, not least the development of container transport and a range of IT applications; (c) commitment to tackle greenhouse gas emissions, local air pollution and road congestion; (d) involvement of stakeholders in the port region and beyond. In addition, given the nature of many port undertakings, often in receipt of public funds and frequently also being public or quasi-public bodies, compliance with Directive 2006/111/EC is necessary. This sets out obligations to ensure the transparency of financial relations between member states and public undertakings. This also applies to other elements of the transport system where the public sector may operate or fund aspects of infrastructure or service provision. Overall, the evolution of maritime and inland transport policies has traditionally not been well integrated, although there are signs that this is now improving. An example can be seen with the evolution of the TEN-T programme. This was adopted by the EU in 1996, with the aim of removing obstacles to the implementation of the Single European Market through the creation of modern and efficient strategic transport infrastructure across the continent. Progress has generally been slow, leading the EU to review the initiative and focus much more clearly on transnational projects. A revised set of 30 transnational corridors was identified in 2004 (European Commission, 2005), a number of which relate very directly to port connections while others are likely to have a more limited impact. Those projects most closely related to ports and their hinterlands include the new Betuwe line connecting Rotterdam and the German border, the UK/Ireland/Benelux road axis providing landbridges between ferry ports, the rail axis from Algeciras to France, and the Rhine/Meuse – Main – Danube inland waterway axis. Specifically considering ports, almost 300 are included in the TEN-T programme, but there has been little prioritization so far. To promote short-sea shipping, the Motorways of the Sea initiative was adopted as part of the TEN-T programme in 2004, with four main aims (European Commission, 2006b):
  29. 29. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 29 of 42 (a) to encourage more efficient, cost-effective freight transport that is less polluting; (b) to alleviate road congestion on Europe’s strategic road network; (c) to improve the connectivity of peripheral regions, enhancing cohesion across Europe; (d) to help to promote economic growth in a more sustainable manner. White Paper on Transport 2011 Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area - Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system The European Commission adopted a roadmap of 40 concrete initiatives for the next decade to build a competitive transport system that will increase mobility, remove major barriers in key areas and fuel growth and employment. At the same time, the proposals will dramatically reduce Europe's dependence on imported oil and cut carbon emissions in transport by 60% by 2050. By the 2050, key goals will include: • No more conventionally-fuelled cars in cities. • 40% use of sustainable low carbon fuels in aviation; at least 40% cut in shipping emissions. • A 50% shift of medium distance intercity passenger and freight journeys from road to rail and waterborne transport. • All of which will contribute to a 60% cut in transport emissions by the middle of the century. TEN-T programme The TEN-T programme consists of hundreds of projects – defined as studies or works – whose ultimate purpose is to ensure the cohesion, interconnection and interoperability of the trans-European transport network, as well as access to it. TEN-T projects, which are located in every EU Member State, include all modes of transport. As a whole, TEN-T projects aim to: • Establish and develop the key links and interconnections needed to eliminate existing bottlenecks to mobility • Fill in missing sections and complete the main routes - especially their cross-border sections • Cross natural barriers • Improve interoperability on major routes Development of inland transport on the Danube is sumarized within the Priority Project 18: Waterways axis Rhine/Meuse-Main-Danube. Infrastructure interventions on the Rhine, the Meuse, the Main and the Main-Danube Canal aim at improving the capacity of the waterways for the transit of larger barges on the basis of the waterways being fully operational and normally maintained. Very important intervention is ongoing on the Danube stretch east of Vienna until the Slovak border. An important step for improving the navigability of the Danube would be the completion of the hydroelectric project Gabčíkovo – Nagymaros. However, completion of this project depends on agreement between Slovak and Hungarian government. NAIADES and NAIADES II The European Commission adopted an action programme on the promotion of inland waterway transport called NAIADES (Navigation and Inland Waterway Action and Development in Europe). The programme includes recommendations for action to be taken
