Reference Sources
Reference Sources
Defining Reference Reference Works or Reference Work
Defining Virtual Reference (VR) (Nilsen, 2004) Used Terms : Virtual reference Digital reference Electronic reference Remot...
Categories Digital Conventional
The Information Process Ferreira et al, 2007) “ Alteration in the information process demand new skills from any professio...
Available Features Digital Face-to-PC OPAC Search Services Dbases Conventional Face-to-face Physical access Real-time CD R...
Skills Needed Digital Conventional
Different Features <ul><li>Boolean Operators  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(full-text; bibliographic dbases; proximity: words mus...
Different Features <ul><li>Browsing Indexes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(books: errors in databases are bypassed); </li></ul></u...
Different Features <ul><li>Field Searching </li></ul><ul><li>(Author; Title; ISBN); </li></ul><ul><li>Extent of Searching ...
Different Features <ul><li>Controlled Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>(Dublin Core: Good [controlled, professional], Bad [use...
Different Features <ul><li>Controlled Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>(Dublin Core: Good [controlled, professional], Bad [use...
Different Features <ul><li>Data Range </li></ul><ul><li>(archival aspect of docs, migration of  data, new tech environment...
Different Features (Smith, 2000) <ul><li>Advanced Search </li></ul><ul><li>Display Feature </li></ul><ul><li>Help Informat...
Reference Sources Service Aspects Sources Aspects
Core Competencies Ferreira et al, 2007) Service Aspects Sources Aspects “ Core competencies are understood as: a proper at...
Core Competencies Ferreira et al, 2007) Attitudes Skills Knowledge
(Viles, 2009) Virtual Reference (VR) “ an electronic mediation” <ul><li>Already in existence … </li></ul><ul><li>Answering...
(Keyama, 1999, p. 51 in Viles, 2009) Virtual Reference (VR) “ an electronic mediation” “ Cyberspace users prefer anonymity...
(Ruppel & Fagan, 2002 in Nilsen, 2004 Physical Ref.  vs  VR “ Q:  Why users usually do not ask for help at a traditional l...
(Ruppel & Fagan, 2002 in Nilsen, 2004 Physical Ref.  vs  VR “ Q:  Why users usually do not ask for help at a traditional l...
(Nilsen, 2004 Physical Ref.  vs  VR Writing  vs  Speaking “ It took me more to compose my question than to ask face-to-fac...
(Nilsen, 2004) Virtual Reference (VR) ALA 2003 “ VR is, reference initiated electronically, often in real-time, where user...
(Nilsen, 2004) Virtual Reference (VR) ALA 2003 “ While online sources are often utilzed in provision of VR, use of e-sourc...
(Nilsen, 2004) Virtual Reference (VR) ALA 2003 “ VR queries are often  followed-up by telephone, fax & regular email, even...
Virtual Reference (VR) (Coffman, 2002; Coffman & Arret, 2004 in Kwon, 2006)
Virtual Reference (VR) <ul><li>IT Infrastructure (PCs, Network,  video/audio); </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Ma...
Virtual Reference (VR) (Sloan, 2004 in Kwon, 2006) “… it is estimated that approx. 76 collaborative VR services exist sinc...
Quality of Information “ the quality of the information is the most important consideration in selecting an information so...
(Bronstein, 2010) Which Source?
(Bronstein, 2010) Which Source?
(Bronstein, 2010) Missing…or? Academic Databases Printed Sources Library Catalogues
(Bronstein, 2010) “… accessibility of the source and  the quality…” Reference Sources … speed & comfortability vs … a ccur...
Internet: A Reference Source? “… If it looks good… it must be good.” (Webb, 2008, p. 133)
IL…Research Skills…LLL “ IL skills, closely allied to research skills of academia,  also require an ability to read and th...
<ul><li>What’s Up? </li></ul>(Boelens, 2011) “ Digital Natives ”  (Prensky, 2001) “ The informal learning environment of t...
(Dewald & Silvius’s, 2005 in Bronstein, 2010) “… Web's ease of use  and timeliness contributed to its heavy utilization.  ...
(webb, 2008, pp. 20-21) “… ICT facilitated the capture, storage and dissemination of information… Easily accessible across...
