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Ssl Training   December 2009 [Compatibility Mode]
 

Ssl Training December 2009 [Compatibility Mode]

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    Ssl Training   December 2009 [Compatibility Mode] Ssl Training December 2009 [Compatibility Mode] Presentation Transcript

    • Solid State Lighting Seminar December 2009
    • Agenda • Cree Background • SSL/LED Basics – Packages, Benefits, Light source comparisons – Binning, Lifetime, Reliability, Standards, Safety • Cree LED Components Portfolio • Target Markets • LED Design Considerations – Optics, Thermals, Electrical (with examples) – Quality, Thinking ahead • LED Roadmaps • Cree Support Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 2
    • Presenters Vince Feorenzo Vice President Americas Sales Cree LED Components, RF Steve Druckenmiller Field Applications Engineer Americas East Cree LED Components, RF Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 3
    • Cree Background Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 4
    • Cree, Inc. Snapshot LED Technology Leader • Leading supplier of InGaN LED chips • Created the first Lighting Class LEDs • U.S. Patents: 827 • Foreign Patents: 1,800 Global Scale • Locations: 12 • Employees: 3,200 • Headquarters: Durham NC, USA Company Facts • Revenue: $567.3 million (FY 2009) • NASDAQ: CREE Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 5
    • Cree Global Footprint • Headquarters: – Durham, NC, USA • Global Locations: – Dulles, VA, USA – Hong Kong – Huizhou, China – Munich, Germany – Penang, Malaysia – Taipei, Taiwan – Tokyo, Japan – Santa Barbara, CA – Seoul, Korea – Shanghai, China – Shenzhen, China Chip Packaging R&D Design Center Manufacturing Manufacturing Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 6
    • Cree - Leading the LED Lighting Revolution 2002 Introduced 2008 1st XBright® LED Demonstrated record power chip 161 lumens/Watt 1989 from LED component 2006 Commercialized First “Lighting-Class” the first blue LED LED components 1995 2009 Blue LEDs 2004 Launched LED 1987 designed PAR38 Lamp Cree founded into VW First XLamp with unrivaled color and LEDs brought to market 2007 efficacy 1st commercially-viable LED downlight introduced (LR6) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 7
    • Cree Businesses Cree SiC/GaN Materials Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 8
    • Cree LED Lighting Strategy Market Opportunity LED Lighting LED Lighting • Lead the market & accelerate adoption LED Components • Create demand/pull for LED lighting LED Components • Drive Revenue • Enable the market with LED Chips “lighting-class” LEDs LED Chips Materials • Technology to enable components
    • SSL/LED Basics Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 10
    • LED: Theory of Operation • LEDs consist of several layers of semiconductor material • Light is generated in the PN junction when a current is applied • LED light is monochromatic; the color depends on the materials used and layer thickness • There are two material systems (AlInGaP and InGaN) used to produce LEDs in all colors from blue to red Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 11
    • Typical High-Power LED Package Substrate/Lead Lens (glass, Frame silicone) Encapsulant Wire bond Reflector ESD protection LED chip Phosphor 5mm Type • The LED Package provides: – Protection for the LED chip from the outside environment – Conductive path to carry generated heat away from the LED chip – Lens & encapsulant systems to shape and direct the chip flux • LED Chip: Determines raw brightness and efficacy • Phosphor: Convert blue light to white. Determines white color point and stability. Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 12
    • Typical LED Characteristics • Thermal Resistance: Increase in junction temperature (TJ) above the solder point in °C for every Watt of electrical energy Beam Angle • Viewing Angle: Commonly depicted as full-width, half- maximum (FWHM) ° Important Note: All LED data is for 20ms pulse, 25°C Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 13
    • Typical LED Characteristics • Temperature Coefficient of voltage: Describes the dependency of • ESD Protection Forward Voltage (VF) on the Every LED has integral diode for junction temperature (TJ) Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) – The good news: This makes protection, in accordance with VF slightly lower at higher Human Body Model = 2kV temperatures * Common to both warm and cool white LEDs Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 14
    • Typical LED Characteristics • DC Pulse Current: • DC Forward Current: Maximum DC current the (Max IF) is the maximum LED can safely and forward current the LED can reliably withstand for safely and reliably withstand. short pulse duration Warm white LEDs are often rated lower on Max IF vs. cool white due to phosphor stability * Common to both warm and cool white LEDs Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 15
    • Typical LED Characteristics • LED Junction Temperature (TJ) The maximum temperature the LED junction (light-generating part of the LED chip) can safely and reliably withstand before failure • Forward Voltage: The voltage for a given constant current, IF. Typical and max shown Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 16
    • Typical LED Characteristics • Correlated Color Temperature (CCT): Spectral bandwidth of white LEDs, defined as color temperature and x,y coordinates • Dominant Wavelength (DWL): Monochromatic wavelength of color LEDs Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 17
    • Typical LED Characteristics • Luminous Flux (LF): You will normally specify a specific LF bin from your supplier – LF for Lighting-class LEDs are generally rated for 350mA IF – LF is calculated for higher drive currents – Brighter bins generally cost more – Warm white LEDs are generally about 25% lower LF than cool white for a given IF Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 18
    • Traditional Lighting Technologies Incandescent Fluorescent Compact Fluorescent • Inexpensive • Very inexpensive • Efficient • Energy efficient • Great color • Contains mercury • Contains mercury • Very short lifetime • Difficult to dim/control • High price vs. incand. • Extremely inefficient • Problems in cold temps • Problems in cold temps Halogen High Intensity Discharge • Great color • Inexpensive • Focused light • Efficient • Very short lifetime • Long start time • Inefficient • Poor color Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 19
    • Basic Advantages of LED Light • LEDs are…very energy efficient >100LPW (near-term roadmap to >150LPW…) • Are directional No wasted light, any pattern possible • Have very long lifetime >50,000 hours to 70% Lumen Maintenance (L70) • Are inherently rugged No filament to break • Start instantly nanoseconds vs. > 10 min re-strike (HID) • Are environmentally sound no Hg, Pb, heavy metals • Are infinitely dimmable, controllable New lighting features, power savings • Love cold temperatures No cold starting issues Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 20
    • Light Source Comparison Data Sheet Usable* Lifetime Light Type CRI lm/W lm/W (hrs) Incandescent 13-16 <15 3k 100 Halogen 20 12-20 6k 100 T12 fluorescent 60 40-50 20k 62-85 Metal halide 65-70 35-40 10k-20k 60-90 High-Power LED (Warm White) 80 55-65 50k+ 80-85 T5 fluorescent 90 75-85 30k 85 T8 fluorescent 90+ 80-90 30-40k 78-85 High-pressure sodium 95-110 55-65 24k 22 Low-pressure sodium 120-140 65-75 16k <5 High-Power LED (Cool White) 132 >100 50k+ 75 But source comparisons can be misleading. More to come … * Typical expected performance in real-life applications. Based on mean lumens, and including ballast/driver, thermal equilibrium and typical fixture Coefficient of Utilization losses. Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 21
    • Binning - Two Main Types • Chromaticity or Color Binning – Some defined “Box” in the white area on or near the Black Body Locus (White LEDs) – Dominant Wavelength (Color LEDs) • Brightness or Flux Binning – Minimum luminous flux or radiant Flux – Bin sizes (flux range) varies by supplier Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 22
    • Luminous Flux Binning • LEDs are tested & sorted into luminous flux bins • Bins are grouped into guaranteed minimum flux levels at a given drive (test) current Flux: 73.9 lm Driver 350 mA Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 23
    • 1931 CIE Chromaticity Diagram The 1931 CIE chromaticity scale gives everyone a common framework to reference very specific shades of color White LED lamps are binned and sold based on the shade of white color represented on a Warm chromaticity scale in terms of x, y coordinates and color temperature Cool How It Works • Monochromatic (direct) colors are on the outside edge of the diagram • All combinations of colors are on the inside, with white colors in the middle Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 24
    • Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) • Not all “white” light lies directly on the BBL • CCT refers to the Plankian black-body radiator color temperature (CT) that is closest to the color of the white light source (in Kelvin) Relationship between CCT & CT Examples of CCTs Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 25
    • Blue (or UV) + Phosphor = White • White LED light is generally made from a blue LED matched with a yellow phosphor Yellow Phosphor • Adding more red phosphor pushes the color temperature White Light closer to the “warm” white CCT points…less, more to the blue (“cool” white) • The human eye is extraordinarily sensitive, so small process variations in chip wavelength; phosphor thickness, Blue LED concentration, composition; and/or deposition conditions make a big difference Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 26
    • MacAdam Ellipses • David MacAdam – a scientist at Kodak - performed the research in the late 1940’s with the goal of determining a series of boundaries around several color targets (x, y coordinates) illustrating how much one can “ stray” from the target before perceiving a difference from that target color • MacAdam found that these color regions took the form of an ellipse on the CIE 1931 chromaticity chart • A MacAdam Ellipse is defined as being the region on the CIE chromaticity chart in which the y variations in color in that region are indistinguishable from the color of the point at the center of the ellipse x Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 27
    • MacAdam Ellipses (10X) Note: The size and orientation of the ellipse varies significantly with it’s location in the CIE color space Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 28
    • MacAdam Ellipse Steps 1-step: One standard deviation (68.3%) of population perceives a color difference 2-step: Two standard deviation (97.5%) of population perceives a color difference 3-step: Three standard deviation (99.7%) of population perceives a color difference One Step Two Step Three Step Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 29
    • MacAdams In the “Real” World MacAdam Ellipse defines the chromaticity bin size 0.45 2700 K 0.44 3000 K 0.43 3500 K 0.42 0.41 4000 K + BBL + 0.40 4500 K + 0.39 CCy 0.38 5000 K + 0.37 5700 K + 0.36 6500 K + 0.35 0.34 + 0.33 + 0.32 0.31 0.30 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.38 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.43 0.44 0.45 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.49 0.50 CCx ANSI CFL Standard (7-steps) ANSI C78.377A SSL Chromaticity Standard Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 30
    • Cree High-Power LED Chromaticity Binning 0.46 0.45 2700K 3000K 0.44 CCy: 0.35 0.43 3500K CCx: 0.32 0.42 4000K 0.41 4500K 0.40 5000K 0.39 0.38 5700K 0.37 CCy 6500K 0.36 ANSI C78.377A 0.35 8000K 0.34 Driver 0.33 350 mA 0.32 0.31 0.30 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.38 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.43 0.44 0.45 0.46 0.47 0.48 0.49 CCx Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 31
    • Cree High-Power LED Chromaticity Binning Bin quadrangles (corners) are defined by four x,y pairs. Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 32
    • Cree Kits (Order) codes vs. Bins Kit code, aka Order code: used to describe a group of chromaticity and flux bins that are acceptable to fulfill an order. Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 33
    • Color Rendering Index System • Based on color comparison of 14 sample tiles with unsaturated colors • Incandescent bulbs have CRI 100 3 10 (<5000K CT) 14 3000 2500 11 4 4000 2 • Sunlight is CRI 100 6000 13 1 (> 5000K CT) 5 D65 9 8 • LEDs (esp. RGB) 6 7 have fully saturated 12 colors and actually pay a mathematical penalty in the CRI system Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 34
    • CRI & CQS of Selected Light Sources Source CRI Low Pressure Sodium <5 High Pressure Sodium 20 1 2 3 4 RGB LED (typical) 31 Mercury Vapor 43 Cool White Fluorescent 63 5 6 7 8 Metal halide 64 Cool White LED 70 Daylight Fluorescent 76 Warm White LED (YAG) 81 9 10 11 12 Tri-phosphor Fluorescent 82 F32T8 Tri-phosphor 85 BSY + R LED 93 13 14 Halogen MR16 99 Incandescent 100 Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 35
    • Color Rendering/Color Quality In Real Life CRI = 62 CRI = 93 Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 36
    • LED Reliability, Lumen Maintenance Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 37
    • LED Reliability Testing • LEDs are semiconductor components that happen to emit light • Most LED manufacturers conduct the traditional standardized semiconductor component reliability testing on their LEDs (http://www.cree.com/products/pdf/XLamp_Reliability.pdf) • Test methods vary among suppliers. Get the data! Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 38
    • Power LED White Point Stability Over Time • All power LED suppliers use different phosphor process, so color shift will vary. Get the test data! • Low power LEDs will be different also (usually shift more). Warm White XR-E Chromaticity Shifting during 85C High Temp Operating Life Test 0.010 If = 700mA 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002 v' 0.000 -0.010 -0.008 -0.006 -0.004 -0.002 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010 -0.002 -0.004 -0.006 1008 hours 3145 hours -0.008 4507 hours 5087 hours -0.010 4-step Macadam u' 7-step Macadam Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 39
    • LED Lifetime vs Lumen Maintenance 110% 100% 90% Lumen Output (%) 100 W Incandescent 5mm LED 80% 42W CFL 50 W Tungsten Halide 70% 400 W Metal Halide 25 W T8 Fluorescent Lighting-class LED 60% 50% 40% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Operating Time (k hrs) Courtesy LRC, Rensellaer Polytechnic Institute • Lighting-class LEDs become dimmer over time with no catastrophic failure • End of life defined by the LED becoming too dim – needed to define Lumen Maintenance (L70) • Not all LED types have a long L70 or lifetime Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 40
    • Lumen Maintenance Definition Definition: change in light output of a light source over operational life, relative to initially measured light output Lxx = time to xx% of original light output • L70 = time to 70% of original light output • L50 = time to 50% of original light output How many hours until L70 is reached for LEDs? 50000 or longer? Lumen Maintenance: Hypothetical HID Lamp Traditional light 110% sources gradually 100% dim then fail catastrophically Lumen Output (%) 90% (“burn out”) 80% 70% L70 = 10,000 hours 60% 50% 40% 0 5 10 15 20 25 Operating Time (k hrs) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 41
    • 40,000 Hour / 4.5 Year XLamp Long-Term Data • Low temp (25ºC) testing is a good surrogate for At lower ambient air temperature, LEDs hardly depreciate at all. the LED chip depreciation – 1-2% @ TJ = 65ºC Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 42
    • Predicting L70 • Widely adopted ASSIST method and exponential curve fitting • L70 is extrapolated from real measurement data • Is this accurate? Do all supplier’s LEDs degrade the same? Measured Data Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 43
    • LED Lumen Maintenance Standards • The Illumination Engineering Society of North America published IES LM-80-2008 12 months ago to characterize the Lumen Maintenance aspect of LED semiconductor components – For fixture companies to obtain Energy Star approval rating – Helps define a standard test method between all LED suppliers • Note: Lumen Maintenance ≠ LED Lifetime. The IESNA SSL sub-committee (TM-21) is now working to develop an accurate algorithm for modeling long term LED behavior Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 44
    • LED Test Configuration Per IES LM-80-2008 • During test, the temperature of the solder pad of the lamps and the air around the lamps is the same • Per LM-80, − For 55ºC testing, the TSP of the lamps and air are both at 55ºC − For 85ºC testing, the TSP of the lamps and air are both at 85ºC Temperature of ambient around lamps is actively controlled by air flowing through chamber Lamps are mounted to MCPCB’s. Temperature of solder pad of lamps is independently actively controlled by fluid flowing through heat sink. Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 45
    • LED Lumen Maintenance Critical Parameters 1. TAIR Ambient Air Temperature 2. TJ Junction Temperature 3. TSP / TC / TS Solder-Point Temperature / Case Temperature 4. IF Forward Current / Drive Current Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 46
    • High Air Temperature Degrades Encapsulant • Cree now understands that the silicone-based encapsulants used in the industry degrade when exposed to high temperatures • Degradation comes from organic pendant groups (e.g. CH3, C6H5, -OH) that can off-gas or be trapped in the matrix • The higher the air temperature, the more the encapsulant will degrade, the more light lost Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 47
    • Encapsulants Degrade Even Without Lighting the LED • The out-diffusion of volatiles from silicone may be causing the refractive index of encapsulant to decrease • As the refractive index decreases the critical angle increases allowing less light to be emitted from the chip Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 48
