Pollution from Development Undermines Restoration EffortsDeveloped areas contribute between 16 and 25 % of the nitrogen entering the Bay when air is included. (The percentage depends upon whether it is derived from stormwater alone or combined with additional pollution from urban and suburban areas, such as atmospheric sources and wastewater.)In a 2007 report on Bay restoration efforts, the EPA concluded that new development is increasing nutrient and sediment loads at rates faster than restoration efforts are reducing them.Stormwater runoff is the only source of pollution into the Bay that is increasing.
Septic Sprawl Pollutes MoreFrom Phase I WIP: 263,225 Additional Households Forecasted in Maryland (2010 ‐2020); 29% served by septic tanks and 71% served by ENR WWTP.18.46 pounds/nitrogen a year per new household on septic, compared to 3.87 pounds/year on sewer.63% of projected pollution load from households will be from septics; 37% from sewer – 26% of the State’s future growth will account for approximately 2/3rds of its future wastewater pollution400,000 acres of rural lands projected to be lost.
Compact development pollutes lessAccording to Smart Growth America, dense housing – 8 houses per acre – produces almost a quarter of the pollution compared to sprawling housing – one house per acre.Numbers above are from MDE’s Phase I WIP
redevelopmentprovides opportunities to address existing loadsVacant Walmart 2 miles from new Walmart shopping center. What are the economic, environmental, social implications.
To make the program work you must set infill and redevelopment at no offset requirements – just on site ESD. Then set increasingly significant loading rates the further out and less compact the development.On site ESD is NOT enough to undue rural sprawl loads. Must account for infrastructure, traffic, wastewater loads, loss of natural filters, etc. Offsets are really complicated – trading a permanent, direct load for what?
Smart Growth Strategies- Jennifer Bevan-Dangle
Cleaner Waters throughSmarter GrowthJennifer Bevan-Dangel1000 Friends of Maryland
Growth Matters Source: Chesapeake Bay Program, 2009 Bay Barometer (April 2010)
Chapter 3: Accounting for Growth• EPA Guidance: Accounting for future pollution loads from growth can be done in two ways. • 1) Future loads can be estimated and included in quantitative load reduction analyses. • 2) Policies and programs can be adopted to ensure all future load increases are off set by commensurate load reductions on an as- needed basis.• Integrating smart growth into the process: • Establish differentiated loads for types of growth that accurately reflect the entire loading from a development. • Require all new development since 2009 to offset its true load. • Devil is in the details!
Growth and Offsets in Action• Calculate post-development nitrogen load from the development parcel• Require no offset for redevelopment• Require no offset for wastewater discharged to a WWTP operating below its nutrient cap(1)• For all other development, require developer to offset 100% of the post-development load• Implement under MDE’s existing authority to regulate discharges and water quality• Allow trading to offset post-development load
Policy Reform: Sustainable Growth• Creates four tiers of growth• Limits sprawling subdivisions on septic tanks in rural areas• Requires economic and environmental analysis of sprawl subdivisions in rural growth areas.• Positioned as a water quality bill – part of a package of legislation to implement WIPs and clean local waters.
Other Ideas• Focus on reducing widgets of pollution is making it hard to shift attention to preventing future loads.• Offset credits for preserving land?• Fund smart growth and growth infrastructure• Utilize opportunities presented by redevelopment.
Location, Location, Location• We cannot restore and protect our watersheds without restoring existing communities and protecting our land from sprawl.• Even a ‘perfect’ development – mixed use, mixed income, transit oriented, walkable, full ESD implementation, etc – is not smart growth unless it is in a smart location.• The WIP process provides a golden opportunity to promote smart growth, and we must not squander it.
For More Information• Jennifer Bevan-Dangel email@example.com 410-385-2910• www.cleanmarylandwaters.wordpress.com