  30. 30. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 30 of 42 between 2006 and 2013. NAIADES sets the framework for a comprehensive IWT policy by focusing on five strategic interdependent areas: Markets, Fleet, Jobs & Skills, Image and Infrastructure. Currently, the follow up of the NAIADES action programme, the NAIADES II is being prepared by the EC. In the accordance with the NAIADES Action Programme some areas were chosen due to the improvements of the conditions in IWT of the SR, for instance the part of transport flows which is transported by road transport could be moved towards to more ecological mode of transport - water transport. It is also necessary to improve navigation parameters on the Danube between Sap and Štúrovo and the state border between Austria and Slovakia. B. Romanian transport policy Sectoral Operational Programme TRANSPORT 2007 – 2013 The SOPT is the instrument that elaborates upon the objectives of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF), establishing priorities, goals and the allocation of funds for development of the transport sector in Romania. The SOPT uses as its basis the EU legislation (Reg. (EC) No 1080/2006, (EC) No 1083/2006, (EC) No 1084/2006) establishing the provisions applicable to the ERDF, ESF and the Cohesion Fund for the 2007-2013 programming period. In addition the SOPT is coherent with the Community Strategic Guidelines on cohesion (Council Decision No 2006/702/EC), as well as with the relevant harmonized national legislation on transport policy, land acquisition, public procurement, public financing etc. The focus of the SOPT 2007-2013 is the development of the national transport network, however in parallel to the SOPT, and for the same programming period, a Regional OP and a National Rural Development Plan have been developed. The coherence is also ensured between the SOPT and the Romania’s National Spatial Plan (Law No 336/2006-Transport Section). The Strategic Concept of Spatial Development and Integration into the European Spatial Structures 2007-2025, which aims at integration with the EU spatial structure, is under elaboration at this moment and considers SOPT a reference document. All programmes integrate towards a common development strategy in order to achieve a coherent transport system providing for spatial cohesion and interoperability with the European Union transport systems for the national, regional (local) and rural transport networks. Objectives and elaboration of the Sectoral Operational Programme Transport In accordance with the general objective, a key issue for the Romanian economy during 2007- 2013 will be the development of transport infrastructure, which will have significant impact on increasing the economic competitiveness, facilitate the economic integration with the EU, contribute to the actual development of the internal market and allow for the development of the Romanian economy. It is aimed at creating the conditions for increased investment activity, the promotion of sustainable transport and spatial cohesion. The potential decrease of air pollution and noise especially in the cities and increase in the public transport usage which is considered environmentally friendly transport and facilitation of the modal shift of the transport towards a less pollution, such as rail and water transport will have also a positive impact on the Romanian economy from the environmental and health point of view.
  31. 31. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 31 of 42 After modernization, the improved transport infrastructure will directly lead to increased competitiveness of manufactured products and the provision of services, both in key sectors of the economy and within whole regions of Romania. The overall impact will be to generally improve the economy of Romania. More specifically, the modernization of infrastructure will: 1. Provide needed capital investment expenditure in locations that are now difficult to access or which suffer excessive traffic congestion; 2. Lead to improvement of transport services offered to customers; 3. Allow development of improved logistics systems resulting in lower costs of supplies and deliveries; 4. Facilitate cooperation of producers and manufacturers; 5. Increase potential for accessing to new markets. The SOPT builds on the results of the previous national development plans, including the previous analyses performed as well as lessons learned during implementation. It is not a analysis based solely on what has been concluded in past projects. The SOPT is based on a more detailed analysis and therefore provides a clearer picture of some aspects. Key transport-related issues identified in Romania’s National Development Plan were: • Domestic transport, although diversified, has insufficient capacity for transporting freight and passengers, especially in certain areas and during certain parts of the year (summer season, week-ends); • The transport infrastructure is insufficiently developed, and requires significant investment in order to meet European standards; • Access to the West-European corridors, as well as to the Eastern and Southern Europe ones, is limited and made difficult by the low transport capacity and the quality of specific physical infrastructures; • Romania’s location at the crossroads of many roads connecting Eastern to Western Europe and Northern to Southern Europe, as well as the location of the country on the transit axes connecting Europe to Asia, points out the importance of a developed infrastructure; • Romania’s access to the Black Sea and the Danube River represents an opportunity and an argument to increase the level of transport on waterways, taking into account the low costs as compared to land and air transport. The Romanian strategy for absorption of funds will be able to produce significant economic, social and environmental benefits. In addition, the strategy provides for implementation of the concept of a country-wide Romanian transport system development that will be internally coherent and interoperable with the European Union system. Undertakings proposed for funding under the Cohesion Fund are concentrated within identified EU priority axes, which are of fundamental importance for creation of spatial cohesion in Europe. Operations to be funded under the ERDF component of the SOPT are targeting, in turn, an increased accessibility of the Romanian regions. In addition, the General Transport Master Planning (GTMP) process for Romania is in progress and it will provide the basis for future development but will use the knowledge gained from the SOPT as the core criteria for the establishment of projects.