    • Cree Power LED Lifetime Model - TM21 Consideration • Degradation in first 5,000 hours is mostly due to degradation in the silicone encapsulant • After 5,000 hours, this mechanism drops out and the slower chip degradation dominates • We see no early life failures in our XLamp systems Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 49
    • L70 Lifetime Prediction – TAIR = 35ºC Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 50
    • L70 Lifetime Prediction – IF = 350 mA Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 51
    • LED Lumen Maintenance Summary • Cree has accumulated millions of XLamp XR-E LED lamp device hours of long-term data under both LM-80-compliant conditions and other test configurations • The effects of TAIR, TJ, TSP and IF on long-term lumen maintenance have been closely studied and are understood • Cree has observed that the lumen maintenance characteristics of the XLamp XR-E white LED lamps are different in the first 5,000 hours (called Period A) than in the time period following 5,000 hours (called Period B) • A “best fit” algorithm was developed to accurately model this behavior, based on critical parameters TAIR, TJ, TSP and IF • This algorithm is likely to be different for every LED lamp system (e.g. XLamp XP, MC, Rebel, Dragon, NS6, etc…) • L70 Lifetime Prediction ≠ LM-80 Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 52
    • LED Eye Safety Standards and Regulations IEC/EN 60825-1: Safety of laser products • All Cree LED packaging still references this standard 1. The scope of IEC 60825-1 is limited to the end system, not the component. This makes sense because our customers can add optics that can either increase or decrease the eye safety risk of LEDs. 2. IEC removed LEDs from the scope of IEC 60825-1, so this standard no longer applies to LEDs. (Replaced by IEC 62471) 3. We have tested bare XLamp LEDs under IEC 60825-1 and all of them are rated as Class 2. We have the test report available. Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 53
    • LED Eye Safety Standards and Regulations IEC 62471: Photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems • How to evaluate photobiological safety of lamps and luminaires – Requires the lamp manufacturer (i.e., Cree) to evaluate the risk group of the lamp itself – ALSO requires the entire luminaire to be tested • Provides no guidance on how to label products • Classifications are: – Exempt – RG-1 (Low Risk) – RG-2 (Moderate Risk) – RG-3 (High Risk) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 54
    • LED Eye Safety Labeling Requirements United States IESNA/ANSI RP-27.3-07: Recommended Practice for Photobiological Safety for Lamps - Risk Group Classification and Labeling • Requires small changes to packaging & data sheet information • Also requires absolute spectral power data to be available on request – Eye Safety application note coming soon to provide this “on request” data in one place online & explain relevant standards EU • Currently most states may use IEC 62031:2008 LED Modules for General Lighting – Safety Specifications • Our understanding is that EU is moving to adopt IEC 62471 in its place • Labeling standard may be coming soon and may require another change to labels / data sheets separate from ANSI RP-27 Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 55
    • SSL Standards Status Status of ANSI, IESNA, and CIE Solid State Lighting Standards (Partial List) Comment Projected Standard Draft Comment Resolution Publication IESNA RP-16 X X X Complete Definitions ANSI BSR C78.377A, X X X Complete Chromaticity IESNA LM 79, X X X Complete Luminous Flux IESNA LM 80, X X X Complete Lumen Depreciation NEMA SSL-1, X SSL Drivers NEMA LSD-44 & 45, (SSL-2) X X SSL Interconnect NEMA SSL-3, X LED Binning TM-21, X Lumen Maintenance Extrapolation Method NEMA-ALA Joint White Paper X Definition of Functional & Decorative Lighting IESNA LM-xx, X LED Light Engine & Lamp Measurement CIE S009, X X Photobiological Safety Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 56
    • List of SSL Standards In Progress (4/2009) • Additional primary standards identified or underway – CIE TC1-69 Color Quality Scale (new CRI type metric) – C82.SSL1 LED Drivers – UL 8750 Safety – TM-21 Lumen Maintenance Extrapolation Method – LM-XX1 Methods for the Measurements of High Power LEDs – LM-XX2 LED “Light Engine” Measurements (PIF for approval) – LM-XX2 Photometric Testing of Outdoor LED Luminaires (based on LM-10/31) – RP-16 Additional LED Definitions – C78.SSL2 LED Sub-assembly Interfaces – C78.SSL3 Binning Standards – C78.SSL4 Form Factors – ANSI SSL2 LSD-45 Sockets & Interconnects Consistency Standard – ANSI C82.4 Driver Performance Standard – CIE TC2-46 CIE/ISO LED Intensity Measurements – CIE TC2-50 Optical Properties of LED Arrays – CIE TC2-58 Luminance and Radiance of LEDs – IEEE P1789 – Recommended Practices of Modulating Current in High Brightness LEDs for Mitigating Health Risks to Viewers – IEC SC 34A – Performance Standard for LED Lamps – IEC SC 34A 62031:2008 LED Modules – Safety – IEC SC 34C 61347-2-13:2006 – Lamp Controlgear – Part 2-13: DC or AC Controlgear for LED Modules – IEC SC 34A IEC 62560 Self-Ballasted LED Lamps – IEC SC 34A <tbd> LED Lamps > 50 V – Safety Specs • Cree XLamps XPE Power LEDs are UL Recognized – Pass UL8750 proposed safety testing Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 57
    • Cree LED Components Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 58
    • High-Bright LED Product Families P4 P2 Round Screen Master P2 Oval PLCC/SMD Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 59
    • P2 Round – 5mm • Single Color Signs: – C503 series has been the most popular • Available in Red, Green, Blue, Amber, & White – Amber/Red have found success in transportation and roadway signs ° ° • New min 15° & 30° amber will be coming out soon targeted towards the transportation market – Typical applications for White include: • C503 = ° 15° Torch/Flashlight • C512 = ° 25° Torch/Flashlight – Garden Light • C513 = ° 55° Advertisement Boxes • C543 = ° 20° Garden Light • C534 = 140°° Garden Light • C535 = 110°° Garden Light Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 60
    • P2 Oval – 4mm & 5mm • Full Color Video Screens: – C4SMF-RJS, C4SMF-GJS, C4SMF-BJS – C4SMG-RJS, C4SMG-GJS,C4SMG-BJS • The Right LED for the right application – C5SM • Available in R/G/B/Amber • Different brightness family available ° ° • 110°x40° viewing angle – ScreenMaster family has a matched RGB far field pattern – C566 series • Red/Amber for monochrome displays ° ° • 70°x35° viewing angle Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 61
    • Product Family – P4 • CP41 series – Round lens • Normal Lambertian pattern – Available in R/G/B/A/W – Various Viewing Angles • CP42 series – Concave lens • Batwing radiation pattern – Available in R/G/A • CP43 series – Oval lens ° ° • 90°x35° viewing angle – Available in Red/Amber pg. 62 Copyright © 2009, Cree, Inc. Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 62
    • Product Family – PLCC families (Full Color) • CLP6C-FKB 6050 (6mm x 5.5mm) package – R(560-1120mcd), G(1120-2240mcd) & B(280-560mcd) • CLP6S-FKW 6050 (6mm x 5.5mm) package – R(710-1800mcd), G(710-1800mcd) & B(280-710mcd) • CLV1A-FKW 3228 (3.2mm x 2.8mm) package – R(355-900mcd), G(560-1400mcd) & B(180-450mcd) • CLPPA 3228 (3.2mm x 2.8mm) package – R(180-450mcd), G(280-710mcd) & B(71-180mcd) • CLV6A-FKB (5.5mm x 5.5mm) package – First SMT LED with IPx5 rating – Water resistant – No polycarbonate cover needed for outdoor color display Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 63
    • Product Family – PLCC families (Single Color) • CLP6C 6050 (6mm x 5.5mm) • PLCC4: – Red(3550-7100mcd) – CLM2B ° with lens (60° VA) – Amber(3550-9000mcd) • Red (2240-5600mcd) • Amber (3550-9000mcd) • CLM6S 3533 (3.5mm x 3.3mm) – CLM2T ° with lens (60° VA) – Green(1120-2800mcd) • Amber (1120-2800mcd) – Blue(355-900mcd) • CLM6T 3533 (3.5mm x 3.3mm) – Red (710-1800mcd) • CLM4B 3227 (3.2mm x 2.7mm) – -AKB: Amber(1120-2800mcd) (black • PLCC2: face) – CLM3C 2720 (2.7mm x 2.0mm) – -GKW: Green(1400-3550mcd) • Red (560-1400mcd) – -BKW: Blue(355-900mcd) – -PKW: Orange(1120-2800mcd) • Amber (355-900mcd) – RKW: Red(1120-2800mcd) – CLM3S 2720 (2.7mm x 2.0mm) – -AKW: Amber(1120-2800mcd) • Blue(112-355mcd) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 64
    • Product Family – PLCC families (Single Color) • CLM4S-DKB 3228 (3.2mm x 2.8mm) package – Red(140-355mcd) & Green(280-900mcd) • CLM4S-DKW 3228 (3.2mm x 2.8mm) package – Red(140-355mcd) & Green(280-900mcd) • CLM4TS-RDK 3227 (3.2mm x 2.7mm) package – Red(560-1400mcd) • CLM1B 3227 (3.2mm x 2.7mm) package – Blue(280-710mcd) & Green(710-2240mcd) – Red(450-1120mcd) & Amber(355-900mcd) • CLM1S 3227 (3.2mm x 2.7mm) package – Blue(112-355mcd) & Green(355-1120mcd) • CLM1T 3227 (3.2mm x 2.7mm) package – Red(280-560mcd) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 65
