Reference Sources
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This Lecture introduces students to Reference Sources....

This Lecture introduces students to Reference Sources.
It discusses both print and digital Sources of Information, including features which are need.
The Lecture asks various questions regarding the new skills needed by the user to survive in the digital arena.
Additionally, Assignment ground-rules are also suggested, including International methods of citation, citation tools and also note-taking skills.

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Reference Sources Reference Sources Presentation Transcript

  • Reference Sources
  • Reference Sources
  • Defining Reference Reference Works or Reference Work View slide
  • Defining Virtual Reference (VR) (Nilsen, 2004) Used Terms : Virtual reference Digital reference Electronic reference Remote reference Real-time reference View slide
  • Categories Digital Conventional
  • The Information Process Ferreira et al, 2007) “ Alteration in the information process demand new skills from any professional in an organization, particularly regarding digital information.”
  • Available Features Digital Face-to-PC OPAC Search Services Dbases Conventional Face-to-face Physical access Real-time CD ROMS
  • Skills Needed Digital Conventional
  • Different Features
    • Boolean Operators
      • (full-text; bibliographic dbases; proximity: words must appear within n number of words);
    • Relevancy Ranking
    • (depends on the algorithm software:
    • frequency of search term & position of search term);
  • Different Features
    • Browsing Indexes
      • (books: errors in databases are bypassed);
    • Truncation
      • (internal: wom?n – woman/women
      • external: comput? - …er, …ing);
  • Different Features
    • Field Searching
    • (Author; Title; ISBN);
    • Extent of Searching
    • (to limit your search: Abstracts only);
    • Case Sensitive (not often implemented…it is an additional burden on the user);
  • Different Features
    • Controlled Vocabulary
    • (Dublin Core: Good [controlled, professional], Bad [user may not be acquainted with particular terms]);
    • Language Translation
      • (useful at Universities, Eng vs US, different diacritics);
  • Different Features
    • Controlled Vocabulary
    • (Dublin Core: Good [controlled, professional], Bad [user may not be acquainted with particular terms]);
    • Language Translation
      • (useful at Universities, Eng vs US, different diacritics);
  • Different Features
    • Data Range
    • (archival aspect of docs, migration of data, new tech environment);
    • Refine Search
    • Related Items
    • Multimedia
      • (image, clip, voice, presentations)
  • Different Features (Smith, 2000)
    • Advanced Search
    • Display Feature
    • Help Information
  • Reference Sources Service Aspects Sources Aspects
  • Core Competencies Ferreira et al, 2007) Service Aspects Sources Aspects “ Core competencies are understood as: a proper attitude & capacity to exercise a wide number of functions or occupy various positions, even simultaneously which requires flexibility.”
  • Core Competencies Ferreira et al, 2007) Attitudes Skills Knowledge
  • (Viles, 2009) Virtual Reference (VR) “ an electronic mediation”
    • Already in existence …
    • Answering machine
    • Auto-reply email
    • CCTV
  • (Keyama, 1999, p. 51 in Viles, 2009) Virtual Reference (VR) “ an electronic mediation” “ Cyberspace users prefer anonymity to in-person, over-the-desk delivery of reference service.”
  • (Ruppel & Fagan, 2002 in Nilsen, 2004 Physical Ref. vs VR “ Q: Why users usually do not ask for help at a traditional library” 29% Staff did not look like they want to help; look too busy; 23% Felt stupid for not knowing the answer already; 17% Did not bother to go to the library;
  • (Ruppel & Fagan, 2002 in Nilsen, 2004 Physical Ref. vs VR “ Q: Why users usually do not ask for help at a traditional library” 10% Did not think the person would know the answer; 23% Did not want to get up from the computer.
  • (Nilsen, 2004 Physical Ref. vs VR Writing vs Speaking “ It took me more to compose my question than to ask face-to-face” “ This seemed to be a very abrupt response…I took the impression that the librarian was slightly exasperated with me”
  • (Nilsen, 2004) Virtual Reference (VR) ALA 2003 “ VR is, reference initiated electronically, often in real-time, where users employ computers or other Internet technology to communicate with librarians without being physically present.”