  32. 32. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 32 of 42 C. Slovak Transport Policy Operational Programme Transport 2007 – 2013 The Operational Programme Transport (hereinafter referred to as „OPT“) represents the programme document of the Slovak Republic for drawing on the EU funds in the transport sector for the years 2007 to 2013. The OPT was prepared on the basis or in accordance with: • Council Regulation (EC) No 1083/2006, laying down general provisions on ERDF, ESF and CF and repealing the Regulation (EC) No 1260/1999 („General Regulation“); • Regulation of the EP and the Council (EC) No 1080/2006 on the ERDF and repealing the Regulation (EC) No 1783/1999; • Regulation of the Council (EC) No 1084/2006, establishing the Cohesion Fund, and repealing the Regulation (EC) No 1164/94. The OPT ties up with aims and priorities of the National Strategic Reference Framework 2007 – 2013 („NSRF“) as a basic reference instrument for the programming of the EU funds in the area of cohesion and regional policies. The OPT implements and works out the strategic priority of the NSRF „Infrastructure and Regional Accessibility“ through priorities and plans for the development of transport infrastructure and public passenger transport. The global aim of the Operational Programme is the support of the sustainable mobility through the development of transport infrastructure and public passenger transport. The OPT has character of sector oriented operational programme, which resolves the requirements at the level of state competence (MTCRD SR) firstly as a package of measures with transregional or even international significance. The attention will be paid especially to the building and modernisation of the transport infrastructure on approved routes of Trans- European transport network passing through the Slovak territory, with clear cohesion with national economy. Provision of effective, flexible and safe transport infrastructure, in relation to economic activities, will lead to the recovery of development perspectives by simplification of free movement of labour forces and goods. Selected chapters from the Transport Policy of Slovak Republic until 2015 Specific Objective 1: Establish a transparent and harmonized competition in transport market - Priority 1.1 Liberalization of the transport market - Mutual recognition of certificates, licenses and technical requirements for vessels is the key issue in this part. - Priority 1.2 Harmonization of conditions in the transport market and charging users - Marginal costs of inland navigation are very low and waterways play an important role in the management of water, and it has to be considered when calculating user fees, in which both financial and environmental costs remain among the lowest of all kinds transport. Charging of infrastructure itself, cannot tackle all the imbalances existing on the transport market, but it creates a space for rational choice based on the calculation of all transport costs for each mode of transport. Specific objective 2: Modernization and development of transport infrastructure - Priority 2.4 Modernization and development of water infrastructure - Development of inland navigation depends mainly on the development and
  33. 33. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 33 of 42 completion of public ports on Danube. Enhancing their technical equipment and provided services will ensure better conditions for industrial activities. - Priority 2.5 Modernization and development of intermodal transport – The expected benefit of modernization and development of intermodal transport is change of transport mode form road to environmentally advantageous rail and water transport. Specific Objective 6: Improving traffic safety and security - Priority 6.1 Improving traffic safety and security in Inland Navigation The main advantage of inland navigation is a high level of transport safety. The vessels are required to meet the strictest standards and pass regular tests performed by qualified companies and inspectors. D. Hungarian Transport Policy Short summary of Hungarian Transport Policy in the virtue of http://www.un.org/esa/dsd/dsd_aofw_ni/ni_pdfs/NationalReports/hungary/Transport.pdf: Accession to the European Union and further enlargement of the EU had a significant effect on the Hungarian transport development. Investment resources from the EU Cohesion Fund and the Structural Funds, supplemented with national resources were used for this purpose. The main transport policy documents are the Hungarian Transport Policy – HTP 19/2004(III.26) OGY – (2003-2015) and, the Unified Transport Development Strategy – UTDS (2007-2020). The general objectives of Hungarian Transport policy determined in HTP and approved by the Parliament are as follows: - Improvement of the quality of life, preservation of health, reduction of regional disparities, increasing the safety of transportation, protection of built-in and natural environment; - Improvement and extension of connection to the neighboring countries; - Promotion of the implementation of regional development objectives; - Creating the conditions for efficient operation and maintenance by regulated competition. The UTDS elaborated in 2007 specified a more efficient cooperation of sub-sectors and a uniform set of objectives of services. Priority objectives in UTDS except the development of passenger transport are the followings: Development of transport of goods - Ensuring the share of environmentally friendly factors above the EU-27 average in the task sharing of transport of goods; - Profitability of environmentally friendly transport modes, improvement of their infrastructure maintenance capacity; - Increasing the share of combined transport of goods; - Increasing the efficiency of intermodal logistic service centers. Development of transport infrastructure