    • Product Family – PLCC families (White) • CLN6A 5050 Package (5mm x 5mm) • CLM3C 2720 (2.7mm x 2.0mm) package – CW = 60.5-101.8 lm • CW = 1,400-3,550mcd – WW = 51-101.8 lm • WW = 1,120-2,800mcd • CLM3A 2720 (2.7mm x 2.0mm) package • CLP6B 6050 (6mm x 5.5mm) package • Cool White = 1,120-2,240mcd – CW = 7,100-18,000mcd • CLM3S 2720 (2.7mm x 2.0mm) package – WW = 7,100-14,000mcd • CW = 355-1,120mcd • CLP6S 6050 (6mm x 5.5mm) package – CW = 3,550-7,100mcd / WW = 2,800- 7,100mcd • CLA1A no lens, 3228 (3.2mm x 2.8mm) package • CLM1C 3227 (3.2mm x 2.7mm) package – CW = 1,800-4,500mcd • CW = 710-1,800mcd – WW = 1,400-3,550mcd • CLM1S 3227 (3.2mm x 2.7mm) package • CLA2A 2 die, 3228 (3.2mm x 2.8mm) • WW = 355-1,120mcd package – CW = 2,240-5,600mcd Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 66
    • HB – Smart Part Numbering System Single Color: CAAAB-DEG-ZHHKKMNT RGB: CAAAB-DEG-ZHhJjKkLlMmT Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 67
    • Which HB LED to use (and where)? • Why use Round LEDs? • Why Use Oval LEDs? – Mostly used in Single – Full Color Video Displays color signs – Wider viewing angle – Variety of viewing angles ° ° ° • 110°x45°, 70°x35° ° ° ° ° ° ° (15°, 23°, 30°, 50°, >70°) – Screen master series has a – Available in R/G/B/A/W matched RGB field pattern – 3mm & 5mm available – 4mm & 5mm available • P4 LEDs – • SMD / PLCC package – Used more for Channel Letters – SMD 3-in-1 for Full Color Video and Automotive and – White PLCC for linear lighting Advertising Boxes & light bulb applications – Different lenses for various – New IPx5 rated (outdoor) radiation patterns – Black Face & White face/body – PLCC2/4/6 Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 68
    • High-Power XLamp LED Product Families Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 69
    • What are Lighting-Class LEDs? • 120+ LPW Flux & • Energy Savings Efficacy • Small source size Only (direct light where Lighting-Class needed) LEDs have the light output, • ANSI chromaticity efficacy, quality of light bins & sub-bins and reliability to replace Quality • Consistent reels of traditional lighting sources of Light LEDs • High standard CRI • Color point stability • Energy Star approved lumen maintenance Reliability • Lifetime prediction • Maintenance Avoidance Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 70
    • Cree XLamp LED Product Portfolio – White Single Die Multiple Die XLamp XR-C XR-E XP-C XP-E XP-G MC-E MX-6 Footprint 7.0 x 9.0 3.45 x 3.45 7.0 x 9.0 6.5 x 5.0 (mm) Max Up to 700 mA 500 mA 500 mA 700 mA 1000 mA 350 mA Current 1000 mA (per LED) Viewing 90° 90° 110° 115° 125° 110° 120° Angle LM-80 accepted LM-80 accepted LM-80 accepted Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 71
    • XLamp XR-E & XR-C White • Long history of LED innovation and reliability: 2006 First lighting-class cool white LED 2007 First lighting-class warm white LED First LED offered in ANSI C78.377A chromaticity bins First 100 lumen cool white LED to ship in volume 2009 Approved as DOE Energy Star SSL compliant for lumen maintenance • Tens of millions of LEDs shipping per quarter • Lighting up LED industry’s most high-profile installations Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 72
    • XLamp XP-E & XP-C White • Small footprint device • Symmetric design offers matching mechanical and optical center – Improves optical efficiency – More efficient secondary optics – Easier manufacturing Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 73
    • XLamp XP-E White Characteristics & Features Cool White Neutral White Warm White CCT (K) 10,000K – 5,000K 5,000K – 3,700K 3,700K – 2,600K Viewing Angle 115º 115º 115º Thermal Resistance (ºC/W) 9 9 9 Max Current (mA) 700 700 700 Typical Vf @ 350 mA (V) 3.2 3.2 3.2 Features • ANSI-compatible chromaticity bins • Accepted by U.S. DOE for ENERGY STAR lumen maintenance • Electrically neutral thermal path • High maximum LED junction temperature: 150ºC • Unlimited floor life at ≤30ºC / 85% RH • Reflow solderable JEDEC J-STD-020C compatible • RoHS and REACH-compliant • UL-recognized component (E326295) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 74
    • XLamp XP-C White Characteristics & Features Cool White Neutral White Warm White CCT (K) 10,000K – 5,000K 5,000K – 3,700K 3,700K – 2,600K Viewing Angle 110º 110º 110º Thermal Resistance (ºC/W) 12 12 12 Max Current (mA) 500 500 500 Typical Vf @ 350 mA (V) 3.4 3.4 3.4 Features • ANSI-compatible chromaticity bins • Electrically neutral thermal path • High maximum LED junction temperature: 150ºC • Unlimited floor life at ≤30ºC / 85% RH • Reflow solderable JEDEC J-STD-020C compatible • RoHS and REACH-compliant • UL-recognized component (E326295) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 75
    • XLamp XP-G White • Raises the bar of LED performance – Up to 367 lumens (111 LPW) @ 1000 mA – Reduce system cost with fewer LEDs & fewer optics • Unbeatable efficacy at low current – Up to 132 LPW typical @ 350 mA – Smaller / fewer batteries or solar cells Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 76
    • XLamp XP-G Characteristics Cool White 8,300K – Min. 5,000K CCT (K) 8,300K – 5,000K Flux Bin 51, 53, 50 Viewing Angle 125º R5 (H) 139 Thermal Resistance (ºC/W) 6 R4 (G) 130 Max Current (mA) 1000 R3 (F) 122 R2 (E) 114 Typical Vf @ 350 mA (V) 3.0 Features • ANSI-compliant chromaticity bins • Electrically neutral thermal path • High maximum LED junction temperature: 150ºC • Reflow solderable JEDEC J-STD-020C compatible • REACH and RoHS-compliant • UL-recognized component (E326295) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 77
    • XLamp XP-C/XP-E/XP-G White Standard Order Codes 10,000K – 5,000K – 4,200K – 3,500K – 3,200K – 2,900K – Min. 5,000K 4,200K 3,500K 3,200K 2,900K 2,700K Flux Bin 01, 02, 03, … E3, F4, E4 F5, E5 F6, E6 F7, E7 F8 S2 (J)* 148 R5 (H) 139 XP-G R4 (G) 130 XP-E & XP-G R3 (F) 122 XP-E R2 (E) 114 XP-E & XP-C Q5 (D) 107 107 XP-C Q4 (C) 100 100 100 Q3 (B) 93.9 93.9 93.9 93.9 Q2 (A) 87.4 87.4 87.4 87.4 87.4 P4 (9) 80.6 80.6 80.6 80.6 80.6 80.6 P3 (8) 73.9 73.9 73.9 73.9 73.9 73.9 P2 (7) 67.2 67.2 67.2 67.2 N4 (6) 62.0 62.0 62.0 N3 (5) Minimum luminous flux @ 350 mA (lm) 56.8 56.8 * Limited quantities Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 78
    • XLamp XPC/XPE/XPG Part Numbering System LEDs are purchased with Order Code; Bin Code appears on reel Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 79
    • XLamp MX-6 White The new lighting-class standard for indoor LED lighting • Best color consistency – ANSI warm white sub-bins (75% smaller than ANSI quarter-bins) • Best efficacy – High lumen output with low forward voltage (3.3V typ) • Drop-in upgrade for Nichia NS6/NS3 – Better thermal and electrical performance, same footprint Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 80
    • XLamp MX-6 White Characteristics & Features Cool White Warm White CCT (K) 8.300K – 4,300K 4,300K – 2,600K Viewing Angle 120º 120º Thermal Resistance (ºC/W) 5 5 Max Current (mA) 350 350 Typical Vf @ 300 mA (V) 3.3 3.3 Typical Vf @ 350 mA (V) 3.4 3.4 Features • ANSI-compliant chromaticity bins • Electrically neutral thermal path • High maximum LED junction temperature: 150ºC • Reflow solderable JEDEC J-STD-020C compatible • REACH and RoHS-compliant Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 81
    • XLamp MX-6 White Standard Order Codes 8,300K – 5,000K – 4,000K 4,000K – 3,200K – 2,900K – Min. 5,000K 4,000K 3,200K 2,900K 2,700K Flux Bin 51, 53,50 DZ,F4, E4, F5 E5 F6, E6 F7, E7 F8 Q5 (D) 107 [122] Q4 (C) 100 [114] 100 [114] Q3 (B) 93.9 [107] 93.9 [107] 93.9 [107] Q2 (A) 87.4 [100] 87.4 [100] 87.4 [100] 87.4 [100] P4 (9) 80.6 [92] 80.6 [92] 80.6 [92] 80.6 [92] P3 (8) 73.9 [84] 73.9 [84] P2 (7) 67.2 [77] Minimum luminous flux @ 300 mA [Calculated min @ 350 mA] (lm) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 82
    • XLamp MX6 Part Numbering System LEDs are purchased with Order Code; Bin Code appears on reel Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 83
    • XLamp MC-E White • Cree’s 4 power chip LED package • Offers 4x the flux of XLamp XR-E in the same footprint and with the same lighting class performance • Can reduce total LED system cost by reducing the number of LEDs & optics Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 84
    • XLamp MC-E White Characteristics & Features Cool White Neutral White Warm White CCT (K) 10,000K – 5,000K 5,000K – 3,700K 3,700K – 2,600K Viewing Angle 110º 110º 110º Thermal Resistance (ºC/W) 3 3 3 700 700 700 Max Current (mA) (per die) (per die) (per die) 3.2 3.2 3.2 Typical Vf @ 350 mA (V) (per die) (per die) (per die) Features • Accepted by U.S. DOE for ENERGY STAR lumen maintenance • Electrically neutral thermal path • High maximum LED junction temperature: 150ºC • Reflow solderable JEDEC J-STD-020C compatible • RoHS and REACH-compliant Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 85
    • XLamp MC-E White Standard Order Codes 10,000K – 5,000K – 4,200K – 3,500K – 3,200K – 2,900K – Min. 5,000K 4,200K 3,500K 3,200K 2,900K 2,700K Flux Bin 01, 02, 03, … E3, F4, E4 F5, E5 F6, E6 F7, E7 F8 M 430 K 370 370 370 J 320 320 320 320 H 280 280 280 G 240 240 Minimum luminous flux @ 350 mA (lm) Flux and chromaticity are measured with each LED die connected to independent drive circuits at 350 mA. The flux and chromaticity are measured with all LEDs lit simultaneously. Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 86
