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Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
Cree Gen Ltg Training
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Cree Gen Ltg Training

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  • 1. General Lighting
  • 2. What is light ? Spectrum of Electromagnetic Radiation H Cosmic Gamma X-rays UV Infrared Radar FM AM rays rays radio radio 10-16 10-12 10-8 10-4 0 104 108 (m) Visible Spectrum 380 (nm) 780 (nm) Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 2
  • 3. What is a lamp ? A LAMP (light source) is an emitter of electromagnetic radiation in the visible part of the energy spectrum. Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 3
  • 4. Radiometry & Photometry H • Radiometric light is specified according to its radiant energy and power without regard for the visual effects of radiation. • Photometric light is specified as radiation in terms of human visible response according to the CIE standard observer response curve (photopic luminous efficiency function) Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 4
  • 5. Terms of the industry H Luminous Flux Eye sensitivity Illuminance Luminous Intensity Luminance Color Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 5
  • 6. Luminous Flux H The amount of light radiated by a light source. Unit: lumen (lm - photometric) Watts (W - radiometric) Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 6
  • 7. Eye Sensitivity H 1,0 relative eye sensitivity 0,8 0,6 V( ) 0,4 555 nm 0,2 0 400 500 600 700 800 wavelength (nm) 1 W555nm = 683 lm Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 7
  • 8. Illuminance Definition of illuminance The amount of light falling on a unit of surface. E Unit: lux (lx=lm/m2) W/m2 Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 8
  • 9. Illuminance Typical illuminance levels in and outdoors (noon on a sunny day). 100 lux 2500 lux 5000 lux 10 000 lux 100 000 lux Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 9
  • 10. Luminous Intensity Definition of Luminous Intensity (unit: candela (lm/sr,cd), W/sr) The amount of light radiated by a light source in a given direction. 1 candela = 1 lumen per steradian Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 10
  • 11. Luminance (Brightness) Definition of Luminance (unit: candela per m2 (cd/m2)) Luminance: The amount of light radiated by a unit of apparent surface in a given direction. At same luminous flux: same luminous intensity but different luminance (brightness) Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 11
  • 12. Color Impression of the Light H The color impression of light is characterised by: •Color temperature (Tc) •Color rendition (Ri) Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 12
  • 13. Color of the Light Color Temperature Tc = 5500K Tc = 2200K Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 13
  • 14. (Correlated) Color Temperature • Incandescent (temperature of the filament) • Gas discharge (correlated color temperature) Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 14
  • 15. Luminous Flux and Color of the Light CIE Chromaticity Diagram: Black Body Line 0.5 580 3000K y 5000K 0.4 7000K A 600 10 000K D65 2000K 20 000K 0.3 770 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 x Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 15
  • 16. Color Rendition • Object spectral reflectance • Light source color distribution • Adaptation of the eye Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 16
  • 17. Color Rendition Sunlight Has a CRI of 100. When Low Pressure Sodium has a CRI less objects are illuminated with sunlight, all than 0. Objects illuminated by it all the colors look good. look brown. Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 17
  • 18. Color Rendition 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 9 10 11 12 13 14 12 13 14 Test Colors Illuminated by a source with Test Colors Illuminated by a red LED a CRI of 100, i.e. an incandescent lamp. Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 18
  • 19. Color Rendering Index (Ra) • Ra = 90 - 100 Excellent color rendering properties • Ra = 80 - 90 Good color rendering properties • Ra = 60 - 80 Moderate color rendering properties • Ra < 60 Poor color rendering properties Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 19
  • 20. White LEDs • RGB Mixing By mixing Red, Green and Blue sources any color light, including White, can be made. Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 20
  • 21. How a Phosphor LED Works The phosphor emits a yellow photon. This process is called fluorescence. If the phosphor is thin, some blue photons get through without being absorbed. Different phosphors emit different colors: blue, green, yellow, orange, red. The color of the fluorescence photon is always at a longer wavelength than the incident photon. Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 21
