Martina Simm & Aurora Masi
Emblem of the
Area: 302 073 sq km
Population: 59,685,227 inhab.
Density: 197.59 inhab. / Km ²
The cradle of European civilization
The city of Rome was founded in 753 B.C.
The Ancient Romans conquered step by step the
Mediterranean area and half of Europe. Roman law,
the cattolicesmo, art and culture as well as the
technical progress characterized not only the
history of Italy, but also the history of the entire
Italy in the Middle Ages
Germans, Goths and Lombards reigned one after the
other the different parts of the peninsula.
After the destruction of the Lombard kingdom the
country was divided into three parts:
1. the Holy Roman Empire in the North;
2. the Papal State in the center;
3. different powers was alternated to reign in southern
From the unification of Italy until now
With the discovery of America, Italy became the toy of
the new European powers France and Austria. The
Italian cities were united for the first time since the
fall of the Roman Empire when Napoleon proclaimed the
Kingdom of Italy and crowned himself king of Italy. The
Italian people revolted against Austria and in 1861
founded the kingdom of Italy.
Italy is a peninsula, it is
bordered to the north with the
mainland and the remaining
part is surrounded by the
The hilly areas are prevalent
compared to plains and
The largest islands are Sicily
and Sardinia, but there are
also many smaller islands,
mostly collected in
Italy is a member of the European
Union, it is located in the
Southern Europe with capital
Rome. Bourded on the north by the
Alpine, its borders are:
-to west with France;
- to north with Switzerland and
-to east with Slovenia.
The local authorities that
constitute the Italian republic are:
- regions (15 with an ordinary
statute and 5 with a special
- provinces and municipalities.
The climate is influenced by
the seas that surround
almost every side of the
country. In fact they
determine a particular
climate and its name is
There are many different
climates in the country
thanks to its special position.
Italy is the fourth most populated country in the European
Union. The population is concentrated mainly in the coastal and
plains areas of the country and it is characterized by a high
number of older people, a low birth rate and a life expectancy
The number of regular
immigrants or foreign
residents in Italy has
increased considerably in
recent years: the larger
Romanian, Albanian and
In Italy we have the principle of the secular state and
for this reason there isn’t an official religion.
The majority of Italian citizens is Christian.
Italian is the official language and the most spoken. At the local
level are recognized as co-official languages the following
french: in Valle d'Aosta
Slovenian : in the provinces of Trieste and Gorizia
German : in the province of Bolzano
Ladin: in some municipalities of Trentino-Alto Adige.
Map of the languages and dialects spoken in Italy:
Italy has been a unitary
parliamentary republic since 2
June 1946, when the monarchy
was abolished by a constitutional
referendum. The President of
Italy is Italy's head of state.
The President is elected for a
single seven years mandate by
the Parliament of Italy in joint
session. President of the Italian
Republic, Giorgio Napolitano
Italy has a parliamentary
government based on a
proportional voting system.
The parliament is bicameral:
there are two houses, the
Chamber of Deputies and the
Senate of the Republic.
The Prime Minister is Italy's
head of government.
the Italian parliament
A peculiarity of the Italian
Parliament is the representation
given to Italian citizens
permanently living abroad: 12
Deputies and 6 Senators
elected in four distinct overseas
In addition, the Italian Senate
is characterized also by a small
number of senators for life.
the new Italian Prime Minister,
elected on the last 22nd of February
Italy is a founding member of the
European Union (EU), and of the
North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO). Italy was
admitted to the United Nations in
1955, and it is a member and strong
supporter of many international
Education in Italy is regulated in
different ways according to the legal
form (public schools or private schools).
The vocational training, including
vocational schools, depends on the
Compulsory education ends at 16 years.
The Italian school system is structured
in three cycles of education :
- primary education, duration of five
- secondary education that include lower
secondary School with a duration of
three years, and upper secondary school
with a duration of five years;
- higher education, including the
university and specialized training.
Italy has a market economy
characterized by high per capita GDP
and low unemployment rates. In 2012,
it was the ninth-largest economy in
the world and the fifth-largest in
Europe in terms of nominal GDP.
It is a developed country and it is a
founding member of the G7, G8 and
After World War II, Italy was rapidly
transformed from an agriculture
based economy into one of the world's
most industrialized nations.
The country is well known for its influential and innovative
business economic sector and for its creative and high-quality
automobile, industrial, appliance and fashion design.
Italy has a smaller number of global multinational corporations
than other economies, but there is a large number of small and
The Italian economy today suffers from many problems: a high
public debt as a proportion of GDP, the high tax burden, the
presence of a large informal economy caused by political
corruption and organized crime.
The Italian agricultural area used is 12.7 million acres. Mainly
concentrated in the South.