    • XLamp MCE Part Numbering System LEDs are purchased with Order Code; Bin Code appears on reel Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 87
    • Cree XLamp LED Product Portfolio – Color Single Die Multiple Die XLamp XR-C XR-E XP-E MC-E Footprint 7.0 x 9.0 3.45 x 3.45 7.0 x 9.0 (mm) Max Up to Up to Up to 700 mA Current 700 mA 1000 mA 1000 mA (per LED) Royal Blue Royal Blue Royal Blue Blue Blue Blue A1 (RGB CW) Green Green Green Colors Amber Amber B1 (RGB NW) Red-Orange Red-Orange Red Red Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 88
    • XLamp XP-E Color • Breakthrough color flux output – 20% brighter than XLamp XR-C Amber, Red, Red-Orange – 6% brighter than XLamp XR-E Royal Blue, Blue, Green • Small footprint device • Compatible with Lumileds Rebel optics • Symmetric design offers matching mechanical and optical center – Improves optical efficiency – More efficient secondary optics – Easier manufacturing Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 89
    • XLamp XP-E Color Characteristics & Features Royal Red- Blue Green Amber Red Blue Orange DWL (nm) 450-465 465-485 520-535 585-595 610-620 620-630 Viewing Angle 130º 130º 130º 130º 130º 130º Thermal Resistance (ºC/W) 9 9 9 15 15 15 Max Current (mA) 1000 1000 1000 500 700 700 Typical Vf @ 350 mA (V) 3.2 3.2 3.4 2.2 2.2 2.2 Features • Electrically neutral thermal path • High maximum LED junction temperature: 150ºC • Unlimited floor life at ≤30ºC / 85% RH • Reflow solderable JEDEC J-STD-020C compatible • RoHS and REACH-compliant • UL-recognized component (E326295) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 90
    • XLamp XP-E Color Standard Order Codes Royal Blue Blue Green Amber Red- Red Min. Min. Orange Flux Flux Bin 450-465 Bin 465-485 520-535 585-595 610-620 620-630 Q4 100 Q3 93.9 Q2 87.4 P4 80.6 15 425 P3 73.9 14 350 P2 67.2 67.2 N4 62.0 N3 56.8 Minimum radiant flux @ N2 51.7 51.7 51.7 350 mA (mW) M3 45.7 45.7 45.7 M2 39.8 39.8 39.8 K3 35.2 35.2 K2 30.6 30.6 30.6 J0 23.5 Minimum luminous flux @ 350 mA (lm) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 91
    • XLamp MC-E Color (RGBW) • Unique RGBW LED combination • High lumen output from a single device – Up to 500 lm total when driven @ 700mA per die • Reduces space between color LED die to almost nothing – Small, multi-color optical source for efficient color mixing – Reduces number of optics • Lower system component count can reduce total system complexity & cost Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 92
    • XLamp MC-E Color Characteristics & Features Configuration A1 B1 Color Blue Green Red White Blue Green Red White DWL (nm) / CCT 450-465 520-535 620-630 6500K 450-465 520-535 620-630 4000K Min. Luminous Flux 8.2 67.2 30.6 95 8.2 67.2 30.6 80 @ 350 mA (lm) Typical Vf @ 350 mA (V) 3.2 3.4 2.2 3.2 3.2 3.4 2.2 3.2 Max Current (mA) 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 Viewing Angle 115º 115º Thermal Resistance (ºC/W) 3 3 Features • Electrically neutral thermal path • High maximum LED junction temperature: 150ºC • Reflow solderable JEDEC J-STD-020C compatible • RoHS-compliant Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 93
    • MPW-EZW (Easy White) • 8-8-8 chip configuration • 2700K, 3000K, 3500K • No CCT binning req’d; 4-step MacAdam ellipse • LF binned at 250mA – ~1250 lm @ 2700K – ~1350 lm @ 3000K – ~1450 lm @ 3500K • Up to 20W power dissipation ° – 2°C/W RTH • Typical CRI: 80 • >50,000 hrs L70 per IES LM-80-2008 • 1Q10 general release Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 94
    • MPL-EZW The Big Benefit Let Cree do the mixing for you...EasyWhite • Consistent color • No complicated mixing recipes • Reduced inventory • Ease of manufacturing • No Special Bin Order Codes (reduce cost) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 95
    • Cree LED Target Markets Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 96
    • The Market Outlook HB LED Market* General Illumination Market** Revenue (Billions) Revenue (Billions) Conventional Lighting LED Lighting LED market growth is being driven by two major trends: Notebook & TV backlighting (short cycle) General Lighting (long cycle) ** Source: Philips Lighting Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 97
    • LED Components – Market Segments Indoor Lighting Portable Lighting Outdoor Lighting LED Light Bulbs Transportation & EVL Video Screens & Signs Architectural Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 98
    • Current LED Lighting Applications Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 99
    • Video Screens – High Bright LEDs Screen Master P2 Oval C4SMG C4SMF C5SMF Matched Radiation Red / Green / Blue 4mm – 100°x45° 4mm – 100°x45° 5mm – 100°x40° 12 – 16 mm pitch 16+ mm pitch 20+ mm pitch SMD – Black Face CLV1A-FKB CLV6A-FKB Full Color (Red / Green / Blue) – Vertical Alignment PLCC4 – 120° PLCC6 – 120° 4 – 10 mm pitch 10 – 16 mm pitch IPx5 rated (water resistant) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 100
    • Signs, Signals & Channel Letters – HB LEDs P2 5mm Round P2 5mm Oval C503B-xAx C503B-xBx C503B-xCx C566C-xFx A/R/G/B A/R A/R/G/B A/R/G/B 15° 23° 30° 70°x35° P4 Round CP41B-xxS CP41B-xxS CP42B-xKS A/R G/B/W A/R/G 40° / 70° / 100° 60° / 70° / 90° 120° Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 101
    • Outdoor (Area) Lighting is a Diverse Space “Cobra Head” Parking/Canopy/ Industrial Parking/ Ornamental/ Low Bay “Wall Pack” “Shoe Box” Pole Top • 60 million unit installed base in North America alone • Most use one of three HID lamp types: Metal LPS HPS LED Halide “Boiler Plate” Efficacy (LPW) 130 95 70 105 Delivered Efficacy* (LPW) 70 51 38 75 CRI <5 22 60-80 70-80 Typical CCT 1800 2000 3000-4000 Any Lifetime (hours) 16k 24-30k 10-20k >50k * Incl. 60% CU + 10% ballast factor for HID; 85% CU, 88% driver efficiency, -10% thermal equilibrium for LED Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 102
    • Outdoor Lighting – XLamp Power LEDs Outdoor Lighting XLamp XR-E XLamp XP-G XLamp MC-E Cool White (75 CRI) – 5000K-10,000K Up to 107 lm min Up to 130 lm min Up to 430 lm min 93 lm/W 124 lm/W 96 lm/W Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 103
    • Making the Business Case Work Initial applications will be driven by maintenance avoidance & energy savings – Street & Parking lot lighting – Parking garages – Atrium – Tunnels – Hazardous work areas Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 104
    • 150W MH Street Light Example Light Source Comparison 2-3 Year Payback For End Customer $1,200 Cumulative Lifecycle Costs 150W $1,000 Metal Halide Cumulative Lifecycle LED Cost (350mA) Cumulative Lifecycle LED Cost $800 (700mA) $600 $400 $200 $- 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 LEDs make a compelling maintenance and energy savings value proposition now Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 105
    • Attractive Financial Proposition For Fixture Co. 10-year Cost of Ownership* 150W MH Street Light $1,200 Labor Total Fixture CoO* Bulb $1,000 Labor Maintenance Bulb Events $800 Labor Bulb $600 Energy Energy $400 $200 LED Metal Initial Fixture Fixture Halide Fixture Sale $0 Conventional LED Fixture HID Fixture Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 106
    • U.S. DOE Gateway Project Rayley’s Supermarket, Chino, CA Before: 346W Metal Halide After: 149 W Bi-level LED System 52W when dimmed • 70% Energy Savings • 3.3/4.7 year simple payback (new construction/retrofit) • Perceived improvement in safefty http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/ssl/gatewaydemos_results.html Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 107
    • Tianjin Polytechnic University • 2,000 roadway luminaires installed • Primary motivation: Energy Savings Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 108
    • NC State University Parking Deck Before: HID Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 109
    • NC State University Parking Deck After: 27% Energy Savings Vastly Improved Lighting Less Fixtures (wider spacing) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 110
    • Indoor Lighting Indoor Lighting XLamp XP-E XLamp MC-E XLamp MX-6 MPL-EZW Warm White (80 CRI) – 2600K-3700K Up to 1365 lm @ Up to 93.9 lm min Up to 320 lm min Up to 87.4 lm min 250mA Neutral White (75 CRI) – 3700K-5000K Up to 100 lm min Up to 370 lm min Up to 93.9 lm min Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 111
    • Indoor Applications • Different requirements than outdoor – Warm White Color Temperature (2700-3000K) required – High CRI (>80) – Lamp maintenance not a driving factor – High style content – Focus on energy, green – Different market channels, cost expectations (consumer Yes, these are LED! product) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 112
    • Indoor: Restaurants • 80% Energy Savings • Excellent Color Rendering Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 113
    • Residential Installations Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 114
    • High-End Retail Hotel Installation Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 115
