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CVA A&P - Chapter 5d: Joints
 

CVA A&P - Chapter 5d: Joints

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Copyright - Adapted from Glencoe - McGraw-Hill

Copyright - Adapted from Glencoe - McGraw-Hill

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    CVA A&P - Chapter 5d: Joints CVA A&P - Chapter 5d: Joints Presentation Transcript

    • PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PART F 5 The Skeletal System
    • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Joints  Articulations of bones  Functions of joints  Hold bones together  Allow for mobility  Ways joints are classified  Functionally  Structurally
    • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Functional Classification of Joints  Synarthroses  Immovable joints  Amphiarthroses  Slightly moveable joints  Diarthroses  Freely moveable joints
    • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Structural Classification of Joints  Fibrous joints  Generally immovable  Cartilaginous joints  Immovable or slightly moveable  Synovial joints  Freely moveable
    • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fibrous Joints Figure 5.28a–b
    • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cartilaginous Joints Figure 5.28c–e
    • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints  Articulating bones are separated by a joint cavity  Synovial fluid is found in the joint cavity
    • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synovial Joints Figure 5.28f–h
    • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Features of Synovial Joints  Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones  A fibrous articular capsule encloses joint surfaces  A joint cavity is filled with synovial fluid  Ligaments reinforce the joint
    • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Structures Associated with the Synovial Joint  Bursae—flattened fibrous sacs  Lined with synovial membranes  Filled with synovial fluid  Not actually part of the joint
    • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Synovial Joint Figure 5.29
    • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Synovial Joints Figure 5.30a–c
    • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Types of Synovial Joints Figure 5.30d–f
    • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Inflammatory Conditions Associated with Joints  Bursitis—inflammation of a bursa usually caused by a blow or friction  Tendonitis—inflammation of tendon sheaths  Arthritis—inflammatory or degenerative diseases of joints  Over 100 different types  The most widespread crippling disease in the United States
    • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Clinical Forms of Arthritis  Osteoarthritis  Most common chronic arthritis  Probably related to normal aging processes  Rheumatoid arthritis  An autoimmune disease—the immune system attacks the joints  Symptoms begin with bilateral inflammation of certain joints  Often leads to deformities
    • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Clinical Forms of Arthritis  Gouty arthritis  Inflammation of joints is caused by a deposition of uric acid crystals from the blood  Can usually be controlled with diet
    • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skeletal Changes Throughout Life  Fetus  Long bones are formed of hyaline cartilage  Flat bones begin as fibrous membranes  Flat and long bone models are converted to bone  Birth  Fontanels remain until around age 2
    • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skeletal Changes Throughout Life  Osteoporosis  Bone-thinning disease afflicting  50% of women over age 65  20% of men over age 70  Disease makes bones fragile and bones can easily fracture  Vertebral collapse results in kyphosis (also known as dowager’s hump)  Estrogen aids in health and normal density of a female skeleton
    • Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skeletal Changes Throughout Life Figure 5.34