  34. 34. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 34 of 42 - Elaboration of a main network infrastructure, improving economic competitiveness, improvement of regional accessibility at various levels; - Development of the infrastructure of urban and suburban community transport; - Prevention of increased road ware originating from public road vehicles of increasing axis pressure. Horizontally topics - Reduction of the number of death under 500 per year, caused by accidents on public roads; - Implementation of more environmentally friendly and energy efficient transport systems; - Long term provision of sustainability by conscious infrastructural development; - Acceleration of the pace of introduction of ITS (intelligent transport systems) applications. The development of logistics is a very important part of the transport policy. The target of the Hungarian Intermodal Logistic Development Conception is the development of an efficient transport logistic system in Hungary, which is capable of building an environmental friendly and efficient distribution functions toward Eastern and South Europe. E. Serbian Transport Policy Development Strategy of Railroad, Road, Air and Intermodal Transport in the Republic of Serbia for period 2008-2015 The strategy is target-oriented and based on a vision for 2015 - the one that takes into account the social development orientation of Serbia towards the European Union, sustainable transport system and stable institutions. The main purpose of the strategy is to provide guidance for decision makers in the field of transportation and to represent a source of information on the status, problems, scenarios, the overall goals and objectives for the individual modes of transport measures in the transport sector. The basic concept of strategy is determined by long-term goal - membership in the European Union, which is the Republic of Serbia has set as its strategic and national interest. The main goals of the strategy are: • Integration of the transportation network of the Republic of Serbia into the Trans- European Transport Network, through the following activities: o Direction Belgrade-South Adriatic routes 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10 and 11, as well as some basic network cross linking are accepted as part of TEN; o Rehabilitation, reconstruction and construction of Pan-European Corridor VII and X; o Establishment of transport infrastructure, through a systematic approach to multimodal transport network, taking into account the sustainable development of the whole country; o Development of transport infrastructure plans with the priority task of attracting international flows of transportation and functional intermodal integration; o Establishment of a new national unit responsible for strategic management and planning in the Ministry responsible for transport. • Efficient use of comparative advantages of each mode of transport, through the following activities: o Introduction and development of intermodal transport; o Establishment of intermodal terminals on the main corridors;
  35. 35. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 35 of 42 o Analysis, assessment and reduction of external costs of transport in Serbia; o Introduction of fair pricing for use of infrastructure for all modes of transport; o Introduction of centralized and hierarchical databases established for the entire transport sector and infrastructure of each mode of transport and database management. • Increase of transport system service quality – increase of the effectiveness and efficiency of all modes of transport and the entire transportation system, through the following activities: o Improvement of the transport system organization in terms of economy, safety, intermodality and environmental protection; o Application of objective-oriented planning and management of transport infrastructure and flows; o Efficient and effective meeting the requirements for individual mobility; o Increase of capacity and service quality in public transport and encouraging use of public transport; o Introduction of an uniform, user oriented system of passenger transport; o Adoption of complementary policies for development of intelligent transport systems for use in different types of transport on the whole territory of Serbia; o Increase of the average speed on the major rail and road transport network. • Increasing the level of safety and security of the transportation system - reducing the number of deaths on the roads and the extraordinary events in the water, rail and air transport in the Republic of Serbia, through the following activities: o Harmonization of national regulation with EU regulations and ADR, RID and ADN regulations, related to the transport of dangerous goods; o Establishment of the traffic safety management at the national and local levels with a distribution of responsibilities; • Strengthening the transport market and its gradual deregulation - the establishment of regulatory, operational and management functions in the transport sector, through the following activities: o Harmonization and implementation of EU regulations in the transport sector; o Providing conditions for improving competitiveness in the transport market; o Gradual and reasonable deregulation and liberalization of transport markets; o Strengthening competitiveness of domestic carriers / operators