    • LED Light Bulb & Landscape Lighting Linear Tube CLA1A-xKW CLP6B-xKW XLamp MX-6 Cool / Warm White 3.2 x 2.8 mm 6.0 x 5.0 mm 6.5 x 5.0 mm 35 mA max 150 mA max 350 mA max Light Bulb XLamp MX-6 XLamp XP-E XLamp MC-E MPL-EZW Cool / Warm White Cool / Neutral / Warm White Warm White 6.5 x 5.0 mm 3.45 x 3.45 mm 7.0 x 9.0 mm 13 x 12 mm 350 mA max 700 mA max 700 mA max (per 250mA per die die) Landscape Lighting C503D-WAN C535A-WJN CP41B-WxS Cool White P2 Round – 15° P2 Round – 110° P4 Round – 60° / 90° 30000 mcd typ 1400 mcd typ 7000 mlm typ Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 116
    • Standard LED Components LED bulbs Happening Now • Longer life • Much better efficacy than incandescent; lower efficacy than CFL • Generally pretty low CRI (~75-82, 3000K) • Today, light output matches only the lowest wattage incumbents Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 117
    • MR16 Using Standard LED Components 2008 6500K 3000K 2011 2008 2011 2009 2010 2012 2009 2010 2012 System Wattage System Wattage Watts Equivalent* Watts Equivalent* 1.0 84 92 101 112 123 1.0 63 69 76 84 92 2.0 161 177 195 214 235 2.0 121 133 146 161 177 3.0 231 254 279 307 338 3.0 173 191 210 231 254 4.0 294 324 356 392 431 20W 4.0 221 243 267 294 323 5.0 351 386 425 467 514 5.0 263 289 318 350 385 20W 6.0 401 441 485 533 587 6.0 300 331 364 400 440 Limitations 7.0 444 488 537 590 649 35W 7.0 333 366 403 443 487 L70 8.0 480 528 580 638 702 8.0 360 396 435 479 527 35W 9.0 509 560 616 677 745 9.0 382 420 462 508 559 10.0 531 585 643 707 778 50W 10.0 399 438 482 531 584 • 20W halogen equivalent* @ 3000K possible now • 35W equivalent* @ 3000K looks possible later • 50W equivalent* @ 3000K looks challenging • Thermal limitations inherit to the form factor * Lumen equivalence, CBCP target probably be more practical Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 118
    • Portable High-End XLamp XR-E XLamp XP-G XLamp MC-E Cool White 7.0 x 9.0 mm 3.45 x 3.45 mm 7.0 x 9.0 mm Up to 107 lm min Up to 130 lm min Up to 430 lm min Mainstream XLamp XP-E XLamp XP-C CLN6A-WKW C503D-WAN Cool White 3.45 x 3.45 mm 3.45 x 3.45 mm 5.0 x 5.0 mm 5mm 15° Up to 114 lm min Up to 93.9 lm min Up to 85.6 lm min 30,000 mcd typ Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 119
    • Architectural, Transportation – XLamp LEDs Architectural, Transportation Color Lighting XLamp XP-E XLamp MC-E Red, Green, Blue, Amber RGBW Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 120
    • Water Cube at Beijing Olympics 2008 Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 121
    • Bird’s Nest at Beijing Olympics 2008 Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 122
    • LED Design Considerations Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 123
    • Electrical, Thermal & Optical: All Affect Light Output • Integrated systems approach; Electrical fixture designed around LEDs • LED light is different than existing light technologies • Not intuitive at first Thermal Delivered Delivered lumens LPW • These charts are on all LED data sheets; familiarization with them is essential to good results Optical Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 124
    • LED Luminaire Design Will Be Different… Conventional Lighting LED Reflector Light Heat • LED Light is inherently directional • LED thermal path accomplished by conduction – No IR, no UV in the light beam • Retrofit of conventional fixtures may not leverage all the benefits of LEDs Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 125
    • Process for Designing LEDs into Luminaires 1. Define lighting requirements of application 2. Define design goals for LED luminaire 3. Estimate efficiencies of optical, thermal and electrical subsystems 4. Calculate the number of LEDs needed 5. Build a prototype and test against design goals Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 126
    • 1) Define Lighting Requirements ? What kind of light is required in this application? Importance Characteristic Unit Luminous flux lumens (lm) Critical Illuminance distribution footcandles (fc) Electrical power consumption Watts (W) Luminaire aesthetics Price Lifetime hours Potentially Operating temperature °C Important Color temperature K CCT CRI Form factor Ease of installation Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 127
    • Example CFL Down Light Characterization Importance Characteristic Unit Value Luminous flux lumens (lm) 1800 Critical Illuminance distribution Lux (lm/m2) (defined in IES file) Electrical power consumption Watts (W) 23 (excluding ballast) Lifetime hours 10,000 Color temperature K CCT 4,000 Important CRI 75 Form factor 6 inch diameter can Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 128
    • Example Downlight: Critical Characteristics Fixture : Flux (lm) Power (W) Installed Ceiling Height Illuminance Distribution Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 129
    • Example CFL Downlight IES File What is an IES file? • It is basically the measurement of the far field distribution of light source (intensity) stored in ASCII format. 1800 Source lumens 3 M Mounting Height 89 Lux peak (~40 Lux ave) 73% Luminaire Efficiency Specular Reflector 26W total power Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 130
    • 2) Define SSL Design Goals ? How will this new (LED) product create value? Value: • Same amount of light • Same quality of light • Longer lifetime without maintenance Critical: Important: • Same or more light • Same quality of light (CCT & CRI) • Same or more homogenous • Same ambient temp rating distribution of light • Longer lifetime • Same or lower power consumption Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 131
    • SSL Design Goals to Replace CFL Down Light Importance Characteristic Unit Value Luminous flux lumens (lm) 1800 Critical Illuminance distribution Lux Same as example Electrical power consumption Watts (W) 23 (excluding driver) Lifetime hours 50,000 Color temperature K CCT 4,000 Important CRI 75 Form factor 6 inch diameter can Operating temperature °C 55 Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 132
    • 3) Estimate Efficiencies of Subsystems What kind of losses need to be taken into account? ? What design solutions will best minimize these losses? Electrical Design Goals • 1800 lm flux • 23 W power LED • 50,000 hour lifetime Thermal • 4,000K CCT Specs • 75 CRI • ° 55°C max temp. Optical Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 133
    • Optical Losses : LED Light is Directional High Power LED • One big advantage LED light has compared to conventional bulb lights is that LED lamps send light in one direction 90° beam angle • If an intended application only needs to send light in one direction, keep in mind only some of the total light output will be useful. Conventional Lighting • Other light will be lost to the reflector or sent in a non-useful direction in spite of the reflector. Reflector • Secondary optics will be needed if LED beam angle does not meet the application requirements. Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 134
    • Sources of Optical Loss Secondary Optics Reflector Coefficient of Utilization Lens 85%-90% Efficient Varies Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 135
    • LED Secondary Optics Secondary optics are used to modify the output beam of the LED such that the output beam of the finished lamp will efficiently meet the desired photometric specification. LED optics can be categorized into: • Reflectors • Lenses • Combinations of lens or reflector Generally speaking, lenses are more efficient in shaping the beam than reflectors. The basic functions of the secondary optics are: Diverging: Spread the emitted light Colliminating : Colliminating the light into a narrower beam. Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 136
    • LED Secondary Optics Diverging (diffusing): Spreads the light in a wider pattern Spatial Radiation Pattern for LED only Spatial Radiation Pattern for LED with Secondary Optics 1 0.8 LED with secondary optics 1.0 Relative Intensity 0.8 Relative Intensity 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0 0.0 -100 -50 0 50 100 -100 -50 0 50 100 Angle (º) Angle (º) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 137
    • LED Secondary Optics Colliminating: Focus the wide beam to narrower beam Reflector + Lens TIR Lens Lens Reflector Spatial Radiation Pattern for LED with Spatial Radiation Pattern for LED only Secondary Optics 1 1 0.8 LED with secondary optics 0.8 Relative Intensity Relative Intensity 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0 0 -100 -50 0 50 100 -100 -50 0 50 100 Angle (º) Angle (º) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 138
    • Reflectors Overview Spillover • Use reflective surface to collimate the LED light output • Have a relatively large opening and some part of the light will never hit the surface and become unmanaged (called spillover) • The result of spillover is a large area of scattered light around the main beam spot • Are easy to make and relatively inexpensive • The shape of the reflector determines beam forming − Parabolic: gathers emitting light from the focal point and redirects as parallel beam − Aspheric: directs light in wider angles, providing general flood lighting • The bigger the reflector, the better the beam control will be • The smaller the optical source size, the better a reflector can control the beam Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 139