The major crops are devoted to wine grapes, wheat, olive oil and
Cattle, pigs and poultry are used for the production of dairy
products and meat.
Very important are also sea and lagoon Fishing.
The specificity of the Italian
industry is the processing and
production of manufactured goods.
The most important industries in the
Italian economy are mechanical,
chemical , electronic, fashion,
textile, metallurgical and food
Italy is one of the leading countries
in the production and design of cars
and motorcycles with car companies
such as Fiat and Lamborghini.
Italy is renowned throughout the
world for its luxury products in the
The Fiat industry
Services in Italy are the most important sector of the economy (67% of
Important activities in Italy are tourism, trade, services to individuals
The banking sector has experienced a decline in the number of employed,
but still retains a central role in Italian capitalism.
Tourism is one of the profitable sectors of the national economy: Italy is
both the fifth most visited country and highest tourism earner in the
miracles of Pisa
Italy has well developed public and private
Railways: Italian rail network is extensive, especially
in the north.
Most of this is managed and operated by “Ferrovie
dello Stato”, a state owned company.
Roads: Italy is one of the countries with the most
vehicles per capita.
Waterways:Italy has 2,400 km of navigable
waterways for various types of commercial traffic.
Airports:Italy is the fifth in Europe by number of
passengers by air transport. Most of passengers in
Italy are on international flights.
Protected natural areas in
Italy are 871, corresponding
to about 11% of the Italian
territory. The law about
protected areas divides them
Italian National Parks:
they are 24 and correspond
to about 5% of the national
territory. Their supervision
is entrusted to the State
Gran Paradiso National Park
Italian regional parks: they
The regional parks consist of
land, river, lake areas and
parts of the sea near the
coast, which constitute a
identified by the nature of
the structure places and by
artistic and cultural traditions
of the local people.
Natural Park of Migliarino,
San Rossore and Massaciuccoli
State nature reserves, 147 in total, and regional nature
reserves that are 365. These nature reserves consist of land,
river, lake or sea areas that contain one or more species of
naturalistic importance of fauna and flora.
Nature Riserve of
Calafuria, in the
Italian Protected Marine
Areas: they are made up of
parts of the sea, coastal or
not, in which human
activities are restricted.
They are 27 and the most
important is the Cetacean
Other protected areas,
national and regional:
They are protected
areas that are not
covered by the previous
categories and they are
more than 170.
Oasis Dunes Tirrenia
To these must be added
the Italian wetlands, 52
areas considered of
under the Ramsar
Lagoon of Orbetello
Over the centuries, Italy has
brought an important contribution
to world culture.
From its history, Italy has many
national monuments declared as
such by a specific law that
recognizes the cultural and
artistic importance for the
“La Gioconda” painted by
Leonardo da Vinci.
• Italy brings the testimonies of
different types of architectures.
The most important architectural
styles are Palaeochristian and
Byzantine, Romanic, Gothic,
Baroque and Neoclassical.
Palaeochristian and Byzantine:
In the Palaeochristian era, with
the spread of Christianity, italian
churches resumed models of the
Roman basilicas, with a central
nave flanked by side corridors.
The interior of San
Pietro's Basilica in Vatican
architecture in Italy covers a
period of XI century. The art
scene is very varied, with
"Romanesque" with regional
characteristics, both in terms of
the types of construction
materials to be used, the latter
depended heavily on local
the cathedral of Pisa
Gothic:The Gothic in Italy is not
implemented technical and
structural innovation of French
cathedrals, preferring to keep
the construction tradition
established in previous centuries.
Basilica of San Francesco in Assisi
architecture developed in
the seventeenth century,
during the period of
In fact the fundamental
characteristics of Baroque
architecture are curved
lines, sinous trends such as
ellipses and spirals.
San Pietro’s Square in Rome
architecture emerged in Italy
in the second half of the
eighteenth century. The
period of development of this
style corresponds to what
economic historians call the
Church of San Francesco di Paola in Naples
Painting and sculpture
With the late Empire and the barbarian
invasions start the process of
decentralization leading to flourish most
capital and artistic centers such as Milan,
Ravenna and Pavia.
The paintings remained firmly anchored to
the Byzantine models until the thirteenth
In Tuscany Nicola Pisano, Cimabue and
Giotto pose the basis for a real revolution
figurative, characterized by the true
representation of space, the human figure
and its suffering.
The painting of the nativity of
Jesus made by Giotto
In the fifteenth century, in Florence, Filippo
Brunelleschi, Donatello and Masaccio
stimulate the development of the
In the sixteenth century thanks to some
artists such as Leonardo, Raphael and
Michelangelo, Italy became the model for all
The seventeenth century opens with the
invention of the Baroque in Rome.
