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Nonverbal Communication In A Police Interrogation Oldversion


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Phase III - topic 1 - Robert Browne

Phase III - topic 1 - Robert Browne

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  • 1. How to use nonverbal behaviors to aid in interrogation and deception detection Nonverbal Communication in a Police Interrogation
  • 2. What is nonverbal communication?
    • Nonverbal communication involves several different aspects:
        • Facial Expression and Gaze
        • Kinesics
        • Haptics
        • Vocalics
        • Proxemics
        • Physical Appearance
        • Chronemics
        • The Environment
  • 3. Focus Areas
    • For the purpose of this training session we will focus on certain areas of nonverbal communication that will aid you, the officer, in interrogation.
      • Facial Expression and Gaze
      • Kinesics
      • Physical Appearance
      • Vocalics
  • 4. Facial Expression and Gaze
    • According to Canary, Cody, & Manusov (2003) facial expression and gaze refers to how people use their facial expressions and eyes to communicate (p.104).
    • Facial Primacy , a term coined by researchers, indicates that facial expression influences our initial impressions and appraisals.
  • 5. Facial Expression continued
    • According to the study conducted by Levine, Asada, & Park (2006) significantly less eye contact was seen by participants who were known to be telling a lie.
    • Canary, Cody, & Manusov (2003) state squinting, or closed eyes, often times is a manifestation of depression
    • It is important to assess these messages while interviewing as they can indicate lying, possible mental illness, and several other important messages.
  • 6. Signs of deception
    • The following list from Canary, Cody, & Masunov (2003) are commonly found facial and gaze tells of deception. It is important to note that these are only relatively reliable, not completely.
      • Pupil Dilation – When lying, the pupils will dilate
      • Blinking – Liars often will blink more frequently
      • As the presentation continues this list will become more complete
  • 7. Kinesics
    • Kinesics involves facial expression, eye movements, and any other movements made with the body.
    • Gestures are the most well known of any kinesthetic movement.
  • 8. Kinesics continued
    • Gestures, or what we call emblems in communication, are gestures that have been culturally created to communicate without words.
    • As noted above, emblems are culturally created, meaning different cultures might have different gestures.
    • According to Mausehund, Timm, & King (1995) multiculturalism is on the rise. This is important to keep in mind when interrogating someone of a different culture.
  • 9. Kinesics continued
    • An example of this is seen with eye contact.
    • South East Asian cultures believe a lack of eye contact shows respect and gives authority to the speaker.
    • If an officer didn’t know this, than a South East Asian who thought he was showing respect might be seen as a liar according to the information we just gave you about lack of eye contact.
  • 10. A quick note about hands
    • Hand movements, a type of gesture, are often studied in relation to deception.
    • Vrij, Akehurst, & Morris (1997) found that individuals that are better able to control their nonverbal behavior will make fewer hand movements when being deceptive.
  • 11. List of deceptive tells
    • Facial Expression and Gaze
      • Pupil Dilation
      • Blinking
    • Kinesics
      • Adaptors - Often times, liars will engage in rubbing hands or arms together
  • 12. Physical Appearance
    • Physical appearance includes hair color, body type, clothing choices, and unique physical characteristics.
    • Physical appearance is one of the first things we, as humans, appraise when we make character judgments.
  • 13. Physical Appearance
    • Unfortunately, when we make judgments by physical appearance we tend to be incorrect. Canary, Cody, Manusov (2003) indicate that often times we do not reveal personality characteristics nonverbally.
    • Think of the popular story “The Prince and the Pauper”
  • 14.
    • Often referred to as paralanguage and can refer to: rate, pitch, character, volume, and amount of variation used while speaking.
    • Vocalics are often mistaken for verbal communication.
  • 15. Vocalics continued
    • When we communicate, often times people will groan, laugh, or even use silence to substitute for words.
    • Being receptive to vocalics will aid any interrogation.
    • Canary, Cody, Masunov (2003) say that less monotonous, less nasal and shrill voices are related to people that are extraverted, open and conscientious.
    • Think how different the words, “I’m sorry” can be depending on how they are said!
  • 16. List of deceptive tells
    • Facial Expression and Gaze
      • Pupil Dilation
      • Blinking
    • Kinesics
      • Adaptors (rubbing hands, or arms together)
    • Vocalics
      • Response Length – Liars usually will not talk as long as truth tellers do.
      • Speech Errors – Liars make more errors while speaking (switching from past tense to present tense, etc).
      • Speech Hesitation – Liars will use more fillers such as “Ahhh”, or “Umm”.
      • Pitch – Liars will speak in a higher pitch than someone telling the truth.
  • 17. Review
    • Nonverbal communication has several different aspects, but we focused on four major areas that will aid with interrogation
      • Facial Expression and Gaze
      • Kinesics – body movements
      • Physical Appearance
      • Vocalics
      • and we compiled a reference list of common deceptive tells…
  • 18. List of deceptive tells
    • Facial Expression and Gaze
      • Pupil Dilation
      • Blinking
    • Kinesics – body movement
      • Adaptors – rubbing hands or arms together
    • Vocalics
      • Response Length
      • Speech Errors
      • Speech Hesitation
  • 19. References
    • Canary, D.J., Cody, M.J., & Manusov, V.L. (2003). Interpersonal Communication: A goals-based approach . Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s.
    • Levine,T.R., Asada, K.J.K., & Park, H.S. (2006). The lying chicken and the gaze avoidant egg: Eye contact, deception, and causal order. Southern Communication Journal, 71(4) , 401-411.
    • Mausehand, J.A., Timm, S.A., & King, A.S. (1995). Diversity training: Effects of intervention treatment of nonverbal awareness. Business Communication Quarterly, 58, 27-30.
    • Vrij, A., Akehurst, L., & Morris, P. (1997). Individual differences in hand movements during deception. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 21(2), 87- 102.