• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
CVA Biology I - B10vrv1013
 

CVA Biology I - B10vrv1013

on

  • 899 views

Copyright - Adapted from Pearson

Copyright - Adapted from Pearson

Statistics

Views

Total Views
899
Views on SlideShare
316
Embed Views
583

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0

3 Embeds 583

http://www.clayschools.net 334
http://clayschools.blackboard.com 229
http://clayschools.net 20

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    CVA Biology I - B10vrv1013 CVA Biology I - B10vrv1013 Presentation Transcript

    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeLesson OverviewLesson Overview1.3 Studying Life1.3 Studying Life
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeTHINK ABOUT ITThink about important news stories you’ve heard. Bird flu spreadsaround the world, killing birds and threatening a human epidemic. Usersof certain illegal drugs experience permanent damage to their brainsand nervous systems. Reports surface about efforts to clone humancells.These and many other stories involve biology—the science thatemploys scientific methodology to study living things. The Greek wordbios means “life,” and -logy means “study of.”
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeCharacteristics of Living ThingsWhat characteristics do all living things share?
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeCharacteristics of Living ThingsWhat characteristics do all living things share?Living things are made up of basic units called cells, are based on auniversal genetic code, obtain and use materials and energy, grow anddevelop, reproduce, respond to their environment, maintain a stableinternal environment, and change over time.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeCharacteristics of Living ThingsBiology is the study of life. But what is life?No single characteristic is enough to describe a living thing. Also,some nonliving things share one or more traits with organisms.Some things, such as viruses, exist at the border between organismsand nonliving things.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeCharacteristics of Living ThingsDespite these difficulties, we can list characteristics that most living thingshave in common. Both fish and coral, for example, show all thecharacteristics common to living things.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeCharacteristics of Living ThingsLiving things are based on a universal genetic code.All organisms store the complex information they need to live, grow, andreproduce in a genetic code written in a molecule called DNA.That information is copied and passed from parent to offspring and isalmost identical in every organism on Earth.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeCharacteristics of Living ThingsLiving things grow and develop.During development, a single fertilized egg divides again and again.As these cells divide, they differentiate, which means they begin tolook different from one another and to perform different functions.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeCharacteristics of Living ThingsLiving things respond to their environment.A stimulus is a signal to which an organism responds.For example, some plants can produce unsavory chemicals to wardoff caterpillars that feed on their leaves.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeCharacteristics of Living ThingsLiving things reproduce, which means that they produce new similarorganisms.Most plants and animals engage in sexual reproduction, in which cellsfrom two parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeCharacteristics of Living ThingsOther organisms reproduce through asexual reproduction, in whicha single organism produces offspring identical to itself.Beautiful blossoms are part of an apple tree’s cycle of sexualreproduction.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeCharacteristics of Living ThingsLiving things maintain a relatively stable internal environment, evenwhen external conditions change dramatically.All living organisms expend energy to keep conditions inside theircells within certain limits. This conditionprocess is calledhomeostasis.For example, specialized cells help leaves regulate gases thatenter and leave the plant.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeCharacteristics of Living ThingsLiving things obtain and use material and energy to grow, develop,and reproduce.The combination of chemical reactions through which an organismbuilds up or breaks down materials is called metabolism.For example, leaves obtain energy from the sun and gases from theair. These materials then take part in various metabolic reactionswithin the leaves.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeCharacteristics of Living ThingsLiving things are made up of one or more cells—the smallest unitsconsidered fully alive.Cells can grow, respond to their surroundings, and reproduce.Despite their small size, cells are complex and highly organized.For example, a single branch of a tree contains millions of cells.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeCharacteristics of Living ThingsOver generations, groups of organisms evolve, or change over time.Evolutionary change links all forms of life to a common origin morethan 3.5 billion years ago.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeCharacteristics of Living ThingsEvidence of this shared history is found in all aspects of living and fossilorganisms, from physical features to structures of proteins to sequencesof information in DNA.For example, signs of one of the first land plants, Cooksonia, arepreserved in rock over 400 million years old.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeBig Ideas in BiologyWhat are the central themes of biology?
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeBig Ideas in BiologyWhat are the central themes of biology?The study of biology revolves around several interlocking big ideas: Thecellular basis of life; information and heredity; matter and energy; growth,development, and reproduction; homeostasis; evolution; structure andfunction; unity and diversity of life; interdependence in nature; and scienceas a way of knowing.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeBig Ideas in BiologyAll biological sciences are tied together by “big ideas” that overlap andinterlock with one another.Several of these big ideas overlap with the characteristics of life or thenature of science.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeCellular Basis of LifeLiving things are made of cells.Many living things consist of only a single cell and are calledunicellular organisms.Plants and animals are multicellular. Cells in multicellular organismsdisplay many different sizes, shapes, and functions.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeInformation and HeredityLiving things are based on a universal genetic code.The information coded in your DNA is similar to organisms that lived 3.5billion years ago.The DNA inside your cells right now can influence your future—your riskof getting cancer, the amount of cholesterol in your blood, and the colorof your children’s hair.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeMatter and EnergyLife requires matter that serves as nutrients to build body structures,and energy that fuels life’s processes.Some organisms, such as plants, obtain energy from sunlight and takeup nutrients from air, water, and soil.Other organisms, including most animals, eat plants or other animals toobtain both nutrients and energy.The need for matter and energy link all living things on Earth in a web ofinterdependent relationships.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeGrowth, Development, and ReproductionAll living things reproduce. Newly produced individuals grow anddevelop as they mature.During growth and development, generalized cells typically becomemore different and specialized for particular functions.Specialized cells build tissues, such as brains, muscles, and digestiveorgans, that serve various functions.