  • 22. White LEDs • Phosphor Conversion Approach Blue + yellow appears white. Blue emission is converted to yellow by the phosphor coating over the chip and reflector cup. The mixture of blue and yellow light appears white. Yellow phosphor coating Blue LED chip on chip and reflector cup Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 22
  • 23. Lamp Performance Terms • Efficacy • Lamp Life and Lumen Depreciation Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 23
  • 24. Lamp Efficacy Improvement lm/W 200 Low-pressure Sodium 150 High-pressure Sodium Metal Halide 100 Fluorescent Compact Fluorescent High-pressure Mercury 50 Halogen Incandescent 0 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Luminous flux (lm) Efficacy (lm/W) =———————— Power Input (W) Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 24
  • 25. Lamp Life and Lumen Depreciation 100 90 % 80 Lumen depreciation of /Colour 80 series lamps 70 60 50 0 5000 10 000 15 000 20 000 operating hours 100 survivals in % 90 80 70 Rated average lamp life (‘TL’D on HF gear) 60 50 0 5000 10 000 15 000 20 000 operating hours Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 25
  • 26. Lamp Life and Lumen Depreciation Average Rated Life • ‘The time after which 50% of a large sample batch have failed when operated under test conditions.’ Service Life • ‘Takes into account lumen maintenance curves and lamp survival curves’ Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 26
  • 27. Dimensions of Lamps and Light Emitting Area Accent lighting Localised lighting General lighting “Compact” Linear systems “Small” Spots “Power” Spots “Floods” Downlighting & tiles Narrow beam Medium beam Wide beam / Directional Diffuse accents accents Point Compact Linear source source source size Smaller lamp gives luminaire size reduction or improved optical performance Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 27
  • 28. Control Gear Discharge lamps must be used with control gear to: 1. limit lamp current 2. create ignition peak 3. power-factor correction Gear may be electronic or conventional Copyright © 2008, Cree, Inc. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL pg. 28
  • 29. Effect of UV Permitted Exposure Time PET* is the Permitted Exposure Lamp type PET* Time a human being can spend (hr x klux) beneath a given source at 1000 lux illumination without TL /840 65 experiencing eye or skin CDM-T /830 24 irritation/damage. SDW-T 34 Damage Factor Dfc, Damage Factor, is a relative Lamp type Dfc ranking of light sources related to their potential for causing a fading of illuminated objects. The factor is TL /840 .21 calculated using equal conditions of illumination and exposure time, CDM-T /830 .20 and the sensitivity characteristics of paper. SDW-T .10 Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 30. Improved Ecological Balance 1. Efficacy improved 2. Miniaturization: less material in products and packaging reduced 3. Less hazardous materials Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 31. Lamps - Performance/Cost Balance Performance: Costs: Image & Comfort Cost of Ownership Flux Efficacy Size Life Color Quality Maintenance Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 32. Light Generation Incandescence LED Gas Discharge Tungsten Tungsten Sodium Mercury Halogen Low Pressure Sodium Low Pressure Mercury ‘SOX’ ‘Fluorescent’ High Pressure Sodium High Pressure Mercury ‘SON’ ‘HPL’ Metal Halide Lamps Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 33. Incandescent Lamps Lamp Characteristics Luminous flux 120 - 18 800 lm Luminous efficacy < 19 lm/W Color temperature 2700 K Color rendering Ra 100 Lamp power 15 - 1000 W Rated average lifetime 1000 hrs Issues • Dimming is possible • Voltage fluctuations do influence luminous flux, power consumption and rated average lifetime • Lumen depreciation during lamp lifetime because of evaporating tungsten (lamp blackening) • Instant start and restart • Cheap Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 34. Tungsten Halogen Lamps Working Principle Halogen Cycle >250°C tungsten WBr2 halide molecules 1000°C bulb wall 2Br formation dissociation W W + 2 Br WBr2 Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 35. Tungsten Halogen Lamps Lamp Characteristics Luminous flux 60 - 48 400 lm Luminous efficacy < 27 lm/W Color temperature 2900 / 3200 K Color rendering Ra 100 Lamp power 5 - 2000 W Rated average lifetime 2000 - 5000 hrs Issues • Dimming is possible • No lamp blackening during lamp life • Voltage fluctuations do influence luminous flux, power consumption and rated average lifetime • Low voltage halogen lamps require a transformer • Halogen lamps without double envelope should not be touched