6/8/2012   Assessment Workshop   OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
Strategic                           Planning                                                  Program                     ...
 Assessment is a process of gathering and interpreting information to determine the  degree to which a program is meeting...
Follow-Up on                                Identify                                                                     I...
Formative assessment is utilized to                   Summative assessment is cumulative indetermine immediately whether s...
• This level of assessment focuses on individual student performance within a course aimed at instructional improvement.  ...
MATURESMART Outcomes                     Assessment                                    Methods6/8/2012     Assessment Work...
CREATING SMART OUTCOMES• What is an outcome?   – Program Outcome: these are general and broad statements that focus on ide...
CREATING SMART OUTCOMES      S      • Specific     M       • Measureable     A       • Attainable     R       • Realistic ...
CREATING SMART OUTCOMES       S           •Specific                                                 • Specific to your uni...
CREATING SMART OUTCOMES         S          •Specific                                                 • The intended outcom...
CREATING SMART OUTCOMES         S          •Specific                                                  Questions that can a...
CREATING SMART OUTCOMES         S          •Specific                                                  Determine what stand...
CREATING SMART OUTCOMES         S          •Specific                                                     Can this outcome ...
S          •Specific      Poor: Students should know the historically important systems of                          psycho...
EVALUATE THESE OUTCOMESS          •Specific                               Example 1: Students completing the undergraduate...
S          •SpecificM          •MeasureableA          •AggressiveR          •Results-OrientedT          •Time-Bound6/8/201...
MATURE           SMART                                            Assessment           Outcomes                           ...
CREATING MATURE ASSESSMENT METHODS  M          •Match   A         •Appropriate   T         •Target   U         •Useful   R...
CREATING MATURE ASSESSMENT METHODS  M          •Match                            Match the outcome with the appropriate as...
CREATING MATURE ASSESSMENT METHODS  M          •Match                            • Which type of assessment method is appr...
CREATING MATURE ASSESSMENT METHODS  M          •Match                            Determine the desired level of performan...
CREATING MATURE ASSESSMENT METHODS  M          •Match                            Can you make inferences about the progres...
CREATING MATURE ASSESSMENT METHODS  M          •Match                            A reliable assessment method is one that ...
CREATING MATURE ASSESSMENT METHODS  M          •Match                            Estimate the time required to develop, ad...
CREATING MATURE ASSESSMENT METHODS: DIRECT METHODS Capstone course assignments                     Observations in class...
CREATING MATURE ASSESSMENT METHODS: INDIRECT METHODS  Cooperative Institutional Research                  Advisory Board...
10/1/2009   Assessment Workshop   OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
Example Outcome 1: Students will be able to recognize and articulateM          •Match                          the foundat...
M          •MatchA          •Appropriate T         •TargetU          •UsefulR          •Reliable E         •Efficient6/8/2...
Central Michigan University Provost’s Office. (n.d.) Formative and summative assessment. Central     Michigan University. ...
Mrs. Cleopatra Allen•callen@wileyc.edu•(903) 927-32956/8/2012        Assessment Workshop   OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
6/8/2012   Assessment Workshop   OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
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Creating outcomes and assessment measures -jarvis christian college

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  • Good Morning,I am Cleopatra Allen, the Associate Director for Institutional Research, Planning, Assessment and Effectiveness at Wiley College.
  • We will expound on the institutional effectiveness process Dr. Carter briefly mentioned, and that is Program Assessment.
