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CVA Biology I - B10vrv3091
 

CVA Biology I - B10vrv3091

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Copyright - Adapted from Pearson

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    CVA Biology I - B10vrv3091 CVA Biology I - B10vrv3091 Presentation Transcript

    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Cellular Respiration: An OverviewCellular Respiration: An OverviewLesson OverviewLesson Overview9.1 Cellular Respiration:9.1 Cellular Respiration:An OverviewAn Overview
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Cellular Respiration: An OverviewCellular Respiration: An OverviewTHINK ABOUT ITYou feel weak when you are hungry because food serves as asource of energy. How does the food you eat get converted into ausable form of energy for your cells?
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Cellular Respiration: An OverviewCellular Respiration: An OverviewChemical Energy and FoodWhere do organisms get energy?
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Cellular Respiration: An OverviewCellular Respiration: An OverviewChemical Energy and FoodWhere do organisms get energy?Organisms get the energy they need from food.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Cellular Respiration: An OverviewCellular Respiration: An OverviewChemical Energy and FoodFood provides living things with the chemical building blocks theyneed to grow and reproduce.Food molecules contain chemical energy that is released when itschemical bonds are broken.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Cellular Respiration: An OverviewCellular Respiration: An OverviewChemical Energy and FoodEnergy stored in food is expressed in units of calories. A Calorie is theamount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1degree Celsius. 1000 calories = 1 kilocalorie, or Calorie.Cells use all sorts of molecules for food, including fats, proteins, andcarbohydrates. The energy stored in each of these molecules variesbecause their chemical structures, and therefore their energy-storingbonds, differ.Cells break down food molecules gradually and use the energy stored inthe chemical bonds to produce compounds such as ATP that power theactivities of the cell.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Cellular Respiration: An OverviewCellular Respiration: An OverviewOverview of Cellular RespirationWhat is cellular respiration?
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Cellular Respiration: An OverviewCellular Respiration: An OverviewOverview of Cellular RespirationWhat is cellular respiration?Cellular respiration is the process that releases energy from food in thepresence of oxygen.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Cellular Respiration: An OverviewCellular Respiration: An OverviewOverview of Cellular RespirationIf oxygen is available, organisms can obtain energy from food by a processcalled cellular respiration. The summary of cellular respiration ispresented below.In symbols:6 O2 + C6H12O6  6 CO2 + 6 H2O + EnergyIn words:Oxygen + Glucose  Carbon dioxide + Water + EnergyThe cell has to release the chemical energy in food molecules (likeglucose) gradually, otherwise most of the energy would be lost in the formof heat and light.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Cellular Respiration: An OverviewCellular Respiration: An OverviewStages of Cellular RespirationThe three main stages of cellularrespiration are glycolysis, the Krebscycle, and the electron transportchain.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Cellular Respiration: An OverviewCellular Respiration: An OverviewStages of Cellular RespirationGlycolysis produces only a smallamount of energy. Most ofglucose’s energy (90%) remainslocked in the chemical bonds ofpyruvic acid at the end ofglycolysis.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Cellular Respiration: An OverviewCellular Respiration: An OverviewStages of Cellular RespirationDuring the Krebs cycle, a littlemore energy is generated frompyruvic acid.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Cellular Respiration: An OverviewCellular Respiration: An OverviewStages of Cellular RespirationThe electron transport chainproduces the bulk of the energyin cellular respiration by usingoxygen, a powerful electronacceptor.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Cellular Respiration: An OverviewCellular Respiration: An OverviewOxygen and EnergyPathways of cellular respirationthat require oxygen are calledaerobic. The Krebs cycle andelectron transport chain are bothaerobic processes. Bothprocesses take place inside themitochondria.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Cellular Respiration: An OverviewCellular Respiration: An OverviewOxygen and EnergyGylcolysis is an anaerobic process. Itdoes not directly require oxygen, nordoes it rely on an oxygen-requiringprocess to run. However, it is stillconsidered part of cellular respiration.Glycolysis takes place in thecytoplasm of a cell.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Cellular Respiration: An OverviewCellular Respiration: An OverviewComparing Photosynthesis andCellular RespirationWhat is the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Cellular Respiration: An OverviewCellular Respiration: An OverviewComparing Photosynthesis andCellular RespirationWhat is the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?Photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and cellularrespiration puts it back. Photosynthesis releases oxygen into theatmosphere, and cellular respiration uses that oxygen to release energyfrom food.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Cellular Respiration: An OverviewCellular Respiration: An OverviewComparing Photosynthesis and CellularRespirationPhotosynthesis and cellularrespiration are opposite processes.The energy flows in oppositedirections. Photosynthesis “deposits”energy, and cellular respiration“withdraws” energy.The reactants of cellular respirationare the products of photosynthesisand vice versa.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Cellular Respiration: An OverviewCellular Respiration: An OverviewComparing Photosynthesis and CellularRespirationThe release of energy by cellularrespiration takes place in plants,animals, fungi, protists, and mostbacteria.Energy capture by photosynthesisoccurs only in plants, algae, andsome bacteria.