in the domestic and international markets; o Improvement of cooperation between ministries and local governments in order to develop specific regulatory, investment, fiscal and social policy instruments; o Restructuring of public enterprises and companies; • Reducing the negative impact of transport on the environment in accordance with the principles of sustainable development, through the following activities: o Reduction of the harmful effects of all forms of transport on the environment (reduction of air pollution, noise and causes of global warming); o Renewal of the transportation fleet by encouraging development of environmentally friendly transport technologies; o Reduction of specific energy consumption in transport; • Establishing a stable funding development of the transport system - creating conditions for sustainable development of the transport system through stable sources of funding from the budget of the Republic of Serbia and other sources of funding, through the following activities: o Preparation of sustainable models to subsidize the sustainable transport modes; o Strengthening the participation of private capital into infrastructure development and maintenance; o Establishment of adequate and reliable funding model for the maintenance and rehabilitation of transport infrastructure; o Optimization of charge for the use of public transport;
  36. 36. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 36 of 42 o Ensuring efficiency and effectiveness of the urban and suburban passenger transportation system; o Provision of funding for research and development. Besides the Development Strategy of Railroad, Road, Air and Intermodal Transport in the Republic of Serbia for period 2008-2015, it is important to mention the Law on Inland Waterway Navigation (Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia nr 53/93; 67/93 and 48/94) and the draft of the Law on Safety of Navigation and Inland Waterway Ports. The Law on Inland Waterway Navigation governing the inland navigation, navigation safety, terms of use and maintenance of the inland waterway, identification and protection of inland waterways, harbors, moorings and winter ports, boats and floating facilities, procedures in the case of navigational accidents and monitoring The draft of the Law on Safety of Navigation and Inland Waterway Ports, proposed by the Ministry of infrastructure and energy, regulate navigation safety on the inland waterways in the Republic of Serbia, inland waterways and navigation, vessels and their navigation ability, crews, search and rescue, harbor and docks, supervision and other issues related to the navigation. Additionally, Ports Management Agency is in the process of establishment. 5. Benchmark ENHANCING HINTERLAND CONNECTIONS - comparison Passau-Regensburg/ Rotterdam ports : Passau-Regensburg Rotterdam Describe geographical position of the port: - Passau port is situated on the Rhine-Main- Danube water route, which extends for 3,500 kilometres and links the North Sea to the Black Sea. - Regensburg is situated in Bavaria, Germany, located at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers, at the northernmost bend in the Danube. Describe geographical position of the port: The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, situated on the estuary of the rivers Rhine and Maas and located in the city of Rotterdam, Netherlands. It stretches over a distance of 40 kilometers, covering 105 square kilometers. Describe institutional aspects: - private port - land property : bayernhafen Group is the owner of all land and offices within the port areas - shareholder as shown in the report Describe institutional aspects: The Port of Rotterdam Authority is the manager, operator and developer of Rotterdam’s port and industrial area. The Port Authority is a public limited company (N.V.) with two shareholders: the Municipality of Rotterdam and the Dutch State. To which economic hubs is your (inland) port connected : - highways A 3, A 93 - railway Nürnberg - Wien, Hof, München - Donau To which economic hubs is your (inland) port connected : Road : All European countries Rail :All European countries Water : Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria Otherwise : Via pipeline to Germany and Belgium, Via shortsea connections to all European coastal countries Which hinterland infrastructure is existing : Which hinterland infrastructure is existing:
  37. 37. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 37 of 42 - Container terminal Regensburg Ost - miscellaneous company in the domain of logistics - OEMs (original equipment manufacturers) a) Road : Highways East, North and South connecting Rotterdam to all hinterland markets in Europe, with Ruhr area as major market b) Rail : Railroads East, North and South connecting Rotterdam to all hinterland markets, with Ruhr area as major market. Specific mention of “Betuwe Line” which is a cargo only railroad between Rotterdam port and German Ruhr area c) Water : Rivers Rhine, Waal and Maas East and Southeast, connecting mainly Rotterdam with Ruhr area and other German and Swiss industrial and economic centres along Rhine - River and canal connections to Antwerp area, Scheldt river area, Amsterdam area and all regions of the Netherlands - Otherwise : Pipeline connections into Germany, Shortsea connections to almost any European country relevant to the (inland) port Relevant to the (inland) port : The same How was, is and will be your (inland) port involved in hinterland infrastructure development : - consulted, through consensus - development is triggered by the clients How was and is your (inland) port involved in hinterland infrastructure development: - Initiating :The Port of Rotterdam authority develops and updates on a continuous basis their Future Port Plan (now up till 2030). This plan is based on extensive economic and commercial forecasts, transport(ation) forecasts and industry specific forecasts. The Rotterdam Port Plan is promoted to all relevant authorities (e.g. Ministries, Government, EU) and forms the basis on which investment decisions are taken by Rotterdam Port and by the (inter)national authorities. - Out of modal split improvement policies there is a continuous search by the Port Authority for developing solutions. An example is the development of the new inland container transferium, located relatively close to the Port, which function is to reduce the average distance travelled by barges within the Port of Rotterdam. - As the port is only fulfilling a transit function in the supply chain, the Port of Rotterdam is also initiating and supporting developments and projects further in the hinterland, even in other countries. This as the Port Authority understands that only an efficient functioning total supply chain will keep cargo flows tied to the port. - Consulted : As Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, especially their inland port colleagues consult Rotterdam on a regular basis. Also as the development of connections is depending on the collaboration of the ports on both end. - Developing : The area within the Port of Rotterdam area is the responsibility of the Port
  38. 38. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 38 of 42 Authority. That part of the infrastructure is developed under the responsibility of the Port Authority. All major roads, railroads and waterways have a national function and consequently fall under the development responsibility of the national authorities. What are the key requirements set forth concerning the hinterland infrastructure: - more awareness of Passau/ Regensburg ports in the hinterland for a growth in bulk What are the key requirements set forth concerning the hinterland infrastructure: - in the past : Already in the past the Port of Rotterdam recognized the importance of an efficient functioning hinterland infrastructure, particularly because of the high level of use by the German Ruhr region of the Port of Rotterdam. Especially the inland water transport was important. - Present : a) An efficient hinterland infrastructure (road plus rail plus water plus pipelines) is key to the success of the Port of Rotterdam. Collaboration with hinterland hubs is increasingly important as supply chain optimizations can be reached through this collaboration. b) Availability of services providers using the hinterland infrastructure in an effective and efficient manner are a prerequisite. c) expected in future : Developments from the perspective of optimizing international supply chains of key clients. Benchmarked against the market requirements, what are your (inland) port hinterland infrastructure : - strengths: facility and infrastructure management, flexible superstructure - weaknesses: limited lands, weak awareness - opportunities: appropriate capacities - threats: business competition, insufficient flexibility Benchmarked against the market requirements, what are your (inland) port hinterland infrastructure: - strengths : The quality and capacity of all transport modes hinterland infrastructure to all important European markets - weaknesses : Capacity road infrastructure at its limit opportunities : Increased use of rail and inland water hinterland infrastructure threats : Accessibility of the Port, Clogging up of hinterland infrastructure due to too slow development What transport capacity and shipment frequency is available to/from your (inland) port: - road, rail and waterway - connection and capacity as shown in the report (shipments as follows): 1. Hamburg via Nurnberg : 5times/ week 2. To Bremerhaven : 6 times/ week 3. Ro-La to Trento : 3 / day 4. From Hamburg to Budapest : 1 / week What transport capacity and shipment frequency is available to/from your (inland) port: road : daily, upon demand, over 1,000 destinations weekly rail : daily, upon demand and block trains, over 300 block trains per week water : daily, upon demand and lines, over 500 lines per week (sea) and over 1,500 inland water vessels per week
  39. 39. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 39 of 42 How do you rate the competitiveness between the various modes of transport and especially the competitive position of inter- modal transport: - Regensburg: good competitiveness in inter- modal transports and very good competitiveness on the waterway regarding business competition - Passau: no competitiveness in inter-modal transports (services are available but not in use) and very good competitiveness on the waterway regarding business competition How do you rate the competitiveness between the various modes of transport and especially the competitive position of inter-modal transport: Rail : Medium and improving. The frequency is going up and that puts rail in a better competitive position with road transport. Water : High and stable. In container transport the capacity is nowadays high per vessel and this provides strong competitiveness vis-à-vis road and rail. For both the situation is improving. However, in order to reach a level playing field with road transport, focus has to remain on improving further the competitive position of inter-modal transport. This is for example done through the contractual obligations by new sea container terminals to transport about 70% of