  • In discussing Program Assessment, let me give you a general definition of “What is Assessment?” Assessment is systematic and ongoing. It is the collection, review, and use of evidence about academic and administrative/educational support programs and services provided by the University for improving student learning and development. Assessment examines quantitative and qualitative evidence regarding student competence, uses this evidence to improve learning for current and future students, and presents results to stakeholders. Data is collected, analyzed and shared to determine skills, knowledge and values students have gained from the University experience.Integrated - tied to the University mission and strategic goals. • Ongoing - part of the ongoing business of the unit. • Implemented gradually - become part of the University culture slowly, implemented carefully. • Multi-faceted - uses multiple methods of assessment on multiple samples and at various points in the learning process. • Pragmatic - be practical with obvious implications to faculty and students. • Faculty-designed and implemented. • Self-renewing - data and information must feed back into the system, both on the University and unit level.The institution identifies expected outcomes, assesses the extent to which it achieves these outcomes, and provides evidence of improvement based on analysis of the results in each of the following areas: 3.3.1.1 educational programs, to include student learning outcomes; 3.3.1.2 administrative support services; 3.3.1.3 educational support services; 3.3.1.4 research within its educational mission, if appropriate; 3.3.1.5 community/public service within its educational mission, if appropriate
  • Formative assessment is conducted for program improvement and to provide feedback to improve teaching, learning, and the curricula to identify students’ strengths and weaknesses to assist in appropriately placing students based on their particular learning needs. • Summative assessment is conducted for evaluation and accountability and to use credible evidence for decision-making regarding fund allocation to aid in program level decision-making to respond to demands of accrediting bodies, state and federal agencies.
  • EXAMPLE: Classroom Assessment Methods: Minute Paper, memory matrix, directed paraphrasing, application cards, student generated test questions, etc. Angelo, T.A. & Cross, P.K. (1993). Classroom Assessment Techniques (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. EXAMPLE: Course Assessment: Summarizing students’ abilities and knowledge upon course completion (for communicating about the value of a course) Understanding student preparation for a course (to make immediate adjustments in the course syllabus or provide students with additional resources) Providing feedback to the instructor about student learning (for on-going instructional adjustment) Providing feedback to students about their learning progress (to encourage adjustments in study habits, motivation, attention to learning, etc.) Eliciting students’ perceptions on learning processes and instructional effectiveness (what helps, what hinders, what changes need to be made), during and at the end of a course (for improving pedagogy, materials, delivery, and other course features)
  • An objective is a measurable target with a time limit that must be met on the way to attaining a goal. Focus On Outcomes, Not TasksThe ability to focus on outcomes, not tasks, may very well be the primary thing that separates people who can improvise and flow with the unexpected from those who can’t. A task is a means to an end; an outcome is the end itself. Understand that, and you will be able to flow with anything.Learning outcomes focus on what a student should know, think or do as a result of a program.
  • SLO statements should be aligned with mission statements (and goals if applicable). SLO statements should clearly indicate the level and type of competence that is required of graduates of a program. The basis for assessment of student learning is learning outcome statements that clearly indicate and define the learning outcomes. SLO statements should be framed in terms of the program. Useful outcome statements are clear and simple declarative sentences and not bundled. SLO statements should focus on the learning result and not the learning process. SLO statements should be stated such that the outcome can be measured by more than one assessment method.
  • An outcome should address one important function/aspect of the unit typically from one perspective. (ESPECIALLY if unrelated)For example: Students will learn to apply relevant theories of Counseling as well as communicate the theories. Mention assessing various components.
  • The objective should be written in measurable terms, with a target in mind, such that it acts as a standard or measuring stick by which you evaluate your efforts.The intended outcome should be one for which it is feasible to collect accurate and reliable data.
  • What types of things are you striving for?What types of directions do you want to move in?Does the outcome allow for variation in services provided? Do you have it in your budget to assess for this year?Consider stretch targets to improve programAt least two assessment methods should be used to evaluate each program outcome. There are performance indicators (or levels of performance measures) associated with the assessment methods (e.g. 10% improvement on a standardized exam– the assessment method is the examination and the performance indicator associated with this method is 10% improvement of the exam score.)
  • Consider the resources available to you including financial, manpower, time, etc. and set objectives that can be successfully achieved.The outcome should aid in identifying where program improvements are needed. For example, if a standardized exam is used the “sub-scores” on the exam should be used to determine what needs to be improved. Also, determine what standards are expected from students in your program. For some learning outcomes, you may want 100% of graduates to achieve them. This expectation may be unrealistic for other outcomes. You may want to determine what proportion of your students achieve a specific level (e.g., 80% of graduates pass the written portion of the standardized test on the first attempt).