    • Total Internal Reflection (TIR) Overview • Manages both direct and reflected light • Light travels through at least 2 surfaces (often more), before getting out of the system • Can be efficient even the size is small • Relatively expensive compared to reflector Use these surfaces to further Maximum efficiency when this shape beam pattern ray is directed to edge of outer surface Parabolic or elliptical shape to direct light Collimating Lens in front of LED Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 140
    • Typical Off-The-Shelf LED Secondary Optics Spatial Radiation Pattern for LED only 1 LED with secondary optics 0.8 Relative Intensity 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Example: 6 deg spot beam -100 -50 0 50 100 Angle (º) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 141
    • Special LED Secondary Optics Special optics (like street light, parking lot lens): Convert the lambertian beam from LED to specific distribution needed for unique applications Spatial Radiation Pattern for LED only 1 LED with secondary optics 0.8 Relative Intensity 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -100 -50 0 50 100 Angle (º) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 142
    • Potential Downlight Optical Solution Use wide beam TIP optics to achieve best efficiency and control • Slightly more narrow beam Reduces total lumens required to achieve same illuminance Only 700 Source lumens 3 M Mounting Height 100 Lux peak (~40 Lux ave) 90% Optical Efficiency Ledil LXP Wide Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 143
    • Thermal Losses Unlike traditional bulbs, light is emitted in one direction and heat goes out the other Unlike traditional 5mm LEDs, power LEDs have separate paths for electrical & heat flow Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 144
    • Where is the LED Junction? LED Junction • LED junction is located within the LED package • LED junction temperature (Tj) cannot be measured directly Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 145
    • High Power LED Thermal Resistance Thermal resistance quantifies how easily heat flows between the LED junction and the LED’s thermal path. • Lower thermal resistance = better thermal flow How to Measure Junction Temperature 1. Wait for LED(s) to reach thermal equilibrium j 2. Measure solder point temperature 3. Measure voltage & current 4. Calculate power & Tj Tj = Tsp + Rth j-sp * Power sp Rth j-sp: Thermal resistance between junction (j) and solder-point (sp) • Unit: °C/W or Kelvin/W • Lower Rth j-sp = lower temperature difference between j & sp Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 146
    • Thermal Losses Light output vs. increased junction temperature Tj Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 147
    • LED Junction Temperature vs. Lifetime • Tj affects LED lifetime & long-term lumen maintenance ° Tj (°C) L70 X 51,000 hrs X + 10 44,000 hrs X + 20 38,000 hrs Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 148
    • LED Junction temperature vs Forward Voltage • Temperature coefficient of Voltage ° – -mV/°C • As the Junction temperature increases the forward voltage decreases. Example: 10 LEDs in series Vf @ Tj 25°C = 3.3V Total voltage = 10 * 3.3 = 33V After warm up Tj = 60 °C Vf = 3.3 –(.004*35) = 3.16V Total Voltage = 10*3.16 = 31.6 This example shows that using a constant current driver is very important. Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 149
    • LED Junction temperature vs Wavelength/CCT As the Junction temperature increases, wavelength or CCT can shift Color K R e la t iv e I n t e n s it y (nm/ºC) 2 Amber .09 Red .03 Amber 1 Blue .04 Green .04 0 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 Cyan .04 Wavelength [nm] Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 150
    • Heatsink Selection/Design • Manage heat to maximize performance – Integrate heatsink into fixture housing – Used thermal pads, tapes … to achieve best coupling between PCB and heatsink – Retrofits may not perform well – Run thermal simulation to determine heatsink Rth required – Select proper PCB material, size, shape to maximize heat transfer to ambient (lowest Rth) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 151
    • Typical Power LEDs with MCPCB • MCPCB Advantages – Low Thermal Resistance – High reliability (rigid) • But can be expensive Cu top layer 35 – 70 µm Dielectric layer 70 – 200 micron σ = 0.3 – 3 W/mK Metal Clad Substrate Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 152
    • XLamp Does Work with FR4 too XLamp + - Series Isolated thermal path (electrically neutral) LED + - Circuit FR4 Copper Plane Copper Thermal Vias (50-70 um) • With its isolated thermal path, XLamp does not have any problem with shorting through the thermal plane • FR4 is easy for all manufacturers, can achieve low Rth Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 153
    • Electrical Losses 90 85 Efficiency (%) 80 75 70 65 60 0 20 40 60 80 100 Output Load (%) Generally, 85% - 90% is a good estimate for LED drivers, except for high ambient temps or long lifetime Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 154
    • LED Drivers Why do XLamp LEDs need drivers? • Light output is a function of current – To supply constant current to the LEDs • LEDs are low voltage devices – To transform AC to LED low voltage DC – High voltage DC to LED low voltage DC • To protect the LEDs from being overdriven and from transient voltages • Provide accurate dimming control Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 155
    • LED Electrical Design Goal: Control light output of LED system • LED light output varies with current 250 Relative Intensity (%) 200 150 100 50 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Forward Current (mA) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 156
    • Voltage Variation in High Power LEDs 1000 900 800 Forward Current (mA) 700 600 Datasheet 500 LED1 LED2 400 LED3 300 LED4 200 LED5 100 0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Forward Voltage (V) Vf to achieve If = 350 mA: 3.2 V – 3.4 V • Every LED lamp has a slightly different relationship between voltage & current • Very few parts perform exactly as shown on the datasheet Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 157
    • Voltage Variation in High Power LEDs Why is constant current drive important? 1000 900 800 Forward Current (mA) 700 600 Datasheet 500 LED1 LED2 400 LED3 300 LED4 200 LED5 100 0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Forward Voltage (V) If at Vf = 3.4 V: 350 mA – 675 mA Result is relative LED brightness from 100% to 165%! Constant voltage drive is NOT recommended Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 158
    • Series Array Advantages Disadvantages • All LEDs at same current and • Voltage increases linearly with same relative luminous flux number of LEDs in string • One LED failing to open circuit will cause entire string to cease light output Note: If Xlamp LED does ever fail due to internal catastrophic or thermal issue, it will usually fail as short circuit Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 159
    • Series Array (With Zener Diodes) Advantages Disadvantages • All LEDs at same current and • Voltage increases linearly with same relative luminous flux number of LEDs in string • LED failing to open circuit will • Higher cost than Series Array only affect one LED, not the entire string Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 160
    • Parallel Array Advantages Disadvantages • Many LEDs powered from just • Potential for current hogging one voltage drop • One LED failing to short circuit • One LED failing open will not will cause the entire array to affect any other LEDs cease light output Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 161
    • Series-Parallel Array Advantages Disadvantages • Relationship between number • Resistors in each string waste of LEDs and voltage is power as heat, affecting the configurable thermal design of the entire system • One LED failing to open circuit will only affect one LED string, not all LEDs Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 162
    • Constant Current LED Driver Buck Regulator AC-DC or DC-DC Advantages Disadvantages • Excellent current regulation • Higher relative cost • High efficiency • More complex circuit design • High power density • Possibly higher EMI • Precise dimming capability • Less common than constant- voltage Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 163
    • Dimming/Strobing LEDs Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) • Drive LED lamps at same peak current but at low duty cycle • Eliminates matching problems from driving at low currents • PWM frequency of at least 200 Hz – < 70 Hz produces visible flicker, – < 100 Hz: strobe effects of moving LED – > 1000 Hz: possible EMC problems • Best method for brightness control (dimming) • Applications – EVL Flashing, Beacon Strobing, Color Changing/Mixing Duty Factor (%) = ton/(ton+toff)*100 If DF=50% ton toff 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 time(ms) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 164
