CVA Biology I - B10vrv3102

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Copyright - Adapted from Pearson

Copyright - Adapted from Pearson

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  • 1. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionLesson OverviewLesson Overview10.2 The Process10.2 The Processof Cell Divisionof Cell Division
  • 2. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionTHINK ABOUT ITWhat role does cell division play in your life?Does cell division stop when you are finished growing?
  • 3. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionChromosomesWhat is the role of chromosomes in cell division?
  • 4. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionChromosomesWhat is the role of chromosomes in cell division?Chromosomes make it possible to separate DNA precisely during celldivision.
  • 5. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionThe genetic information that is passed on from one generation of cells tothe next is carried by chromosomes.Every cell must copy its genetic information before cell division begins.Each daughter cell gets its own copy of that genetic information.Cells of every organism have a specific number of chromosomes.Chromosomes
  • 6. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionProkaryotic ChromosomesProkaryotic cells lack nuclei. Instead, their DNA molecules are found inthe cytoplasm.Most prokaryotes contain a single, circular DNA molecule, orchromosome, that contains most of the cell’s genetic information.
  • 7. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionEukaryotic ChromosomesIn eukaryotic cells, chromosomes are located in the nucleus, and aremade up of chromatin.
  • 8. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionChromatin is composed of DNA and histone proteins.
  • 9. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionDNA coils around histone proteins to form nucleosomes.
  • 10. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionThe nucleosomes interact with one another to form coils and supercoilsthat make up chromosomes.
  • 11. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionThe Cell CycleWhat are the main events of the cell cycle?
  • 12. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionThe Cell CycleWhat are the main events of the cell cycle?During the cell cycle, a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides toform two daughter cells.
  • 13. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionThe Prokaryotic Cell CycleThe prokaryotic cell cycle is a regular pattern of growth, DNAreplication, and cell division.Most prokaryotic cells begin to replicate, or copy, their DNA once theyhave grown to a certain size.When DNA replication is complete, the cells divide through a processknown as binary fission.
  • 14. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionBinary fission is a form of asexualreproduction during which twogenetically identical cells are produced.For example, bacteria reproduce bybinary fission.The Prokaryotic Cell Cycle
  • 15. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionThe Eukaryotic Cell CycleThe eukaryotic cell cycle consists offour phases: G1, S, G2, and M.Interphase is the time between celldivisions. It is a period of growth thatconsists of the G1, S, and G2phases. The M phase is the period ofcell division.
  • 16. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionG1 Phase: Cell GrowthIn the G1 phase, cells increase insize and synthesize new proteinsand organelles.
  • 17. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionS Phase: DNA ReplicationIn the S (or synthesis) phase, newDNA is synthesized when thechromosomes are replicated.
  • 18. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionG2 Phase: Preparing for Cell DivisionIn the G2 phase, many of theorganelles and molecules requiredfor cell division are produced.
  • 19. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionM Phase: Cell DivisionIn eukaryotes, cell division occursin two stages: mitosis andcytokinesis.Mitosis is the division of the cellnucleus.Cytokinesis is the division of thecytoplasm.
  • 20. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionMitosisWhat events occur during each of the four phases of mitosis?
  • 21. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionMitosisWhat events occur during each of the four phases of mitosis?During prophase, the genetic material inside the nucleus condenses andthe duplicated chromosomes become visible. Outside the nucleus, aspindle starts to form.
  • 22. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionMitosisWhat events occur during each of the four phases of mitosis?During metaphase, the centromeres of the duplicated chromosomes line upacross the center of the cell. Spindle fibers connect the centromere of eachchromosome to the two poles of the spindle.
  • 23. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionMitosisWhat events occur during each of the four phases of mitosis?During anaphase, the chromosomes separate and move along spindlefibers to opposite ends of the cell.
  • 24. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionMitosisWhat events occur during each of the four phases of mitosis?During telophase, the chromosomes, which were distinct and condensed,begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin.
  • 25. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionImportant Cell Structures Involved inMitosisChromatid – each strand of a duplicated chromosomeCentromere – the area where each pair of chromatids is joinedCentrioles – tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells thathelp organize the spindleSpindle – a fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate thechromatids
  • 26. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionProphaseDuring prophase, the firstphase of mitosis, the duplicatedchromosome condenses andbecomes visible.
  • 27. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionProphaseDuring prophase, the firstphase of mitosis, the duplicatedchromosome condenses andbecomes visible.The centrioles move toopposite sides of nucleus andhelp organize the spindle.
  • 28. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionProphaseDuring prophase, the firstphase of mitosis, the duplicatedchromosome condenses andbecomes visible.The centrioles move toopposite sides of nucleus andhelp organize the spindle.The spindle forms and DNAstrands attach at a point calledtheir centromere.
  • 29. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionProphaseDuring prophase, the firstphase of mitosis, the duplicatedchromosome condenses andbecomes visible.The centrioles move toopposite sides of nucleus andhelp organize the spindle.The spindle forms and DNAstrands attach at a point calledtheir centromere.The nucleolus disappears andnuclear envelope breaks down.
  • 30. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionMetaphaseDuring metaphase, the secondphase of mitosis, the centromeresof the duplicated chromosomesline up across the center of thecell.
  • 31. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionMetaphaseDuring metaphase, the secondphase of mitosis, the centromeresof the duplicated chromosomesline up across the center of thecell.The spindle fibers connect thecentromere of each chromosometo the two poles of the spindle.
  • 32. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionAnaphaseDuring anaphase, the third phaseof mitosis, the centromeres arepulled apart and the chromatidsseparate to become individualchromosomes.
  • 33. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionAnaphaseDuring anaphase, the third phaseof mitosis, the centromeres arepulled apart and the chromatidsseparate to become individualchromosomes.The chromosomes separate intotwo groups near the poles of thespindle.
  • 34. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionTelophaseDuring telophase, the fourth andfinal phase of mitosis, thechromosomes spread out into atangle of chromatin.
  • 35. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionTelophaseDuring telophase, the fourth andfinal phase of mitosis, thechromosomes spread out into atangle of chromatin.A nuclear envelope re-forms aroundeach cluster of chromosomes.
  • 36. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionTelophaseDuring telophase, the fourth andfinal phase of mitosis, thechromosomes spread out into atangle of chromatin.A nuclear envelope re-forms aroundeach cluster of chromosomes.The spindle breaks apart, and anucleolus becomes visible in eachdaughter nucleus.
  • 37. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionCytokinesisHow do daughter cells split apart after mitosis?
  • 38. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionCytokinesisHow do daughter cells split apart after mitosis?Cytokinesis completes the process of cell division – it splits one cell intotwo.
  • 39. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionCytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm.The process of cytokinesis is different in animal and plant cells.Cytokinesis
  • 40. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionCytokinesis in Animal CellsThe cell membrane is drawn in until the cytoplasm is pinched into twoequal parts.Each part contains its own nucleus and organelles.
  • 41. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionCytokinesis in Plant CellsIn plants, the cell membrane is not flexible enough to draw inwardbecause of the rigid cell wall.Instead, a cell plate forms between the divided nuclei that develops intocell membranes.A cell wall then forms in between the two new membranes.
  • 42. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview The Process of Cell DivisionThe Process of Cell DivisionThe Stages of the Cell Cycle