  • The objectives should address issues of current importance such that the information obtained can be useful to the unit in terms of efficiency, function, validation, etc.
  • Poor: This is poor because it says neither what systems nor what information about each system students should know. Are they supposed to know everything about them or just names? Should students be able recognize the names, recite the central ideas, or criticize the assumptions? Better: This is better because it says what theories students should know, but it still does not detail exactly what they should know about each theory, or how deeply they should understand whatever it is they should understand. Best: This is the clearest and most specific statement of the three examples. It provides even beginning students an understandable and very specific target to aim for. It provides faculty with a reasonable standard against which they can compare actual student performance. Example 4: (This example is taken from A Program Guide for Outcomes Assessment at Geneva College, April 2000): Poor: The problem with this is that the statement does not specify the type or quality of research to be done. Better: This specifies the type of research, but not the quality students must achieve. If a student independently does any research that is experimental or correlational, it would be viewed as acceptable. Best: Here, the standard for students to aim for is clear and specific enough to help faculty agree about what students are expected to do. Therefore, they should be able to agree reasonably well about whether students have or have not achieved the objective. Even introductory students can understand the outcome statement, even if they don’t know exactly what experimental and correlational research methods are.
  • An objective is a measurable target with a time limit that must be met on the way to attaining a goal.
  • Poor: This is poor because it says neither what systems nor what information about each system students should know. Are they supposed to know everything about them or just names? Should students be able recognize the names, recite the central ideas, or criticize the assumptions? Better: This is better because it says what theories students should know, but it still does not detail exactly what they should know about each theory, or how deeply they should understand whatever it is they should understand. Best: This is the clearest and most specific statement of the three examples. It provides even beginning students an understandable and very specific target to aim for. It provides faculty with a reasonable standard against which they can compare actual student performance. Example 4: (This example is taken from A Program Guide for Outcomes Assessment at Geneva College, April 2000): Poor: The problem with this is that the statement does not specify the type or quality of research to be done. Better: This specifies the type of research, but not the quality students must achieve. If a student independently does any research that is experimental or correlational, it would be viewed as acceptable. Best: Here, the standard for students to aim for is clear and specific enough to help faculty agree about what students are expected to do. Therefore, they should be able to agree reasonably well about whether students have or have not achieved the objective. Even introductory students can understand the outcome statement, even if they don’t know exactly what experimental and correlational research methods are.
  • Develop and write your program goals and intended outcome statements before selecting assessment methods. Do not develop an assessment instrument and then fit an intended outcome to it.
  • The objectives should address issues of current importance such that the information obtained can be useful to the unit in terms of efficiency, function, validation, etc.
  • You know what percentage meet the criterion but what are you going to improve based on the data.
  • The objectives should address issues of current importance such that the information obtained can be useful to the unit in terms of efficiency, function, validation, etc.
  • The objectives should address issues of current importance such that the information obtained can be useful to the unit in terms of efficiency, function, validation, etc.
  • The objectives should address issues of current importance such that the information obtained can be useful to the unit in terms of efficiency, function, validation, etc.
  • The objectives should address issues of current importance such that the information obtained can be useful to the unit in terms of efficiency, function, validation, etc.
  • An objective is a measurable target with a time limit that must be met on the way to attaining a goal.
  • The objectives should address issues of current importance such that the information obtained can be useful to the unit in terms of efficiency, function, validation, etc.
  • The objectives should address issues of current importance such that the information obtained can be useful to the unit in terms of efficiency, function, validation, etc.
  • The objectives should address issues of current importance such that the information obtained can be useful to the unit in terms of efficiency, function, validation, etc.
  • An objective is a measurable target with a time limit that must be met on the way to attaining a goal.
  • An objective is a measurable target with a time limit that must be met on the way to attaining a goal.
  • An objective is a measurable target with a time limit that must be met on the way to attaining a goal.