the containers handled in the hinterland by inter-modal transport means. What is the strategy of your (inland) port with respect to: - strategy is a further development infrastructure - development is driven by the clients What is the strategy of your (inland) port with respect to: hinterland infrastructure : continuous improvement embedding maximally market requirements hinterland transport capacity : enlarging especially inter-modal transport capacity hinterland transport efficiency : creating a level playing field for all transport modes as that ensures maximal efficiency through competition What actions are you carrying out and/or planning to execute in respect of: - development is driven by the clients What actions are you carrying out and/or planning to execute in respect of: further development of hinterland infrastructure Realization of the barge transferium (near the Port of Rotterdam) Enlargement of the hinterland infrastructure (mainly road and rail) Implementing the contractual strategy on required market share by inter-modal transport in the hinterland further development of hinterland transport capacity Supporting the enlargement of the infrastructure capacity improving effectiveness and efficiency of the hinterland transport Collaborate with the transport sector to identify, develop and implement new solutions decreasing the logistics costs of using your (inland) port and hinterland infrastructure system Collaborate with the transport sector to identify, develop and implement new solutions Collaborate with research institutions and
  40. 40. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 40 of 42 universities in developing improvements Taking away specific bottlenecks to the extent under control, and push for bottleneck solutions where the Port does not have jurisdiction enhancing the competitive position of your (inland) port Collaborate with the transport and port sector to identify, develop and implement new solutions Describe environmental protection actions and emergency response procedures: - environmental protection is part of the clients business operation and is decided by the environmental agency after coordination; - emergency plans are created and executed by the clients. 6. Conclusion 1. Interrelationships with existing policies – to ensure that hinterland connections of seaports/ inland ports are well integrated into transport development strategic plans at national and international levels It is important to remember that hinterland connections to seaports/ inland ports do not exist in isolation. Cargo flows to and from ports share the same transport infrastructure as other transport activity, and are subject to the same policies and regulatory framework that influence the ways in which goods flows materialize across the infrastructure. Therefore, the efficiency and sustainability of hinterland connections is fundamentally affected by the performance of the transport system as a whole. In many respects, it is an artificial distinction to treat hinterlands as a separate issue, although it does help to focus attention on specific features that affect transport chains involving ports. 2. An agreed set of policy objectives - to explore frameworks within which port managers could be encouraged to minimize the negative impacts of port hinterland flows by making use of a network of hub and feeder ports, promoting co-modality and placing greater emphasis on rail and waterborne modes, as well as enhance the efficiency of utilization and operation of each transport mode for hinterland flows The private sector has an important role in port hinterland connections. To ensure fairness and consistency, it is necessary to ensure that a coherent set of policy objectives is in place, so that private sector companies can make decisions that may have long-term consequences. An overall framework within which the policy objectives can be pursued should be formulated to relate both to the ways in which the private sector is encouraged to operate in a competitive and efficient manner and the minimization of the negative impacts of port hinterland flows, not least CO2 emissions. An appropriate set of policy objectives could be based on the following approach, at least in the short term, ranging from the strategic down to the operational: (a) measures to promote an efficient and sustainable network of hub and feeder ports for flows by sea to/from the UNECE region;
  41. 41. Hinterland connections State of the art study DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 41 of 42 (b) the encouragement of the co-modality concept to ensure that hinterland transport is organized efficiently and sustainably, with greater emphasis on rail and waterborne modes; (c) actions to enhance the efficiency of utilization and operation of each mode of transport for hinterland flows. Logistics chains are highly complex and ever evolving. The evolution of competitive markets in a liberalized operating environment has brought many benefits, but also considerable negative consequences. Policy objectives should be based on principles of fairness and transparency. In a practical sense, policy makers should set an appropriate framework within which decisions regarding goods flows can be made by actors within logistics chains. The imperfect knowledge of the transport system leads to uncertainty in the outcomes of policy interventions, with the risk of perverse decision making by those involved in supply chains. 