CVA Biology I - B10vrv3081
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  • 1. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Energy and LifeEnergy and LifeLesson OverviewLesson Overview8.1 Energy and Life8.1 Energy and Life
  • 2. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Energy and LifeEnergy and LifeTHINK ABOUT ITHomeostasis is hard work. Organisms and the cells within them have togrow and develop, move materials around, build new molecules, andrespond to environmental changes.What powers so much activity, and where does that power come from?
  • 3. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Energy and LifeEnergy and LifeChemical Energy and ATPWhy is ATP useful to cells?
  • 4. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Energy and LifeEnergy and LifeChemical Energy and ATPWhy is ATP useful to cells?ATP can easily release and store energy by breaking and re-forming thebonds between its phosphate groups. This characteristic of ATP makes itexceptionally useful as a basic energy source for all cells.
  • 5. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Energy and LifeEnergy and LifeChemical Energy and ATPEnergy is the ability to do work.Your cells are busy using energy to build new molecules, contract muscles,and carry out active transport.Without the ability to obtain and use energy, life would cease to exist.
  • 6. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Energy and LifeEnergy and LifeChemical Energy and ATPOne of the most important compounds that cells use to store and releaseenergy is adenosine triphosphate (ATP).ATP consists of adenine, a 5-carbon sugar called ribose, and threephosphate groups.
  • 7. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Energy and LifeEnergy and LifeStoring EnergyAdenosine diphosphate (ADP)looks almost like ATP, exceptthat it has two phosphate groupsinstead of three. ADP containssome energy, but not as much asATP.When a cell has energy available,it can store small amounts of it byadding phosphate groups toADP, producing ATP.ADP is like a rechargeablebattery that powers themachinery of the cell.
  • 8. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Energy and LifeEnergy and LifeReleasing EnergyCells can release the energystored in ATP by breaking thebonds between the second andthird phosphate groups.Because a cell can add orsubtract these phosphategroups, it has an efficient way ofstoring and releasing energy asneeded.
  • 9. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Energy and LifeEnergy and LifeUsing Biochemical EnergyOne way cells use the energy provided by ATP is to carry out activetransport.Many cell membranes contain sodium-potassium pumps. ATP providesthe energy that keeps these pumps working, maintaining a balance ofions on both sides of the cell membrane.
  • 10. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Energy and LifeEnergy and LifeUsing Biochemical EnergyATP powers movement, providing the energy for motor proteins thatcontract muscle and power the movement of cilia and flagella.
  • 11. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Energy and LifeEnergy and LifeUsing Biochemical EnergyEnergy from ATP powers the synthesis of proteins and responses tochemical signals at the cell surface.
  • 12. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Energy and LifeEnergy and LifeUsing Biochemical EnergyATP is not a good molecule for storinglarge amounts of energy over the longterm.It is more efficient for cells to keep onlya small supply of ATP on hand.Cells can regenerate ATP from ADP asneeded by using the energy in foodslike glucose.
  • 13. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Energy and LifeEnergy and LifeHeterotrophs and AutotrophsWhat happens during the process of photosynthesis?
  • 14. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Energy and LifeEnergy and LifeHeterotrophs and AutotrophsWhat happens during the process of photosynthesis?In the process of photosynthesis, plants convert the energy of sunlight intochemical energy stored in the bonds of carbohydrates.
  • 15. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Energy and LifeEnergy and LifeHeterotrophs and AutotrophsOrganisms that obtain food by consuming other living things are knownas heterotrophs.Some heterotrophs get their food by eating plants.Other heterotrophs, such as this cheetah, obtain food from plantsindirectly by feeding on plant-eating animals.Still other heterotrophs, such as mushrooms, obtain food bydecomposing other organisms.
  • 16. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Energy and LifeEnergy and LifeHeterotrophs and AutotrophsOrganisms that make their own food are called autotrophs.Plants, algae, and some bacteria are able to use light energy from thesun to produce food. The process by which autotrophs use the energyof sunlight to produce high-energy carbohydrates that can be used forfood is known as photosynthesis.