  • Creating outcomes and assessment measures -jarvis christian college

    1. 1. 6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    2. 2. Strategic Planning Program Assessment Mission Process Review Institutional Effectiveness Processes Program Informed Review Budgeting Process Planning Committee6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    3. 3.  Assessment is a process of gathering and interpreting information to determine the degree to which a program is meeting established goals and then using that information to enhance the program. As a part of institutional effectiveness, assessment is required at all levels. There is one core requirement and one comprehensive standard established by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools that specifically addresses assessment and student learning outcomes. Core Requirement 2.5 Comprehensive Standard 3.3.16/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    4. 4. Follow-Up on Identify Implemented Expected Changes Outcomes Identify Interpret How Where Results Will Inform Outcomes Teaching/Learning are Addressed Determine Methods and Schedule of Criteria to Assessment Assess Outcomes Identify the Who Will Be Expected Assessed PerformanceSource: Maki, P. (2004). Assessing for Learning: Building A Sustainable Commitment Across the Institution (pp. 4-5). Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.
    5. 5. Formative assessment is utilized to Summative assessment is cumulative indetermine immediately whether students nature and is utilized to determinehave learned what the instructor whether students have met the courseintended. This type of assessment is goals or student learning outcomes atintended to help instructors identify material the end of a course or program.that needs to be clarified or re-taught andshould not be used to evaluate or gradestudents. Results of formative assessmentcan assist instructors in ascertainingwhether curriculum or learning activitiesneed to be modified during a class sessionor before the next class meets.Central Michigan University Provost’s Office. (n.d.) Formative and summative assessment. Central MichiganUniversity. http://www.provost.cmich.edu/assessment/toolkit/formativesummative.htm6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    6. 6. • This level of assessment focuses on individual student performance within a course aimed at instructional improvement. • When to use: when you want to know, as an instructor, about what and how students are learning.Classroom Formative • This level of assessment focuses on the learning outcomes of a course and how well students achieve them • When to use: when you want to provide feedback about students’ learning outcomes at the end of a course that can be used to Course make revisions in course content, adjust the sequencing of courses, improve overall degree program curricula, etc. Gen. Ed./Pro. • This level of assessment focuses on the extent to which an academic program or educational support unit achieves its stated student learning and/or program outcomes Program • When to use: used to satisfy CS 3.3.1 and used to improve program curriculum to ensure student success CS 3.3.1 • Assessment of how well an institution is meeting its objectives/goalsInstitutional CR 2.5 6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    7. 7. MATURESMART Outcomes Assessment Methods6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    8. 8. CREATING SMART OUTCOMES• What is an outcome? – Program Outcome: these are general and broad statements that focus on identifying content or what students should learn, understand, or appreciate as a result of the program (Maki, 2004). These are like goals or competencies. – Process Outcome: The end result of what a program or process is to do, achieve, or accomplish. Process outcomes can be as simple as completion of a task or activity, although this is not as meaningful as it could be and does not provide information for improvement. For example, the Department of English will increase the diversity of their application pool by 50%. (Adapted from www.assessment.tamu.edu) – Student Learning Outcome: Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs) are specific statements that describe the learning that students are expected to achieve as a result of the program. That is, active verbs are used to identify the “actions, behaviors, dispositions, and ways of thinking or knowing that students should be able to demonstrate.” (Maki, 2004) 6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    9. 9. CREATING SMART OUTCOMES S • Specific M • Measureable A • Attainable R • Realistic T • Time-Bound Drucker, P. F. (2006) 6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    10. 10. CREATING SMART OUTCOMES S •Specific • Specific to your unit or program M •Measureable • Learning outcomes that describe the expected abilities, knowledge, values and attitudes a student has based on their learning A •Attainable • Expected outcomes that are critical to your unit or program R •Realistic • Data should create opportunity to make improvements T •Time-BoundInformation Source: 2005 University of Central Florida 4A-1 UCF Academic Program Assessment Handbook September 2006 Information, Analysis, and Assessment 6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    11. 