3. Adoption of policies and initiatives appropriate to the situation It is important to recognize the varying characteristics, and therefore the appropriateness of potential solutions, for different parts of the UNECE region. The provision of suitable transport infrastructure to cater for port hinterland (and other) transport flows is clearly important and, in some cases, new and improved infrastructure will be appropriate (i.e. ‘hard’ measures). Transport infrastructure capabilities vary considerably across the UNECE region, and constraints particularly apply within the lesser developed countries, and to cross-border routes in general. However, there is not a one-size-fits all solution, or solution package, so different hinterland problems need to be analyzed within the context of the overall objectives but with sufficient flexibility to allow the adoption of the most appropriate measures. In many cases, considerable improvement can be achieved through the application of good practice measures. In general, the co-modality and corridor concepts together form a sound basis on which to evaluate initiatives to improve hinterland connections. 4. Measures to improve efficiency and reduce environmental impacts (short term and long term) - to encourage better coordination of increases of container ships’ carrying capacities with ports infrastructure and their hinterland connections Considerable progress towards greater efficiency and sustainability seems possible in the short term and at little cost through focusing on ‘soft’ measures. It is evident that a stronger understanding of the factors that affect CO2 emissions for different types of transport operations is required, in order that appropriate transport options can be encouraged through policy making and chosen by those responsible for making freight transport decisions. At present, sustainability issues are frequently not considered in any great detail when transport routes and modes are evaluated but, where they are, decisions taken in the interests of reducing CO2 emissions may actually have the opposite effect. While rail and waterborne modes generally do have lower CO2 emissions than road per unit carried, this is not universally true and it is important to develop a better understanding of the situations when it may be beneficial to use road transport. That said, it is clear that road is currently used for many flows for which it is not best suited, either for efficiency or sustainability. Many of the good practice examples could be more widely adopted in the short term. There is the potential to generate many quick wins from a range of ‘soft’ measures that are relatively cheap to implement in comparison to investment in new infrastructure. Measures to use the transport system more intelligently should be considered (e.g. to smooth peaks
  42. 42. Hinterland connections State of the art study and troughs in demand to make better use of resources), and often this can be achieved through better information systems and partnerships. Greater international coordination is a particularly important issue. There is a clear need, though, to focus specifically on initiatives to improve cross-border coordination and remove barriers to freight flows so as to improve supply chain efficiency and reduce uncertainty over transit times. In the longer term, there is the potential, and perhaps the need, to encourage or force the development of an ‘ideal’ port hinterland system which would ensure that decision making focused on enhancing efficiency and sustainability. On the one hand, an interventionist approach could be adopted, with the public sector significantly influencing the nature of port hinterland flows through direct intervention in port and hinterland infrastructure development, regulations relating to transport modes or distances permissible for certain flows, etc. Alternatively, a framework could be established that encouraged companies to make ‘sensible’ (i.e. efficient and, crucially, sustainable) supply chain choices relating to ports and hinterland connections. This would require the full development of a robust regulatory and pricing framework that internalized the externalities associated with transport activity, applied on a consistent basis internationally. The second of these approaches is likely to be favorable, since it fits better with the dominant philosophy of market competition and choice, but within a framework that takes full account of the impacts of decisions made regarding routes and transport modes. Increasingly, it is likely that companies will need to focus on a ‘carbon budget’ in addition to a financial one, so there will be incentives to consider ways of reducing CO2 emissions resulting from logistics activity. The unsustainable use of fossil fuels also points towards a need for major changes in the way in which transport activity is organized. Particularly where ‘hard’ measures are proposed, usually at considerable expense, care should be taken to ensure that their lifespan will not be compromised by future events that will fundamentally change the nature of freight flows. For example, in the absence of the widespread adoption of alternative fuel sources for HGVs, the dominance of road freight may be reduced. It seems prudent, therefore, that when major transport infrastructure investment is deemed necessary due attention is devoted to the long-term sustainability issues. This publication has been produced with the assistance of the European Union. The content of this publication is the sole responsibility of the DaHar project partnership and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union. DaHar This project is co-funded by the European Union page 42 of 42

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