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeHomeostasisLiving things maintain a relatively stable internal environment.For most organisms, any breakdown of homeostasis may haveserious or even fatal consequences.Specialized plant cells help leaves regulate gases that enter andleave the plant.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeEvolutionGroups of living things evolve.Evolutionary change links allforms of life to a common originmore than 3.5 billion years ago.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeEvolutionEvidence of this shared history is found in all aspects of living andfossil organisms, from physical features to structures of proteins tosequences of information in DNA.Evolutionary theory is the central organizing principle of allbiological and biomedical sciences.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeStructure and FunctionEach major group of organisms has evolved its own collection ofstructures that have evolved in ways that make particular functionspossible.Organisms use structures that have evolved into different forms asspecies have adapted to life in different environments.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeUnity and Diversity of LifeLife takes a variety of forms. Yet, all living things are fundamentallysimilar at the molecular level.All organisms are composed of a common set of carbon-basedmolecules, store information in a common genetic code, and useproteins to build their structures and carry out their functions.Evolutionary theory explains both this unity of life and its diversity.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeInterdependence in NatureAll forms of life on Earth are connected into a biosphere, or “livingplanet.”Within the biosphere, organisms are linked to one another and to theland, water, and air around them.Relationships between organisms and their environments depend onthe cycling of matter and the flow of energy.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeScience as a Way of KnowingThe job of science is to useobservations, questions, andexperiments to explain the naturalworld in terms of natural forces andevents.Successful scientific researchreveals rules and patterns that canexplain and predict at least someevents in nature.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeScience as a Way of KnowingScience enables us to take actionsthat affect events in the worldaround us.To make certain that scientificknowledge is used for the benefit ofsociety, all of us must understandthe nature of science.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeFields of BiologyHow do different fields of biology differ in their approach to studying life?
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeFields of BiologyHow do different fields of biology differ in their approach to studying life?Biology includes many overlapping fields that use different tools to studylife from the level of molecules to the entire planet.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeGlobal EcologyLife on Earth is shaped by weather patterns and processes in theatmosphere that we are just beginning to understand.Activities of living organisms—including humans—profoundly affectboth the atmosphere and climate.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeGlobal EcologyGlobal ecological studies are enabling us to learn about our globalimpact, which affects all life on Earth.For example, an ecologist may monitor lichens in a forest in efforts tostudy the effects of air pollution on forest health.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeBiotechnologyThe field of biotechnology is based on our ability to “edit” and rewrite thegenetic code. We may soon learn to correct or replace damaged genesthat cause inherited diseases or genetically engineer bacteria to cleanup toxic wastes.Biotechnology raises enormous ethical, legal, and social questions.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeBuilding the Tree of LifeBiologists have discovered and identified roughly 1.8 million differentkinds of living organisms, and researchers estimate that somewherebetween 2 and 100 million more forms of life are waiting to bediscovered around the globe. This paleontologist studies signs ofancient life—fossilized dinosaur dung!
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeBuilding the Tree of LifeIn addition to identifying and cataloguing all these life forms, biologistsaim to combine the latest genetic information with computer technologyto organize all living things into a single universal “Tree of All Life”—andput the results on the Web in a form that anyone can access.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeEcology and Evolution of InfectiousDiseasesThe relationships between hosts and pathogens are dynamic andconstantly changing.Organisms that cause human disease have their own ecology,which involves our bodies, medicines we take, and our interactionswith each other and the environment. Understanding theseinteractions is crucial to safeguarding our future.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeEcology and Evolution of InfectiousDiseasesFor example, a wildlife biologist studies a group of wild geladababoons. Pathogens in wild animal populations may evolve toinfect humans.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeGenomics and Molecular BiologyThese fields focus on studies of DNA and other molecules insidecells. Genomics is now looking at the entire sets of DNA codecontained in a wide range of organisms.Computer analyses enable researchers to compare vast databasesof genetic information in search of keys to the mysteries of growth,development, aging, cancer, and the history of life on Earth.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifePerforming Biological InvestigationsHow is the metric system important in science?
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifePerforming Biological InvestigationsHow is the metric system important in science?Most scientists use the metric system when collecting data and performingexperiments.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeScientific MeasurementMost scientists use the metric system when collecting data andperforming experiments.The metric system is a decimal system of measurement whose units arebased on certain physical standards and are scaled on multiples of 10.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeScientific Measurement:Common Metric Units
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeScientific MeasurementThe basic unit of length, the meter, can be multiplied or divided tomeasure objects and distances much larger or smaller than a meter.The same process can be used when measuring volume and mass.For example, scientists in Alaska want to measure the mass of a polarbear. What unit of measurement should the scientists use to expressthe mass?
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeSafetyScientists working in a laboratory or in the field are trained to use safeprocedures when carrying out investigations.Whenever you work in your biology laboratory, you must follow safepractices as well.Before you start each activity, read all the steps and make sure that youunderstand the entire procedure, including any safety precautions.The single most important safety rule is to always follow your teacher’sinstructions. Any time you are in doubt about any part of an activity, askyour teacher for an explanation.
    • Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Studying LifeStudying LifeSafetyBecause you may come in contact with organisms you cannot see, itis essential that you wash your hands thoroughly after every scientificactivity. Wearing appropriate protective gear is also important whileworking in a laboratory.Remember that you are responsible for your own safety and that ofyour teacher and classmates. If you are handling live animals, you areresponsible for their safety too.