11. CREATING SMART OUTCOMES S •Specific • The intended outcome should be one for which it is feasible to collect M •Measureable accurate and reliable data. • Learning outcomes: use Bloom’s Taxonomy -- Relies on active verbs that identify what students should be able to A •Attainable demonstrate, represent, or produce (e.g., create, apply, formulate, etc.) • Process outcomes: focus on how accurate, how economical, how R •Realistic satisfied, how prompt, how many, etc. • Consider resources (e.g., staff, technology, assessment T •Time-Bound support, institutional level surveys, etc.) • Provide opportunities to triangulate dataInformation Source: 2005 University of Central Florida 4A-1 UCF Academic Program Assessment Handbook September 2006 Information, Analysis, and Assessment 6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    12. 12. CREATING SMART OUTCOMES S •Specific Questions that can assist in defining aggressive outcomes • How have the students’ experiences in the program contributed to their M •Measureable abilities, knowledge, values and attitudes? Ask: o Cognitive skills: What does the student know? A •Aggressive o Performance skills: What does the student do? o Affective skills: What does the student care about? R •Realistic • What are the college-level knowledge, abilities, values and attitudes expected of graduates of the program? • Can students achieve these outcomes, based on the current T •Time-Bound curriculum, as a result of the program? (Map to curriculum)Information Source: 2005 University of Central Florida 4A-1 UCF Academic Program Assessment Handbook September 2006 Information, Analysis, and Assessment 6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    13. 13. CREATING SMART OUTCOMES S •Specific Determine what standards are expected from students in your program. M •Measureable Then ask, do I have the resources to do this? Consider human and financial resources. A •Aggressive R •Realistic T •Time-BoundInformation Source: 2005 University of Central Florida 4A-1 UCF Academic Program Assessment Handbook September 2006 Information, Analysis, and Assessment 10/1/2009 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    14. 14. CREATING SMART OUTCOMES S •Specific Can this outcome be achieved within the specified time-frame? M •Measureable A •Aggressive R •Realistic T •Time-BoundInformation Source: 2005 University of Central Florida 4A-1 UCF Academic Program Assessment Handbook September 2006 Information, Analysis, and Assessment 6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    15. 15. S •Specific Poor: Students should know the historically important systems of psychology. Better: Students should understand theM •Measureable psychoanalytic, Gestalt, behaviorist, humanistic and cognitive approaches to psychology. Best: Students should be able to recognize and articulate theA •Aggressive foundational assumptions, central ideas and dominant criticisms of the psychoanalytic, Gestalt, behaviorist, humanistic and cognitive approaches to psychology. (Ex. From University of Central Florida)R •RealisticT •Time-Bound6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop FITTS: 09/09
    16. 16. EVALUATE THESE OUTCOMESS •Specific Example 1: Students completing the undergraduate program in Home Buying will have knowledge of Home Buying Principles.M •Measureable Example 2: All juniors and seniors will pass the Department of Sociology’s distance learning course.A •AggressiveR •Results-OrientedT •Time-Bound6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop FITTS: 09/09
    17. 17. S •SpecificM •MeasureableA •AggressiveR •Results-OrientedT •Time-Bound6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop FITTS: 09/09
    18. 18. MATURE SMART Assessment Outcomes Methods6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    19. 19. CREATING MATURE ASSESSMENT METHODS M •Match A •Appropriate T •Target U •Useful R •Reliable E •Efficient 6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    20. 20. CREATING MATURE ASSESSMENT METHODS M •Match Match the outcome with the appropriate assessment method. A •Appropriate Consider the ability of an assessment method to address specific T •Target assessment questions, as well as its relevance and utility. U •Useful R •Reliable E •Efficient 6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    21. 21. CREATING MATURE ASSESSMENT METHODS M •Match • Which type of assessment method is appropriate? A •Appropriate • Direct: Achievement • Indirect: Perception T •Target • Are the resources available to use this method? U •Useful • Would your department have control over the method of assessment? R •Reliable E •Efficient 6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    22. 