Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewLesson OverviewLesson Overview8.2 Pho...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewTHINK ABOUT ITHow would you design a ...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewChlorophyll and ChloroplastsWhat role...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewChlorophyll and ChloroplastsWhat role...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewLightEnergy from the sun travels to E...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewLightOur eyes see the different wavel...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewPigmentsPlants gather the sun’s energ...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewPigmentsThe two types of chlorophyll ...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewPigmentsPlants also contain red and o...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewPigmentsMost of the time, the green c...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewChloroplastsPhotosynthesis takes plac...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewChloroplastsPigments are located in t...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewEnergy CollectionBecause light is a f...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewHigh-Energy ElectronsWhat are electro...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewHigh-Energy ElectronsWhat are electro...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewHigh-Energy ElectronsThe high-energy ...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewHigh-Energy ElectronsThink of a high-...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewHigh-Energy ElectronsNADP+(nicotinami...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewAn Overview of PhotosynthesisWhat are...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewAn Overview of PhotosynthesisWhat are...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewAn Overview of PhotosynthesisPhotosyn...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewAn Overview of PhotosynthesisPlants u...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewLight-Dependent ReactionsPhotosynthes...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewLight-Dependent ReactionsThe light-de...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewLight-Dependent ReactionsWater is req...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewLight-Independent ReactionsPlants abs...
Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewLight-Independent ReactionsNo light i...
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CVA Biology I - B10vrv3082

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CVA Biology I - B10vrv3082

  1. 1. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewLesson OverviewLesson Overview8.2 Photosynthesis:8.2 Photosynthesis:An OverviewAn Overview
  2. 2. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewTHINK ABOUT ITHow would you design a system to capture the energy of sunlight andconvert it into a useful form?Plants have solved these issues—and maybe we can learn a trick ortwo from them.
  3. 3. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewChlorophyll and ChloroplastsWhat role do pigments play in the process of photosynthesis?
  4. 4. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewChlorophyll and ChloroplastsWhat role do pigments play in the process of photosynthesis?Photosynthetic organisms capture energy from sunlight with pigments.
  5. 5. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewLightEnergy from the sun travels to Earth in the form of light.Sunlight is a mixture of different wavelengths, many of which are visibleto our eyes and make up the visible spectrum.
  6. 6. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewLightOur eyes see the different wavelengths of the visible spectrum asdifferent colors: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.
  7. 7. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewPigmentsPlants gather the sun’s energy with light-absorbing moleculescalled pigments.The plants’ principal pigment is chlorophyll.
  8. 8. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewPigmentsThe two types of chlorophyll found in plants, chlorophyll a andchlorophyll b, absorb light very well in the blue-violet and red regions ofthe visible spectrum, but not in the green region, as shown in the graph.Leaves reflect green light, which is why plants look green.
  9. 9. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewPigmentsPlants also contain red and orange pigments such as carotene thatabsorb light in other regions of the spectrum.
  10. 10. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewPigmentsMost of the time, the green color of the chlorophyll overwhelms the otherpigments, but as temperatures drop and chlorophyll molecules breakdown, the red and orange pigments may be seen.
  11. 11. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewChloroplastsPhotosynthesis takes place inside organelles called chloroplasts.Chloroplasts contain saclike photosynthetic membranes calledthylakoids, which are interconnected and arranged in stacks known asgrana.
  12. 12. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewChloroplastsPigments are located in the thylakoid membranes.The fluid portion outside of the thylakoids is known as the stroma.
  13. 13. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewEnergy CollectionBecause light is a form of energy, any compound that absorbs lightabsorbs energy. Chlorophyll absorbs visible light especially well.When chlorophyll absorbs light, a large fraction of the light energy istransferred to electrons. These high-energy electrons makephotosynthesis work.
  14. 14. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewHigh-Energy ElectronsWhat are electron carrier molecules?
  15. 15. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewHigh-Energy ElectronsWhat are electron carrier molecules?An electron carrier is a compound that can accept a pair of high-energyelectrons and transfer them, along with most of their energy, to anothermolecule.
  16. 16. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewHigh-Energy ElectronsThe high-energy electrons produced by chlorophyll are highly reactive andrequire a special “carrier.”
  17. 17. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewHigh-Energy ElectronsThink of a high-energy electron as being similar to a hot potato. If youwanted to move the potato from one place to another, you would use anoven mitt—a carrier—to transport it.Plants use electron carriers to transport high-energy electrons fromchlorophyll to other molecules.
  18. 18. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewHigh-Energy ElectronsNADP+(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) is a carriermolecule.NADP+accepts and holds two high-energy electrons, along with a hydrogenion (H+). In this way, it is converted into NADPH.The NADPH can then carry the high-energy electrons to chemical reactionselsewhere in the cell.
  19. 19. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewAn Overview of PhotosynthesisWhat are the reactants and products of photosynthesis?
  20. 20. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewAn Overview of PhotosynthesisWhat are the reactants and products of photosynthesis?Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbondioxide (reactants) into high-energy sugars and oxygen (products).
  21. 21. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewAn Overview of PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbondioxide into high-energy sugars and oxygen.In symbols:6 CO2 + 6 H2O  C6H12O6 + 6 O2In words:Carbon dioxide + Water  Sugars + Oxygen
  22. 22. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewAn Overview of PhotosynthesisPlants use the sugars generatedby photosynthesis to producecomplex carbohydrates such asstarches, and to provide energyfor the synthesis of othercompounds, including proteinsand lipids.
  23. 23. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewLight-Dependent ReactionsPhotosynthesis involves two sets of reactions.The first set of reactions is known as the light-dependent reactionsbecause they require the direct involvement of light and light-absorbingpigments.
  24. 24. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewLight-Dependent ReactionsThe light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATPand NADPH.These reactions take place within the thylakoid membranes of thechloroplast.
  25. 25. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewLight-Dependent ReactionsWater is required as a source of electrons and hydrogen ions. Oxygen isreleased as a byproduct.
  26. 26. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewLight-Independent ReactionsPlants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and complete theprocess of photosynthesis by producing sugars and othercarbohydrates.During light-independent reactions, ATP and NADPH moleculesproduced in the light-dependent reactions are used to produce high-energy sugars from carbon dioxide.
  27. 27. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Photosynthesis: An OverviewPhotosynthesis: An OverviewLight-Independent ReactionsNo light is required to power the light-independent reactions.The light-independent reactions take place outside the thylakoids, in thestroma.

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