  • (Nilsen, 2004) Virtual Reference (VR) ALA 2003 “ While online sources are often utilzed in provision of VR, use of e-sources in seeking answers is not in itself VR.”
  • (Nilsen, 2004) Virtual Reference (VR) ALA 2003 “ VR queries are often followed-up by telephone, fax & regular email, even though these models of communication are not considered virtual.”
  • Virtual Reference (VR) (Coffman, 2002; Coffman & Arret, 2004 in Kwon, 2006)
  • Virtual Reference (VR)
    • IT Infrastructure (PCs, Network, video/audio);
    • Time
    • Maintenance
  • Virtual Reference (VR) (Sloan, 2004 in Kwon, 2006) “… it is estimated that approx. 76 collaborative VR services exist since 2004” “ 77% - very likely to use the service again…68.2% - Excellent service (n=417)”
  • Quality of Information “ the quality of the information is the most important consideration in selecting an information source when the information sources available to users are equivalent in their information-yielding potential.” (Orr, 1970 in Bronstein, 2010)
  • (Bronstein, 2010) Which Source?
  • (Bronstein, 2010) Which Source?
  • (Bronstein, 2010) Missing…or? Academic Databases Printed Sources Library Catalogues
  • (Bronstein, 2010) “… accessibility of the source and the quality…” Reference Sources … speed & comfortability vs … a ccuracy … r eliability … a uthority
  • Internet: A Reference Source? “… If it looks good… it must be good.” (Webb, 2008, p. 133)
  • IL…Research Skills…LLL “ IL skills, closely allied to research skills of academia, also require an ability to read and think critically, as well as to problem-solve effectively.” (Webb, 2008, p. 128)
    • What’s Up?
    (Boelens, 2011) “ Digital Natives ” (Prensky, 2001) “ The informal learning environment of television, video games and the internet are producing learners with a new profile of cognitive skills.” (Greenfield, 2009 ) “… the need to help children to use media and the Internet safely and responsibly.” (Willard, 2007)
  • (Dewald & Silvius’s, 2005 in Bronstein, 2010) “… Web's ease of use and timeliness contributed to its heavy utilization. However, overall satisfaction with library databases was higher because of their accuracy and format . “ Reference Sources
  • (webb, 2008, pp. 20-21) “… ICT facilitated the capture, storage and dissemination of information… Easily accessible across time zones & geographical boundaries.“ Information Access
  • Reference Sources
  • Reference Sources
    • Will printed sources survive?
    • Net Hype?
    • Out with the Old?
    • Who’s Effected? How?
  • www.infolitglobal.info/en www.nso.gov.mt/site/page.aspx Reference Sources www.um.edu.mt/library www.time.com/time www.economist.com http://ec.europa.eu/old-address-ec.htm#contribution www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco http://research.allacademic.com www.iwr.co.uk http://international.loc.gov/intldl/intldlhome.html http://informationr.net/
  • Reference Sources : Print
    • What Type of Sources?
  • Reference Sources : Print
    • What Type of Sources?
    Monographs Journals
  • Reference Sources : Print
    • What Type of Skills?
  • Reference Sources : Print
    • What Type of Sources?
    • What Type of Skills?
    • What Type of Effect?
  • Reference Sources : Print
    • What Type of Sources?
    • What Type of Skills?
    • What Type of Effect?
    • What Type of Response?
  • Reference Sources : Print
    • What type of Demand?
  • Reference Sources : Print Any Reasons?
  • Reference Sources : Digital
    • Online Docs
    • Databases
    Both May be Open Or Closed Access
  • Reference Sources : Digital
    • What Type of Skills?
    Write them down... in Groups if you like...
  • Reference Sources : Digital
    • Know the Research Question Well
  • Reference Sources : Digital
    • Know the Research Question Well
    • Know the Db you are using
  • Reference Sources : Digital
    • Know the Research Question Well
    • Know the Db you are using
    • Know the Topic (well?)
  • Reference Sources : Digital
    • Know the Research Question Well
    • Know the Db you are using
    • Know the Topic (well?)
    • Keywords (vital)
  • Reference Sources : Digital
    • Know the Research Question Well
    • Know the Db you are using
    • Know the Topic (well?)
    • Keywords (vital)
    • Read the Abstract (necessary)
  • Reference Sources : Digital
    • Know the Research Question Well
    • Know the Db you are using
    • Know the Topic (well?)