Painting and sculpture
interior of Cupola of
Brunelleschi in Florence
Italy has many historical traditions of various kinds, also known
internationally such as the Palio of Siena. In addition to the
Palio, characteristic manifestations are the Carnival of Venice,
the one of Viareggio, the rites of the Holy Week in some areas
of the south, nominated by UNESCO as intangible heritage of
humanity, as well as various traditions such as the historic
The Palio of Siena
The Palio of Siena is a competition
between the districts of Siena, in the
form of a carousel horse of medieval
origin. The district is each of
seventeen historical divisions within
the medieval walls of the city.
The "Career", the traditional name of
the race, usually takes place twice a
year: on the 2nd of July there is the
Palio of July, and August 16, the Palio
Carnival of Venice
The Carnival of Venice is one of the most famous in the world.
In 1797, with the French occupation of Napoleon and the Austrian next
one, the long historic tradition was interrupted for fear of riots and
unrest among the population.
Only in 1979 the age-old tradition of Venice Carnival officially resources,
thanks to the initiative and efforts of some citizens' associations and the
logistic and economic contribution of the Municipality of Venice.
Carnival of Viareggio
The Carnival of Viareggio is considered
one of the most important carnivals in
Italy and Europe. The Carnival of
Viareggio represents the artistic and
organizational capacity of the Italians in
the world. The wagons parade is along
the bigger street of Viareggio. The
tradition of the parade of Viareggio was
born in 1873, when some wealthy
burghers decided to dress up in protest
against the taxes.
Italian cuisine relies a lot of
different gourmet products, varied
from area to area, thanks to
historical factors and climate-
Some foods, such as pasta and
pizza, are universally recognized
symbols of Italian cuisine.
The main feature of Italian cuisine
is its extreme simplicity.
The Tuscan cuisine consists mainly of traditional dishes and
desserts that will retain their preparation for many years. The
first product is the characteristic Tuscan bread, characterized
by a lack of salt.
In Tuscany, the sacredness of bread is evidenced by a long
series of ancient recipes still widespread: panzanella, pappa al
pomodoro, garlic bread, vegetable soup. Another feature of the
Tuscan culinary tradition for excellence is the use of white meat.
The traditional Tuscan cheese is Tuscan pecorino.
Pappa al pomodoro
The pappa al pomodoro is a
poor dish of the peasant
origins of Tuscan cuisine.
This is evidenced by its
ingredients: Tuscan homemade
bread, tomatoes, garlic, basil,
broth, Tuscan extra virgin
olive oil, salt and pepper.
Panforte is a traditional Christmas cake
that has very ancient origins. It was
called Christmas Bread or Bread
Aromatic. The ingredients were more or
less the same until 1879 the year in which
Queen Margaret went for a visit to the
city of Siena. For the occasion, an
apothecarie prepared a gingerbread
without tanning and melon with a coverage
of vanilla sugar instead of black pepper.
He offered to the Queen as "Panforte
Margherita", the name by which this
gingerbread "white", more delicate, is still
known and marketed.
Our school’s name is ITCG Enrico Fermi, it is a commercial
technical institute and for surveyors. It is located in
Pontedera, a small town in the province of Pisa. In the
school we have the possibility to choose between different
courses of study such as agrarian, tourism, international
relations, administration finance and marketing and course
Our school is one of the biggest school of the town
because includes 3 buildings, it is the only one that has the
gym in the school yard and also has a lot of laboratories to
deepen different subjects such as math, informatics,
physics, chemistry and languages but there are also
laboratories with interactive whiteboard used for all
subjects, and a library and an auditorium.
Our timetable is very different than yours: we have
lesson from Monday to Saturday from 7.50 to 12.50,
we have three days with the hours of 50 minutes and
three days with hours to 60 minutes and it is to
satisfy the demands of the teachers and the needs of
pupils who fail to follow an entire lesson of 60
minutes; we have only two breaks of 10 minutes every
Pontedera is an Italian town of 28 256 inhabitants, it is located
in the province of Pisa and it is far 22 kilometers from the
provincial capital. The city's name is derived from the bridge
that was on the river Era.
The municipal area is completely flat with the exception of the
east, corresponding to 3 fractions that are Montecastello,
Treggiaia and La Rotta. These locations are part of the so-called
Pontedera, although it is not a big city, has a lot of
interesting buildings, churches and important bridges to
see because it is very ancient: it was inhabited from 5000
Pontedera is the center of the lives of young people that
living in Valdera, the majority of young people from 14 to
18 years old when they go out with friends in the afternoon
and in the evening go here because there are cinema, a long
street called “Corso” where you can walk and where there
are a lot of shops, and there are some pubs where they can
spend their evenings.