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CVA Biology I - B10vrv1023
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CVA Biology I - B10vrv1023

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Copyright - Adapted from Pearson

Copyright - Adapted from Pearson

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  • 1. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsLesson OverviewLesson Overview2.3 Carbon Compounds2.3 Carbon Compounds
  • 2. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsTHINK ABOUT ITIn the early 1800s, many chemists called the compounds created byorganisms “organic,” believing they were fundamentally different fromcompounds in nonliving things.We now understand that the principles governing the chemistry of livingand nonliving things are the same, but the term “organic chemistry” isstill around.Today, organic chemistry means the study of compounds that containbonds between carbon atoms, while inorganic chemistry is the study ofall other compounds.
  • 3. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsThe Chemistry of CarbonWhat elements does carbon bond with to make up life’s molecules?
  • 4. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsThe Chemistry of CarbonWhat elements does carbon bond with to make up life’s molecules?Carbon can bond with many elements, including hydrogen, oxygen,phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen to form the molecules of life.
  • 5. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsThe Chemistry of CarbonCarbon atoms have four valence electrons, allowing them to form strongcovalent bonds with many other elements, including hydrogen, oxygen,phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen.Living organisms are made up of molecules that consist of carbon andthese other elements.
  • 6. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsThe Chemistry of CarbonCarbon atoms can also bond to each other, which gives carbon the abilityto form millions of different large and complex structures.Carbon-carbon bonds can be single, double, or triple covalent bonds.Chains of carbon atoms can even close up on themselves to form rings.
  • 7. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsMacromoleculesWhat are the functions of each of the four groups of macromolecules?
  • 8. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsMacromoleculesWhat are the functions of each of the four groups of macromolecules?Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. Plants,some animals, and other organisms also use carbohydrates for structuralpurposes.
  • 9. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsMacromoleculesWhat are the functions of each of the four groups of macromolecules?Lipids can be used to store energy. Some lipids are important parts ofbiological membranes and waterproof coverings.
  • 10. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsMacromoleculesWhat are the functions of each of the four groups of macromolecules?Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information.
  • 11. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsMacromoleculesWhat are the functions of each of the four groups of macromolecules?Some proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes.Others form important cellular structures, while still others transportsubstances into or out of cells or help to fight disease.
  • 12. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsMacromoleculesMany of the organic compounds inliving cells are macromolecules, or“giant molecules,” made fromthousands or even hundreds ofthousands of smaller molecules.Most macromolecules are formedby a process known aspolymerization, in which largecompounds are built by joiningsmaller ones together.
  • 13. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsMacromoleculesThe smaller units, or monomers,join together to form polymers.The monomers in a polymer maybe identical or different.
  • 14. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsMacromoleculesBiochemists sort the macromolecules found in living things into groupsbased on their chemical composition.The four major groups of macromolecules found in living things arecarbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.
  • 15. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsCarbohydratesCarbohydrates are compoundsmade up of carbon, hydrogen, andoxygen atoms, usually in a ratio of1 : 2 : 1.Living things use carbohydrates astheir main source of energy. Thebreakdown of sugars, such asglucose, supplies immediateenergy for cell activities.Plants, some animals, and otherorganisms also use carbohydratesfor structural purposes.
  • 16. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsCarbohydratesMany organisms store extra sugar as complex carbohydrates known asstarches. The monomers in starch polymers are sugar molecules, suchas glucose.
  • 17. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsSimple SugarsSingle sugar molecules are alsoknown as monosaccharides.Besides glucose, monosaccharidesinclude galactose, which is acomponent of milk, and fructose,which is found in many fruits.Ordinary table sugar, sucrose, is adisaccharide, a compound made byjoining glucose and fructose together.
  • 18. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsComplex CarbohydratesThe large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides are known aspolysaccharides.
  • 19. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsComplex CarbohydratesMany animals store excess sugar in a polysaccharide called glycogen.When the level of glucose in your blood runs low, glycogen is brokendown into glucose, which is then released into the blood.The glycogen stored in your muscles supplies the energy for musclecontraction.
  • 20. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsComplex CarbohydratesPlants use a slightly different polysaccharide, called starch, to storeexcess sugar.Plants also make another important polysaccharide called cellulose,which gives plants much of their strength and rigidity.
  • 21. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsLipidsLipids are a large and varied group of biological molecules. Lipids aremade mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms and are generally notsoluble in water.The common categories of lipids are fats, oils, and waxes.Lipids can be used to store energy. Some lipids are important parts ofbiological membranes and waterproof coverings.Steroids synthesized by the body are lipids as well. Many steroids, suchas hormones, serve as chemical messengers.
  • 22. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsLipidsMany lipids are formed when a glycerol molecule combines withcompounds called fatty acids.
  • 23. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsLipidsIf each carbon atom in a lipid’s fatty acid chains is joined to anothercarbon atom by a single bond, the lipid is said to be saturated.If there is at least one carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid, thefatty acid is said to be unsaturated.Lipids whose fatty acids contain more than one double bond are said tobe polyunsaturated.
  • 24. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsLipidsLipids that contain unsaturated fatty acids, such as olive oil, tend to beliquid at room temperature.The data in the table illustrate how melting point decreases as thedegree of unsaturation (number of double bonds) increases.
  • 25. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsNucleic AcidsNucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information.Nucleic acids are macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen,nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.Nucleic acids are polymers assembled from individual monomers knownas nucleotides.
  • 26. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsNucleic AcidsNucleotides consist of three parts: a5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group(–PO4), and a nitrogenous base.Some nucleotides, includingadenosine triphosphate (ATP), playimportant roles in capturing andtransferring chemical energy.
  • 27. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsNucleic AcidsIndividual nucleotides can be joinedby covalent bonds to form apolynucleotide, or nucleic acid.There are two kinds of nucleic acids:ribonucleic acid (RNA) anddeoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). RNAcontains the sugar ribose and DNAcontains the sugar deoxyribose.
  • 28. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsProteinProteins are macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon,hydrogen, and oxygen.Proteins are polymers of molecules called amino acids.Proteins perform many varied functions, such as controlling the rate ofreactions and regulating cell processes, forming cellular structures,transporting substances into or out of cells, and helping to fight disease.
  • 29. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsProteinAmino acids are compounds with an amino group (–NH2) on one endand a carboxyl group (–COOH) on the other end.Covalent bonds called peptide bonds link amino acids together to form apolypeptide.A protein is a functional molecule built from one or more polypeptides.
  • 30. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsStructure and FunctionAll amino acids are identical in the amino and carboxyl groups. Anyamino acid can be joined to any other amino acid by a peptide bondformed between these amino and carboxyl groups.
  • 31. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsStructure and FunctionAmino acids differ from each other in a side chain called the R-group,which have a range of different properties.More than 20 different amino acids are found in nature.This variety results in proteins being among the most diversemacromolecules.
  • 32. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsLevels of OrganizationProteins have four levels of structure.A protein’s primary structure is thesequence of its amino acids.Secondary structure is the folding orcoiling of the polypeptide chain.
  • 33. Lesson OverviewLesson Overview Carbon CompoundsCarbon CompoundsLevels of OrganizationTertiary structure is the complete, three-dimensional arrangement of apolypeptide chain.Proteins with more than one chain havea fourth level of structure, whichdescribes the way in which the differentpolypeptide chains are arranged withrespect to each other. For example, theprotein shown, hemoglobin, consists offour subunits.