    • Keywords (vital)
    • Read the Abstract (necessary)
    • Compare with other Sources (book/Journal)
  • Reference Sources : Digital
    • Know the Research Question Well
    • Know the Db you are using
    • Know the Topic (well?)
    • Keywords (vital)
    • Read the Abstract (necessary)
    • Compare with other Sources (book/Journal)
    • Start building your "background information"
  • Reference Sources : Digital
    • Become aware of any developments of the Topic
  • Reference Sources : Digital
    • Become aware of any developments of the Topic
    • Take the necessary notes including the Bibliographic details
  • Reference Sources : Digital
    • Become aware of any developments of the Topic
    • Take the necessary notes including the Bibliographic details
    • Familiarize yourself with Authors
  • Reference Sources : Digital
    • What Type of Skills?
  • Reference Sources : Digital
    • What Type of Sources?
    • What Type of Skills?
    • What Type of Effect?
  • Reference Sources : Digital
    • What Type of Sources?
    • What Type of Skills?
    • What Type of Effect?
    • What Type of Response?
  • Reference Sources : Digital
    • What Type of Sources?
    • What Type of Skills?
    • What Type of Effect?
    • What Type of Response?
    • What type of Demand?
  • Reference Sources : Digital Any Reasons?
  • Reference Sources : Digital Any Cost?
  • 1000w = 6 sources Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
  • Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
  • Click video clip to Play Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
  • 1000w = 6 sources Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
  • +/- 10% rule (of Total) Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
  • Introduction/Ending ~ 10% of Total Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
  • References (referred-to resources) Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
  • Bibliography (resources read but not cited) Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
  • Citation Method Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
  • Citation Methods Author, Date (Harvard) MLA APA Turabian
  • Citation Methods Author’s Name: In-Text citation In general, when writing for a professional publication, it is good practice to make reference to other relevant published work. This view has been supported in the work of Cormack (1994). http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/files/Harvard_referencing_2010.pdf Author, Date (Harvard)
  • Citation Methods Author’s Name: In-Text citation Making reference to published work appears to be characteristic of writing for a professional audience (Cormack, 1994). Author, Date (Harvard)
  • Citation Methods Journal Articles: Reference List Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an indepth look. Political Science Quarterly , 42(6), pp.564-78. Perry, C., 2001. What health care assistants know about clean hands. Nursing Times , 97(22), pp.63-64. Cox, C., 2002. What health care assistants know about clean hands. Nursing today , Spring Issue, pp.647-85. Author, Date (Harvard)
  • Citation Methods Corporate Authors: In-Text Citation 1st citation: … research in 2006 undertaken by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) has shown that … 2nd citation: More recently the RCN (2007) has issued guidelines http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/files/Harvard_referencing_2010.pdf Author, Date (Harvard)
  • Citation Methods Author’s Name: In-Text citation Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263). Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263). http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/2/ MLA
  • Citation Methods Book with One Author: Reference List Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads . London: Oxford U.P., 1967. Print. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/2/ MLA
  • Citation Methods Book with One Author: In-Text Citation: Adding own Words Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states: "some individuals [ who retell urban legends ] make a point of learning every rumor or tale" (78). http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/2/ MLA
  • Citation Methods Same Author: Reference List Burke, Kenneth. A Grammar of Motives . [...] ---. A Rhetoric of Motives . [...] http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/2/ MLA
  • Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf One Author: In-Text Citation Rowling (2005) argues for the development of new curricula. APA
  • Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf No Author: In-Text Citation Statistics show a higher incidence of criminal activity during summer months (“Study Results,” 2007, p. 77). APA
  • Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf Old Works, date not applicable: In-Text Citation Aristotle argues . . . (trans. 1922). APA
  • Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf One Author: Reference List Broadway, B. (2002). Pink houses and family taverns. Bloomington, IL: Indiana University Press. APA
  • Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf No Author: Reference List The Chicago manual of style (15th ed.). (2003). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. APA
  • Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf Journal Article: Reference List Tyson, P. A., & Gordon, M. G. (1998). The Psychology of women. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 46, 361-364. APA
  • Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf Electronic Source: From the Dbase: Reference List Jackson, G. (2004). Multiple historic meanings of the Spanish civil war. Science and Society, 68(3), 272-276. Retrieved from the Lexis Nexis Academic database. APA
  • Citation Methods http://www.uwp.edu/departments/library/guides/turabian.htm One Author: In-Text Citation These are multiple historic meanings of the Spanish civil war (Yarbrough 1999, 84). Turabian
  • Citation Methods http://www.uwp.edu/departments/library/guides/turabian.htm One Author: Reference List Yarbrough, Stephen R. 1999. After rhetoric: The study of discourse beyond language and culture. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press Turabian
  • Citation Methods http://www.uwp.edu/departments/library/guides/turabian.htm Editor as Author: In-Text Citation These are multiple historic meanings of the Spanish civil war (Roe 1995, 22) Editor as Author: Reference List Roe, Nicholas, ed. 1995. Keats and history. New York: Cambridge University Press. Turabian
  • Citation Tools
  • Ground Rules for Web Evaluation Type of Website Authors Dates: Creation & Update Type of URL
  • Note Taking Notes With pages C O M M E N T S Bibliographic Details Q U E S T I O N S
  • Note Taking Group: Authors/Tags Notes With pages C O M M E N T S Bibliographic Details Q U E S T I O N S Notes With pages C O M M E N T S Bibliographic Details Q U E S T I O N S Notes With pages C O M M E N T S Bibliographic Details Q U E S T I O N S Notes With pages C O M M E N T S Bibliographic Details Q U E S T I O N S
  • Note Taking 1 Alphabetic Notes Dbase Author/s DoP Notes Tags
  • Reference Sources How would you know that, “ this” source is good?
  • Good Source Checklist
    • Author
    • New
    • Known
    • Relevancy
    • Abstract
    • Scan paragraphs
    • Citation Analysis
      • Chain-linking
  • Good Source Checklist Author
    • Citation Analysis
      • Chain-linking
    Reference Page Check Cited Authors
  • The Information Professional Power Culture (Webb, 2008, pp. 119-122)
  • The Information Professional Role Culture (Webb, 2008, pp. 119-122)
  • The Information Professional Task Culture (Webb, 2008, pp. 119-122)
  • The Information Professional People Culture (Webb, 2008, pp. 119-122)
  • Attitude of the Information Professional “ Knowledge Store” (Evans, 2003, p. 253)
    • An expertise Database (who is who and who is working on what);
    • Capabilities Information (what people know or any working papers);
    • A resource to support collaborative team work.
  • Thank you [email_address] http://www.slideshare.net/ClaudioLaferla/reference-sources
  • References Bronstein, J. (2010). “Selecting and using information sources: Source preferences and information pathways of Israeli library and information science”, Information Research , 15(4), viewed online on February 8, 2011, <http://informationr.net/ir/15-4/paper447.html>. Evans, C. (2003). “Managing for knowledge: Hr’s strategic role”, Butterworth-Heinemann, Amsterdam. Ferreira, F. et al. (2007). “Information professionals in Brazil: Core competencies and professional development”, Information Research , 12(2), viewed online on July 20, 2011, from <http://informationr.net/ir/12-2/paper299.html>. Johson, C. A. (2004). “Choosing people: The role of social capital information seeking behaviour”, Information Research , 10(1) , viewed online on September 1, 2011, <http://informationr.net/ir/10-1/paper201.html>. Kwon, N. (2006). “User satisfaction with referrals to a collaborative virtual reference service”, Information Research , 11(2), viewed online on May 20, 2011, from <http://informationr.net/ir/11-2/paper246.html>. Nilsen, K. (2004). “The library visit study: User experiences at the virtual reference desk”, Information Research , 9(2), viewed online on May 20, 2011, from <http://informationr.net/ir/9-2/paper171.html>. Smith, A. G. (2000). “Search features of digital libraries”, Information Research , 5(3), viewed online on July 10, 2011, from <http://informationr.net/ir/5-3/paper73.html>. Viles, A. (2009). “Discussion group on reference work report”, IFLA, viewed online on February 15, 2011, from <http://archive.ifla.org/VII/dg/dgrw/dp99-06.htm>. Webb, J. (2008). “Strategic information management: A practitioner’s guide”, Chandos Pub., Oxford, England.