22. CREATING MATURE ASSESSMENT METHODS M •Match Determine the desired level of performance. A •Appropriate Benchmarking (using institutional data, peer institution data, nationally accepted standard for the field or discipline) T •Target The criterion/benchmark for success should be stated in terms of percentages, percentiles, averages or other quantitative measures. U •Useful Establish a reasonable benchmark. Avoid using absolutes such as “100%”, “zero”, and “all” when establishing criteria. R •Reliable NOTE: If you have previously measured an outcome, it is helpful to use this E •Efficient as the baseline for setting a target for next year. 6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    23. 23. CREATING MATURE ASSESSMENT METHODS M •Match Can you make inferences about the progress towards the outcome? A •Appropriate Achieving high-quality assessment requires addressing issues identified T •Target by Linn and Baker (1996) and Herman, Aschbacher, and Winters (1992) such as: •Does the selected method cover the curriculum objectives? U •Useful •Does it match the desired level of complexity? •Can the results be generalized, and to what extent? R •Reliable •Will information be gained that will be useful in improving programs? E •Efficient 6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    24. 24. CREATING MATURE ASSESSMENT METHODS M •Match A reliable assessment method is one that yields consistent responses A •Appropriate over time. (e.g., lack ambiguity, completion time, etc.) T •Target U •Useful R •Reliable E •Efficient 6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    25. 25. CREATING MATURE ASSESSMENT METHODS M •Match Estimate the time required to develop, administer and evaluate A •Appropriate various assessment methods. T •Target If possible, use two measures. Look for ways to conduct a deeper analysis. Use qualitative and quantitative assessment measures (qualitative: open-ended questions on surveys, focus groups, and U •Useful structured interviews) R •Reliable E •Efficient 6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    26. 26. CREATING MATURE ASSESSMENT METHODS: DIRECT METHODS Capstone course assignments  Observations in class by evaluator who is Capstone projects not the instructor Case studies, hypothetical situation  Peer evaluation of practical skills using responses rubric Minute papers  Clinical practice or internship skill Course-embedded questions assessment Portfolio assignments  Standardized Examinations and Tests Standard rubric  National Test Research papers  State Test Performance appraisal of in class  Local Tests exercises  Pre-post test Expert evaluation  Test-embedded questions (across several course sections)  Licensure Exams 6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    27. 27. CREATING MATURE ASSESSMENT METHODS: INDIRECT METHODS  Cooperative Institutional Research  Advisory Board Surveys Program (CIRP)  Alumni Surveys  College Student Expectations  Assessment Surveys Questionnaire (CSXQ)  Customer Surveys  Institutional Priorities Survey  Employer Surveys  National Survey of Student Engagement  External Peer Review Surveys (NSSE)  Point of Service Surveys  Your First College Year (YFCY)  Focus Groups  Alumni Surveys  Interviews  Employer Surveys  Case Studies  Graduating Seniors and Graduates Surveys  Retention Data  Non-Returning Student Survey  Student Satisfaction Surveys  Entering Freshmen Survey 6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    28. 28. 10/1/2009 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    29. 29. Example Outcome 1: Students will be able to recognize and articulateM •Match the foundational assumptions, central ideas and dominant criticisms of the psychoanalytic, Gestalt, behaviorist, humanistic and cognitiveA •Appropriate approaches to psychology. (Ex. From UCF) T •Target How can we assess this outcome?U •UsefulR •Reliable E •Efficient6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    30. 30. M •MatchA •Appropriate T •TargetU •UsefulR •Reliable E •Efficient6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    31. 31. Central Michigan University Provost’s Office. (n.d.) Formative and summative assessment. Central Michigan University. http://www.provost.cmich.edu/assessment/toolkit/formativesummative.htmDrucker, P. F. (2006). The Practice of Management (originally published in 1954). New York, NY: HarperCollins.Stanford University (2007). Analyzing Assessment Results: http://www.stanford.edu/dept/pres- provost/irds/assessment/analyze.pdfUniversity of Central Florida (2005). UCF Academic Program Assessment Handbook February 2005 Information, Analysis, and Assessment: http://oeas.ucf.edu/doc/acad_assess_handbook.pdfMaki, P. (2004). Assessing for Learning: Building A Sustainable Commitment Across the Institution (pp. 4-5). Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing. 6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    32. 32. Mrs. Cleopatra Allen•callen@wileyc.edu•(903) 927-32956/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09
    33. 33. 6/8/2012 Assessment Workshop OIRPA (ALLEN): 09/09

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