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CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard
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CVA A&P - Chapter 11: Cardiovascular Standard

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Copyright - Adapted from Glencoe - McGraw-Hill

Copyright - Adapted from Glencoe - McGraw-Hill

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  • 1. PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PART A 11 The Cardiovascular System
  • 2. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Cardiovascular System  A closed system of the heart and blood vessels  The heart pumps blood  Blood vessels allow blood to circulate to all parts of the body  The function of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygen and nutrients and to remove carbon dioxide and other waste products
  • 3. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart  Location  Thorax between the lungs in the inferior mediastinum  Orientation  Pointed apex directed toward left hip  Base points toward right shoulder  About the size of your fist
  • 4. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart Figure 11.1a–b
  • 5. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart Figure 11.1c
  • 6. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Chambers  Right and left side act as separate pumps  Four chambers  Atria  Receiving chambers  Right atrium  Left atrium  Ventricles  Discharging chambers  Right ventricle  Left ventricle
  • 7. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Chambers Figure 11.2c
  • 8. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Valves  Allow blood to flow in only one direction to prevent backflow  Four valves  Atrioventricular (AV) valves—between atria and ventricles  Bicuspid (mitral) valve (left side of heart)  Tricuspid valve (right side of heart)  Semilunar valves—between ventricle and artery  Pulmonary semilunar valve  Aortic semilunar valve
  • 9. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Valves Figure 11.2c
  • 10. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Systemic and Pulmonary Circulations  Systemic circulation  Blood flows from the left side of the heart through the body tissues and back to the right side of the heart  Pulmonary circulation  Blood flows from the right side of the heart to the lungs and back to the left side of the heart
  • 11. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Systemic and Pulmonary Circulations Figure 11.3
  • 12. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Heart Contractions  Tachycardia—rapid heart rate over 100 beats per minute  Bradycardia—slow heart rate less than 60 beats per minutes
  • 13. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Cardiac Cycle  Atria contract simultaneously (‘lub’ sound)  Atria relax, then ventricles contract (‘dub’ sound)
  • 14. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pulse & Heart Rate  Heart rate (HR)  Typically 75 beats per minute  Pulse  Pressure wave of blood  Monitored at “pressure points” in arteries where pulse is easily palpated  Pulse averages 70–76 beats per minute at rest
  • 15. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Regulation of Heart Rate  Increased heart rate  Sympathetic nervous system  Crisis  Low blood pressure  Hormones  Epinephrine  Thyroxine  Exercise  Decreased blood volume
  • 16. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Heart: Regulation of Heart Rate  Decreased heart rate  Parasympathetic nervous system  High blood pressure or blood volume  Decreased venous return
  • 17. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pulse Figure 11.18
  • 18. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Blood Pressure  Measurements by health professionals are made on the pressure in large arteries  Systolic—pressure at the peak of ventricular contraction  Diastolic—pressure when ventricles relax  Write systolic pressure first and diastolic last (120/80 mm Hg)  Pressure in blood vessels decreases as distance from the heart increases
  • 19. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Variations in Blood Pressure  Normal human range is variable  Normal  140–110 mm Hg systolic  80–75 mm Hg diastolic  Hypotension  Low systolic (below 110 mm HG)  Often associated with illness  Hypertension  High systolic (above 140 mm HG)  Can be dangerous if it is chronic
  • 20. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Factors Producing Hypertension  High salt intake  High cholesterol  Obesity  Stress  Eclampsia  Heart disease
  • 21. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Blood Vessels: The Vascular System  Transport blood to the tissues and back  Carry blood away from the heart  Arteries  Arterioles  Exchanges between tissues and blood  Capillary beds  Return blood toward the heart  Venules  Veins
  • 22. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fetal Circulation  Fetus receives exchanges of gases, nutrients, and wastes through the placenta  Umbilical cord contains three vessels  Umbilical vein—carries blood rich in nutrients and oxygen to the fetus  Umbilical arteries (2)—carry carbon dioxide and debris-laden blood from fetus to placenta
  • 23. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fetal Circulation  Blood flow bypasses the lungs (since not used)  Blood entering right atrium is shunted directly into the left atrium through the foramen ovale  Ductus arteriosus connects the aorta and pulmonary trunk (becomes ligamentum arteriosum at birth)

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