CVA A&P - Chapter 3a Cell Parts
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CVA A&P - Chapter 3a Cell Parts

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Copyright - Adapted from Glencoe-McGraw Hill

Copyright - Adapted from Glencoe-McGraw Hill

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CVA A&P - Chapter 3a Cell Parts CVA A&P - Chapter 3a Cell Parts Presentation Transcript

  • PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PART A 3 Cells and Tissues
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cells and Tissues  Carry out all chemical activities needed to sustain life  Cells are the building blocks of all living things  Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure and function
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anatomy of the Cell  Cells are not all the same  All cells share general structures  All cells have three main regions  Nucleus  Cytoplasm  Plasma membrane Figure 3.1a
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Nucleus  Control center of the cell  Contains genetic material (DNA)  Three regions  Nuclear envelope (membrane)  Nucleolus  Chromatin
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Nucleus Figure 3.1b
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Nucleus  Nuclear envelope (membrane)  Barrier of the nucleus  Consists of a double membrane  Contains nuclear pores that allow for exchange of material with the rest of the cell
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Nucleus  Nucleoli  Nucleus contains one or more nucleoli  Sites of ribosome assembly  Ribosomes migrate into the cytoplasm through nuclear pores
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Nucleus  Chromatin  Composed of DNA and protein  Present when the cell is not dividing  Scattered throughout the nucleus  Condenses to form chromosomes when the cell divides
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Plasma Membrane  Barrier for cell contents  Double phospholipid layer  Hydrophilic heads  Hydrophobic tails  Also contains proteins, cholesterol, and glycoproteins
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Plasma Membrane Figure 3.2 Membrane StructurePLAY
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Plasma Membrane Specializations  Microvilli  Finger-like projections that increase surface area for absorption
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cytoplasm  Cytoplasm is the material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cytoplasm  Contains three major elements  Cytosol  Fluid that suspends other elements  Organelles  Metabolic machinery of the cell  “Little organs” that perform functions for the cell  Inclusions  Chemical substances such as stored nutrients or cell products
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cytoplasmic Organelles Figure 3.4
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cytoplasmic Organelles  Mitochondria  “Powerhouses” of the cell  Change shape continuously  Carry out reactions where oxygen is used to break down food  Provides ATP for cellular energy
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cytoplasmic Organelles  Ribosomes  Made of protein and RNA  Sites of protein synthesis  Found at two locations  Free in the cytoplasm  As part of the rough endoplasmic reticulum
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cytoplasmic Organelles  Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)  Fluid-filled tubules for carrying substances  Two types of ER  Rough endoplasmic reticulum  Studded with ribosomes  Synthesizes proteins  Smooth endoplasmic reticulum  Functions in lipid metabolism and detoxification of drugs and pesticides
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Figure 3.5 Ribosome Protein Protein inside transport vesicle Transport vesicle buds off mRNA Rough ER As the protein is synthesized on the ribosome, it migrates into the rough ER cistern. In the cistern, the protein folds into its functional shape. Short sugar chains may be attached to the protein (forming a glycoprotein). The protein is packaged in a tiny membranous sac called a transport vesicle. The transport vesicle buds from the rough ER and travels to the Golgi apparatus for further processing or goes directly to the plasma membrane where its contents are secreted.
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cytoplasmic Organelles  Golgi apparatus  Modifies and packages proteins  Produces different types of packages  Secretory vesicles  Cell membrane components  Lysosomes
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 3.6 Extracellular fluid Plasma membrane Golgi vesicle containing membrane components fuses with the plasma membrane Golgi vesicle containing digestive enzymes becomes a lysosome Proteins in cisterna Lysosome fuses with ingested substances Membrane Transport vesicle Pathway 3 Pathway 2 Secretory vesicles Pathway 1 Golgi apparatus Golgi vesicle containing proteins to be secreted becomes a secretory vesicle Cisterna Rough ER Proteins Secretion by exocytosis
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cytoplasmic Organelles  Lysosomes  Contain enzymes that digest worn-out or nonusable materials within the cell
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cytoplasmic Organelles  Peroxisomes  Membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes  Detoxify harmful substances such as alcohol and formaldehyde  Break down free radicals (highly reactive chemicals)  Replicate by pinching in half
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cytoplasmic Organelles  Cytoskeleton  Network of protein structures that extend throughout the cytoplasm  Provides the cell with an internal framework Figure 3.7a
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 3.7b–d Cytoplasmic Organelles  Cytoskeleton  Three different types of elements  Microfilaments (largest)  Intermediate filaments  Microtubules (smallest)
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cytoplasmic Organelles  Centrioles  Rod-shaped bodies made of microtubules  Direct the formation of mitotic spindle during cell division
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cellular Projections  Not found in all cells  Used for movement  Cilia move materials across the cell surface  Located in the respiratory system to move mucus  Flagella propel the cell  The only flagellated cell in the human body is sperm
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cell Diversity Figure 3.8a
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cell Diversity Figure 3.8b
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cell Diversity Figure 3.8c
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cell Diversity Figure 3.8d
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cell Diversity Figure 3.8e
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cell Diversity Figure 3.8f
  • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cell Diversity Figure 3.8g