with bare fingers Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 36. Low-Pressure Sodium Lamps Lamp Construction bend insulation cap dimple filled with sodium discharge tube electrode outer bulb getter lamp cap _ + cathode _ + anode _ + _ + electrons positive ions Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 37. Low-Pressure Sodium Lamps Lamp Characteristics Luminous flux 1800 - 32 500 lm Luminous efficacy < 203 lm/W Color temperature 1700 K Light color monochromatic yellow Color rendering Ra not applicable Lamp power 18 - 180 W Rated average lifetime 18 000 hrs Issues • Control gear required • Run-up time of 12 minutes approx • Re-ignition time of 1-10 minutes • Most efficient light source, but with worst light quality Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 38. High-Pressure Sodium Lamps Lamp Construction support wire „Hg free‟ discharge tube lamp cap indication getter of sintered alumina outer bulb electrode PIA Philips Integrated Antenna Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 39. High-Pressure Sodium Lamps Lamp Characteristics Luminous flux 1300 - 90 000 lm Luminous efficacy < 150 lm/W Color temperature 2000, 2200, 2500 K Light color orange, warm white Color rendering Ra 25 - 80 Lamp power 35 - 1000 W Rated average lifetime 10 000 - 24 000 hrs Issues • Control gear required • Run-up time of 3 - 6 minutes • Re-ignition within 30 seconds - 4 min. • Most efficient light source with acceptable light quality for most functional outdoor lighting applications Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 40. Fluorescent Lamps Lamp Construction ultraviolet glass tube light radiation cap fluorescent mercury electrons electrode powder atom Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 41. Fluorescent Lamps Lamp Characteristics Luminous flux 200 - 5200 lm Luminous efficacy < 104 lm/W Color temperature 2700 - 6500 K Color rendering Ra >80, >90, 60 (depending on composition of fluorescent powders) Lamp power 4 - 58 W Rated average lifetime 14 000 hrs (conv.) 20 000 hrs (electr.) 15 000 hrs (PLE-T) Issues • 80/ Series recycling • Trend to lower mercury doses • Fully dimmable (4 pin) • Not instant start without special circuitry - usually 2.5s min “off” • Starting, warm-up, flux and even CCT are temperature dependent, usually 1-5 min for 80% flux. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 42. Fluorescent Lamps Issues 3 different groups of fluorescent powders Increasing • Standard fluorescent lamps Price – moderate luminous efficacy – moderate color rendering (Ra: 50 - 75) – moderate lumen depreciation • 3-line fluorescent lamps – very good colour rendering (Ra > 80) – very low lumen depreciation • de-Luxe fluorescent lamps – moderate luminous efficacy – excellent color rendering (Ra > 90) – low lumen depreciation Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 43. Fluorescent Lamps Issues Lumen Maintenance 100 lumen in % Super /80 90 /90 de Luxe 80 70 Standard 60 50 0 5000 10 000 15 000 20 000 operating hours Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 44. The Range of Fluorescent Lamps T12 TLD TL5 PL-L PL-S / PL-C / PL-T PLE-C / PLE-T Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 45. QL Fluorescent Lamps Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 46. Induction Fluorescent Lamps Lamp Construction Fluorescent powder Mercury Antenna Coil Glass bulb Auxiliary amalgam Heat conducting rod Coaxial cable Main amalgam Lamp cap Mounting flange Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 47. Induction Fluorescent Lamps Lamp Characteristics Luminous flux 3500 - 12 000 lm Luminous efficacy < 70 lm/W Color temperature 2700, 3000, 4000 K Light color (inc.) warm & neutral white Color rendering Ra 80 Lamp power 55, 85, 165 W Lifetime* 60 000 hrs * 10% lamp failure, 30 % lumen depreciation Issues • Run on electronic gear only • Luminous flux is independent of fluctuating supply voltage • Fast run-up and instant re-ignition • Not dimmable • Limited distance between lamp and HF-generator Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 48. High-Pressure Mercury Lamps Lamp Construction fluorescent powder discharge tube support discharge tube (quartz) outer bulb main electrode auxiliary electrode resistor stem lamp cap Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 49. High-Pressure Mercury Lamps Lamp Characteristics Luminous flux 1770 - 58 500 lm Luminous efficacy < 61 lm/W Color temperature 3400, 4000 K Light color neutral white Color rendering Ra 40, 55 Lamp power 50 - 1000 W Rated average lifetime 16 000 hrs Issues • Control gear required (ballast only) • Run-up time of 5 minutes approx • Re-ignition within 5-10 minutes • Useful lifetime is reached when lamp color shifts to green Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 50. Metal Halide Lamps