Why air pollution is bad for human health (Cities for Clean Air : London 2012)
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Why air pollution is bad for human health (Cities for Clean Air : London 2012)

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Dr Ian Mudway, a researcher at MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, King's College London in the UK, showed these slides as part of his presentation at 'Cities for Clean Air : London 2012' on ...

Dr Ian Mudway, a researcher at MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, King's College London in the UK, showed these slides as part of his presentation at 'Cities for Clean Air : London 2012' on July 14 2012 in London, UK. The meeting was hosted by Network for Clean Air (http://www.cleanairuk.org).

Note: The sound quality changes markedly after 22 minutes & 10 seconds - don't be alarmed! This was due to equipment failure.

Dr Ian Mudway's talk followed-on from one other at the conference. There is a news report about this here: http://www.airqualitynews.com/2012/07/20/lungs-of-london-schoolchildren-damaged-by-poor-air-quality/

Further information about Dr Ian Mudway see http://www.kcl.ac.uk/biohealth/research/divisions/aes/about/people/Mudway/index.aspx

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    Why air pollution is bad for human health (Cities for Clean Air : London 2012) Why air pollution is bad for human health (Cities for Clean Air : London 2012) Presentation Transcript

    • Why is iWh i air pollution bad ll i b d for human health? Dr Ian S Mudway MRC-HPA Centre for Environment & Health, King’s Health King s College London
    • Who died? Deaths Registered in London Administrative County Classified by Age (Bates, 1995) <1 1-12 1-14 15-44 45-64 65-74 75+ Month Mo. Years Years Years Years Years of Age Old of Age of Age of Age of Age of AgeWeekBefore 16 12 10 61 237 254 335theEpisodeWeekAfter the 28 26 13 99 652 717 949EpisodeBefore/ After 1.75 2.17 1.3 1.62 2.75 2.82 2.83 Episode E i d RatioThe greatest relative increase in mortality was from bronchitis,which rose nine fold nine-fold
    • Health Effects of Ambient Pollution 1952 London Fog Death • Hospital admissions Hospital H it l rose by 50% everity Admissions • Respiratory Doctor visits admissions by 160%Se Asthma attacks, medication use, symptoms lung function changes, immune cell responses, heart rate or heart rate variability responses Proportion of effected population
    • Health impact of fine particulate pollution Total particles Fine particles Sulfate particles (μg/m3) (μg/m3) (μg/m3) Steubenville 89 9 89.9 29.6 29 6 12.8 12 8 St. Louis 72.5 19.0 8.1 Harrimen 49.4 20.8 8.1 Watertown 49.2 14.9 6.5 Topeka 56.6 12.5 4.8 Portage 34.1 11.0 5.3 Dockery DW, et al. N Engl J Med 1993;329(24):1753-96
    • The Six Cities t dTh Si Citi studyDockery DW, et al. N Engl J Med 1993 Dec 9;329(24):1753-9
    • 2nd October 2011
    • Controlled Diesel Exposures C iExposure to DE: PM10 300µg/m3 and filtered air for 1 hour & p µg100µg/m3 and filtered air for 2 hours
    • Diesel induces inflammation Neutrophils after air Neutrophils N hil after DE
    • Responses to PM in the Real World Does short term exposure to real world atmospheres (diesel traffic and background) cause respiratory effects in asthmatics? Oxford Street Hyde Park PM10 =72 µg m-3, PM2.5 =11.2 µg m-3, PM10 =125 µg m-3, PM2.5 =28.3 µg m-3, 11.7 ppb NO2 18,300 particles cm-3 76.5 ppb NO2 63,700 particles cm-3McCreanor al. (2007) New Eng J Med 357: 2348-2358.
    • Responses t PM in the Real WorldR to i th R l W ld Impaired l I i d lung f function i Inflammation I fl i McCreanor J et al. N Engl J Med. 2007 Dec 6;357(23):2348-58
    • PM Concentration Near a Major Road j Prevailing Wind 50m 100m 500m NO2 Fine, PM2.5 Ultrafine, PM0.1Beckerman et al. (2008) Atmos Enviro. 42:275-290.
    • Children s Children’s respiratory healthPostcodes in the Tower Hamlets area within 100 m of major road 14
    • Linkage at residential address  Linkage at residential address level to estimated modelled  exposures (NOx, NO2, PM10,  PM2.5)15
    • How does the choice of route impact on an individuals i di id l exposure? ?
    • Summary • Prolonged exposure to elevated PM is associated with significant g p g life-shortening and poor respiratory health. Acute episodes can precipitate death in sensitive subjects. • S bj Subjects with pre-existing cardiopulmonary conditions are ih i i di l di i particularly sensitive. • Reductions in ambient PM provide measurable health benefits • Human chamber and field exposures have provided a mechanistic evidence to underpin the validity of the epi-observations • Individual exposures can be limited by informed use of the urban environment18