PowerPoint®
Lecture Slide Presentation
by Patty Bostwick-Taylor,
Florence-Darlington Technical College
Copyright © 2009 Pe...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Composition of Matter
 Elements—fundamental uni...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Isotopes and Atomic Weight
 Isotopes
 Have the...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Radioactivity
 Radioisotope
 Heavy isotope
 T...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Molecules and Compounds
 Molecule—two or more l...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Chemical Bonds
 Ionic bonds
 Form when electro...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Ionic Bonds
Figure 2.6
+ –
Sodium atom (Na)
(11p...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Polarity
 Covalently bonded
molecules
 Some ar...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Chemical Bonds
 Hydrogen bonds
 Weak chemical ...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Hydrogen Bonds
Figure 2.9
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Chemical Reactions
 Atoms are united by chemica...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Patterns of Chemical Reactions
 Synthesis react...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions
Figure 2.1...
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions
Figure 2.1...
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CVA A&P - Chapter 2a

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CVA A&P - Chapter 2a

  1. 1. PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PART A 2 Basic Chemistry
  2. 2. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Composition of Matter  Elements—fundamental units of matter  96% of the body is made from four elements  Carbon (C)  Oxygen (O)  Hydrogen (H)  Nitrogen (N)  Atoms—building blocks of elements
  3. 3. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Isotopes and Atomic Weight  Isotopes  Have the same number of protons  Vary in number of neutrons Figure 2.3
  4. 4. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Radioactivity  Radioisotope  Heavy isotope  Tends to be unstable  Decomposes to more stable isotope  Radioactivity—process of spontaneous atomic decay
  5. 5. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Molecules and Compounds  Molecule—two or more like atoms combined chemically  Compound—two or more different atoms combined chemically Figure 2.4
  6. 6. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chemical Bonds  Ionic bonds  Form when electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another  Ions  Charged particles  Anions are negative  Cations are positive  Either donate or accept electrons Ionic BondsPLAY
  7. 7. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ionic Bonds Figure 2.6 + – Sodium atom (Na) (11p+ ; 12n0 ; 11e– ) Chlorine atom (Cl) (17p+ ; 18n0 ; 17e– ) Sodium ion (Na+ ) Chloride ion (Cl– ) Sodium chloride (NaCl) ClNaClNa
  8. 8. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Polarity  Covalently bonded molecules  Some are non-polar  Electrically neutral as a molecule  Some are polar  Have a positive and negative side Figure 2.8
  9. 9. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chemical Bonds  Hydrogen bonds  Weak chemical bonds  Hydrogen is attracted to the negative portion of polar molecule  Provides attraction between molecules
  10. 10. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hydrogen Bonds Figure 2.9
  11. 11. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chemical Reactions  Atoms are united by chemical bonds  Atoms dissociate from other atoms when chemical bonds are broken
  12. 12. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Patterns of Chemical Reactions  Synthesis reaction (A + BAB)  Atoms or molecules combine  Energy is absorbed for bond formation  Decomposition reaction (ABA + B)  Molecule is broken down  Chemical energy is released DisaccharidesPLAY
  13. 13. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions Figure 2.10a
  14. 14. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions Figure 2.10b

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