Lamp Construction getter discharge tube support stem discharge tube (quartz) lamp cap electrode outer bulb Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 51. Metal Halide Lamps Lamp Characteristics Luminous flux 5300 - 220 000 lm Luminous efficacy < 108 lm/W Color temperature 3000, 4000, 5600 K Color rendering Ra 65 - 92 Lamp power 70 - 2000 W Rated average lifetime 4000 - 20 000 hrs Issues • Control gear required. • Quartz metal halide technology cannot totally avoid visible light color differences between individual lamps. • Useful lifetime: light color shifts to greenish/blueish color appearance. • Run-up time of 3 - 5 minutes • Re-ignition time of 15 - 20 minutes • Pay attention to limited burning positions! Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 52. Ceramic Discharge Metal Halide Lamps Lamp Construction quartz glass bulb getter PCA* discharge tube electrode sealing glass support wire lamp cap * Poly Crystaline Alumina Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 53. Ceramic Discharge Metal Halide Lamps Color Stability Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 54. Ceramic Discharge Metal Halide Lamps Lamp Characteristics Luminous flux 3300 - 14 000 lm Luminous efficacy < 95 lm/W Color temperature 3000, 4200 K Light color warm, neutral white Color rendering Ra > 80, 90 Lamp power 35, 70, 150 W Rated average lifetime 12 000 hrs Issues • Control gear required • Stable color impression during lifetime • Hardly any spread in color characteristics between individual lamps • Run-up time of 3 minutes approx • Re-ignition time of 15 minutes approx • Luminaires for CDM-TP and -R do not need front cover, but all others do. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 55. Relative Lamp Sizes „TL‟D „TL‟5 SOX MHD HPI Plus SON HPL-N QL CFL-I SDW-T CDM-R GLS Masterline LED Plus Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 56. Lamp Survey Incand. Tungsten Linear Non Retrofit QL SOX SON SDW-T HPL HPI MHN/ CDM ML fluoresc. retrofit CFL MHD CFL Power 15 - 5 - 2000 4 - 58 5 - 55 5 - 23 55 - 165 18 - 180 50 - 1000 35 - 100 50 - 250 - 70 - 35 - 150 100 – [W] 1000 1000 2000 2000 500 Luminous flux 120 - 60 - 200 - 250 - 200 - 3500 - 1800 - 3500 – 1300 - 1770 - 19 000 - 5300 - 3300 - 1100 - [lm] 18 800 48 800 5200 4800 1500 12 000 32 500 90 000 5000 58 500 189 000 220 000 14 000 13 000 Luminous efficacy < 19 < 27 < 104 < 87 < 65 < 70 < 203 < 150 < 52 < 61 < 94 < 110 < 95 < 26 [lm/W] Light colour warm warm warm, warm, warm warm, yellow orangeish warm neutral neutral warm, warm, neutral white white neutral, neutral, white neutral monoch white white white neutral, neutral white daylight daylight white romatic dalight white white white white Colour temp. 2800 3000, 2700 - 2700 - 2700 3000, 1700 2000, 2200 2500 3300 - 4300 3000 - 3000, 3300 - [K] 3200 6500 6500 4000 4200 5600 4200 3700 Ra 100 100 > 80, > > 80 > 80 > 80 n.a. 25, 65, > 80 45 , 55 69 75 - 90 > 80, 48 - 72 90, 60 > 90 Rat. aver. 1000 2000 - 13 000 - 8 000 - 6000 - 100 000 18 000 10 000 16 000 <20 000 2000 - 6000 - 10 000 Lifetime [hrs] 5000 20 000 16 000 12 000 9000 12 000 Ballast no no yes yes no HF Yes yes yes yes yes yes yes no generator Ignitor no no yes yes no no yes yes yes no yes yes yes no Run-up time zero zero zero zero <1 zero 12 4-6 3 5 3 3-5 3 5 - 10 [min] Re-ignition zero zero zero zero zero zero 1 - 10 30 sec. - 4 30 sec 10 15 15 - 20 15 5 time [min] min. Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 57. TH TL CFL SON CDM MH GLS QL Lighting for the Home CRI 85-100 CCT 2700K Lumens 400-1200lm Source size Point Benchmark GLS Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 58. TH TL CFL SON CDM MH GLS QL Accent lighting for Shops CRI 85 CCT 3000K Lumens 1000-14000lm Source size Point Benchmark CDM/TH Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 59. TH TL CFL SON CDM MH GLS QL Lighting for Roads CRI 20 CCT 2000K Lumens 30K-50K Source size Point Benchmark SON Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 60. TH TL CFL SON CDM MH GLS QL Lighting for Residential streets / City centres CRI 20-60 CCT 2000-3000 Lumens 3500-16k lm Source size Point Benchmark SON/CDM Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 61. TH TL CFL SON CDM MH GLS QL Lighting for Signs / Contours CRI 80 CCT 6500K Lumens 300-5000lm Source size Linear Benchmark Fluorescent Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 62. TH TL CFL SON CDM MH GLS QL Lighting for Sports 80 Low end CRI 90 High end 4000k Low end CCT 5000k High end Lumens 100k-200k lm Source size Point Benchmark MH Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL
  • 63. TH TL CFL SON CDM MH GLS QL Lighting for Industry CRI 65 CCT 4000k Lumens 5k-40k Source size Linear Benchmark TL Cree Proprietary - CONFIDENTIAL

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