    • Constant Current Driver Selection Modular vs. IC-based Power Modules IC power solutions Main ready-to-use, fully tested smaller, more cost effective Advantage customers with no Best dimming, flashing, and Allows electronics knowledge to color controlling work with the LEDs Dimming, UL & IP rated, Wide VAC (120-277V) & other wide VAC (120-277V) & VDCin, >90% efficiency (DC Features VDCin, high PF, up to 90% solutions), high PF efficiency Prototyping, low volume LED high volume production or if Ideal for applications custom drive is required Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 165
    • Driver Examples AC-DC Module DC-DC IC design Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 166
    • Other Driver Considerations • Will drivers last for life of LEDs – 50000 hours usable life – Identify components at risk of early failure and substitute with longer life (cost, size, …) – De-rate component specs accordingly for extreme operation conditions; improve reliability • Does system require sealed driver (IP ratings)? • Is isolation required (for safety approvals) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 167
    • Review of Subsystem Efficiencies Subsystem Efficiency Type Optical 90% Light Thermal 85% Light Electrical 87% Power Only optical & thermal losses will affect the # of LEDs needed to meet the design goals Electrical efficiency only affects the total “wall-plug” efficiency of the luminaire Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 168
    • 4) Determine Number of LEDs ? How do I calculate how many LEDs are needed? • Calculate based on optical and thermal losses OR for an easier method • Use Cree Product Characterization Tool Register @ pct.cree.com/Register.asp Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 169
    • General Layout Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 170
    • Define the Desired Parameters Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 171
    • Select LED Type, Flux Bin and Temperature • Be careful to select the bins that exist FOR THE CCT you are seeking (e.g. E7 kit, or 7B Bin, etc) • Tj or Ts is usually an „Engineering Estimate“ Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 172
    • Select Target Lumens and Efficiencies Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 173
    • Comparing the Calculations • How does the XP-G compare to the XP- E when run at 500mA? • Second- highest bin selected. Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 174
    • Our Downlight Example Characterization Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 175
    • … Comparison to conventional sources WARM WHITE Incand Delivered Efficacy x Fixture Efficiency = 10 lm/W “17 lm/W” 58% CFL Delivered Efficacy x Fixture Efficiency = 35 lm/W “60 lm/W” 58% CA Title 24 LED Optical Efficiency 85% Delivered Efficacy x = 70 lm/W “80 lm/W” x Driver Efficiency 85% x Thermal Equilibrium 88%* Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 176
    • What Drive Current to Use? Operating Current Pros Cons • Higher efficacy (lm/W) • Less flux per LED (more Lower • Longer LED lifetime LEDs in system) • Better lumen maintenance • Reduced efficacy (lm/W) • More flux per LED (fewer • Reduced maximum Higher LEDs in system) ambient temperature OR Decreased lifetime Decision on operating current should be driven by the design goals Example down light = low drive current (350 mA) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 177
    • LED Lifetime Is Irrelevant System Design is What Creates Value, Quality Heat Sink: Linchpin of the entire system. If this is poorly designed, all the other components can be compromised Driver: Currently the weakest point of the system, but the big companies are working on this LED Lamps: Practically never fail; depreciate very slowly in a well-designed system Optical Components: Can (rarely) yellow over time and lose light; system design choice Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 178
    • Quality Matters – Optical Design & Poor LEDs Need Lighting-class LEDs Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 179
    • Quality Matters – Poor LED Selection 16.5” Lowes Time zero 1000 hours LED Puck 84.1% Drop 16.5” Linear 97.8% Drop 22” Linear 96.9% Drop Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 180
    • Quality Matters – Driver & Thermal Problems • Driver/circuit board failure • Color Shift Due to poor thermal design Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 181
    • Coping With Rapid Change in LED Performance Modular Approach to MH Source Replacement Driver Generic LED Strip Circuit (optional) Fixed Number of LEDs Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 A modular design approach can yield constant photometric output while facilitating ongoing cost reductions each time LED brightness is improved Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 182
    • Coping With Rapid Change in LED Performance Aim Ahead of the Duck… LF Distribution 0.8*$X $X 1.2*$X 0.8*$X $X 1.2*$X Prototyping with the highest performance LEDs currently available is more expensive, but can yield a more competitive and longer life product over the long term Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 183
    • Coping With Rapid Change in LED Performance Plan for BOM savings Generation 1 Generation 2 25% brighter LEDs can also mean 25% fewer LEDs. Need to plan flexibility in your driver design to accomplish this Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 184
    • Design & Specification Strategies Strategy #1 Strategy #2 • Insist on the tightest bin • Understand light, binning, available and your application needs • Pay the highest price • Do the mixing yourself in possible your fixture if the • NOT a good approach application will allow it • Save money Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 185
    • LED Roadmaps Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 186
    • DOE Roadmap 200 Efficacy (lm/W) 150 Cree cool white production 100 Cree warm white production Laboratory Projection - Cool White Commercial Product Projection - Cool White Commercial Product Projection - Warm White 50 Laboratory - Cool White Commercial Product - Cool White Commercial Product - Warm White Maximum Efficacy - Warm White Maximum Efficacy - Cool White 0 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 Year US Department of Energy 2009 Multi-Year Plan for SSL Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 187
    • How the Roadmap Really Works: Chip Improvement 150 LF @ 350mA (lumens) Next Generation 100 Current Generation 50 Last Generation Time • Major leaps forward on LF depends on major chip improvements • Incremental chip improvements, phosphor efficiency, and learning curve historically improves 1-2 LF bins as well Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 188
    • LED Performance vs. Traditional Light Sources Light Source Efficiency Trends 180 187 R&D Best 160 LED 140 Current LED 120 Lumens/watt HID 100 Linear Fluorescent 80 3 Years ago LED 60 CFL 40 20 Incandescent 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 189
    • Brightness/Efficacy Roadmap (XP-E Cool White) Lumens / LPW* 139 (R5) / 128 130 (R4) / 120 122 (R3) / 112 Oct 2009 114 (R2) / 105 107 (Q5) / 99 2008 2009 2010 * Mid-Point in Production Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 190
    • Real LED Levels of Performance (2012) 6000K 4100K 3500K 2700K Data Sheet LPW 165 136 136 107 * Typical Thermal Loss 10% 10% 10% 10% * Typical Optical Loss 10% 10% 10% 10% * Typical Driver Loss 15% 15% 15% 15% * Achievable LPW 107 88 88 70 CRI ~75 ~80 ~82 ~83 * Typical with average/good design practices • LEDs will be the most efficient mainstream source available – >100 delivered LPW roadway light possible – Indoor fixtures >80LPW (wall-plug) Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 191
    • Cree Support and Partnerships Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 192
    • Cree Support South America Services Provided GDE, Led do Brasil • Cree XLamp expertise • LED Design consulting • Customized design • LED engines Contact: Paulo Taminato • Turnkey solutions Cree Lighting Agent • Sub-assembly Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 193
    • Cree XLamp Solutions Partners Secondary Optics Drivers BrightView Technologies Allegro Carclo Austria microsystems Fraen Infinilux G&L Intersil Genius Magtech ideaLED Maxim Khatod Microchip LEDiL National Semiconductor LedLink Optics NXP LTI Optics ON Semiconductor Luminit ROHM Semiconductor Polymer Optics Zetex Semiconductors RPC Photonics Lists on Cree Website Secondary Optics http://www.cree.com/products/xlamp_part.asp Drivers http://www.cree.com/products/xlamp_drivers.asp Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 194
    • Cree Products Summary Single Die White Multiple Die White XLamp XR-C XR-E XP-C XP-E XP-G MC-E MX-6 Single Die Multiple Die XLamp XR-C XR-E XP-E MC-E Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 195
    • Copyright © 2009 Cree, Inc. pg. 196