Reference Sources
Reference Sources <ul><li>Will printed sources survive? </li></ul><ul><li>Net Hype? </li></ul><ul><li>Out with the Old? </...
www.infolitglobal.info/en www.nso.gov.mt/site/page.aspx Reference Sources www.um.edu.mt/library www.time.com/time www.econ...
Reference Sources :  Print <ul><li>What Type of Sources? </li></ul>
Reference Sources :  Print <ul><li>What Type of Sources? </li></ul>Monographs Journals
Reference Sources :  Print <ul><li>What Type of Skills? </li></ul>
Reference Sources :  Print <ul><li>What Type of Sources? </li></ul><ul><li>What Type of Skills? </li></ul><ul><li>What Typ...
Reference Sources :  Print <ul><li>What Type of  Sources? </li></ul><ul><li>What Type of  Skills? </li></ul><ul><li>What T...
Reference Sources :  Print <ul><li>What type of  Demand? </li></ul>
Reference Sources :  Print Any Reasons?
Reference Sources :  Digital <ul><li>Online Docs </li></ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul>Both May be Open Or Closed Access
Reference Sources :  Digital <ul><li>What Type of Skills? </li></ul>Write them down... in Groups if you like...
Reference Sources :  Digital <ul><li>Know the Research Question Well </li></ul>
Reference Sources :  Digital <ul><li>Know the Research Question Well </li></ul><ul><li>Know the Db you are using </li></ul>
Reference Sources :  Digital <ul><li>Know the Research Question Well </li></ul><ul><li>Know the Db you are using </li></ul...
Reference Sources :  Digital <ul><li>Know the Research Question Well </li></ul><ul><li>Know the Db you are using </li></ul...
Reference Sources :  Digital <ul><li>Know the Research Question Well </li></ul><ul><li>Know the Db you are using </li></ul...
Reference Sources :  Digital <ul><li>Know the Research Question Well </li></ul><ul><li>Know the Db you are using </li></ul...
Reference Sources :  Digital <ul><li>Know the Research Question Well </li></ul><ul><li>Know the Db you are using </li></ul...
Reference Sources :  Digital <ul><li>Become aware of any developments of the Topic </li></ul>
Reference Sources :  Digital <ul><li>Become aware of any developments of the Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Take the necessary no...
Reference Sources :  Digital <ul><li>Become aware of any developments of the Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Take the necessary no...
Reference Sources :  Digital <ul><li>What Type of Skills? </li></ul>
Reference Sources :  Digital <ul><li>What Type of Sources? </li></ul><ul><li>What Type of Skills? </li></ul><ul><li>What T...
Reference Sources :  Digital <ul><li>What Type of  Sources? </li></ul><ul><li>What Type of  Skills? </li></ul><ul><li>What...
Reference Sources :  Digital <ul><li>What Type of  Sources? </li></ul><ul><li>What Type of  Skills? </li></ul><ul><li>What...
Reference Sources :  Digital Any Reasons?
Reference Sources :  Digital Any Cost?
1000w = 6 sources Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
Click video clip to Play Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
1000w = 6 sources Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
+/- 10% rule (of Total) Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
Introduction/Ending ~ 10% of Total  Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
References   (referred-to resources) Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
Bibliography  (resources read but not cited) Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
Citation Method Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
Citation Methods Author, Date (Harvard) MLA APA Turabian
Citation Methods Author’s Name: In-Text citation In general, when writing for a professional publication, it is good pract...
Citation Methods Author’s Name: In-Text citation  Making reference to published work appears to be characteristic of writi...
Citation Methods Journal Articles: Reference List  Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an indepth look.  Pol...
Citation Methods Corporate Authors: In-Text Citation   1st citation:  …  research in 2006 undertaken by the Royal College ...
Citation Methods Author’s Name: In-Text citation  Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a &quot;spontaneous...
Citation Methods Book with One Author: Reference List   Wordsworth, William.  Lyrical Ballads . London: Oxford U.P., 1967....
Citation Methods Book with One Author: In-Text Citation: Adding own Words   Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban lege...
Citation Methods Same Author: Reference List Burke, Kenneth.  A Grammar of Motives . [...] ---.  A Rhetoric of Motives . [...
Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf One Author: In-Text Citation Rowling (200...
Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf No Author: In-Text Citation Statistics sh...
Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf Old Works, date not applicable: In-Text C...
Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf One Author: Reference List Broadway, B. (...
Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf No Author: Reference List The Chicago man...
Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf Journal Article: Reference List Tyson, P....
Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf Electronic Source: From the Dbase: Refere...
Citation Methods http://www.uwp.edu/departments/library/guides/turabian.htm One Author: In-Text Citation These are multipl...
Citation Methods http://www.uwp.edu/departments/library/guides/turabian.htm One Author: Reference List Yarbrough, Stephen ...
Citation Methods http://www.uwp.edu/departments/library/guides/turabian.htm Editor as Author: In-Text Citation These are m...
Citation Tools
Ground Rules for Web Evaluation Type of Website Authors Dates: Creation & Update Type of URL
Note Taking Notes With pages C O M M E N T S Bibliographic Details Q U E S T I O N S
Note Taking Group: Authors/Tags Notes With pages C O M M E N T S Bibliographic Details Q U E S T I O N S Notes With pages ...
Note Taking 1 Alphabetic Notes Dbase Author/s DoP Notes Tags
Reference Sources How would you know that, “ this” source is good?
Good Source Checklist <ul><li>Author </li></ul><ul><li>New </li></ul><ul><li>Known </li></ul><ul><li>Relevancy </li></ul><...
Good Source Checklist Author <ul><li>Citation Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chain-linking </li></ul></ul>Reference Page C...
The Information Professional Power Culture (Webb, 2008, pp. 119-122)
The Information Professional Role Culture (Webb, 2008, pp. 119-122)
The Information Professional Task Culture (Webb, 2008, pp. 119-122)
The Information Professional People Culture (Webb, 2008, pp. 119-122)
Attitude of the Information Professional “ Knowledge Store” (Evans, 2003, p. 253) <ul><li>An expertise Database (who is wh...
Thank you [email_address] http://www.slideshare.net/ClaudioLaferla/reference-sources
References Bronstein, J. (2010). “Selecting and using information sources: Source preferences and information pathways of ...
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Reference Sources

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This Lecture introduces students to Reference Sources.
It discusses both print and digital Sources of Information, including features which are need.
The Lecture asks various questions regarding the new skills needed by the user to survive in the digital arena.
Additionally, Assignment ground-rules are also suggested, including International methods of citation, citation tools and also note-taking skills.

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Reference Sources

  1. 1. Reference Sources
  2. 2. Reference Sources
  3. 3. Defining Reference Reference Works or Reference Work
  4. 4. Defining Virtual Reference (VR) (Nilsen, 2004) Used Terms : Virtual reference Digital reference Electronic reference Remote reference Real-time reference
  5. 5. Categories Digital Conventional
  6. 6. The Information Process Ferreira et al, 2007) “ Alteration in the information process demand new skills from any professional in an organization, particularly regarding digital information.”
  7. 7. Available Features Digital Face-to-PC OPAC Search Services Dbases Conventional Face-to-face Physical access Real-time CD ROMS
  8. 8. Skills Needed Digital Conventional
  9. 9. Different Features <ul><li>Boolean Operators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(full-text; bibliographic dbases; proximity: words must appear within n number of words); </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relevancy Ranking </li></ul><ul><li>(depends on the algorithm software: </li></ul><ul><li>frequency of search term & position of search term); </li></ul>
  10. 10. Different Features <ul><li>Browsing Indexes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(books: errors in databases are bypassed); </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Truncation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(internal: wom?n – woman/women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>external: comput? - …er, …ing); </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Different Features <ul><li>Field Searching </li></ul><ul><li>(Author; Title; ISBN); </li></ul><ul><li>Extent of Searching </li></ul><ul><li>(to limit your search: Abstracts only); </li></ul><ul><li>Case Sensitive (not often implemented…it is an additional burden on the user); </li></ul>
  12. 12. Different Features <ul><li>Controlled Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>(Dublin Core: Good [controlled, professional], Bad [user may not be acquainted with particular terms]); </li></ul><ul><li>Language Translation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(useful at Universities, Eng vs US, different diacritics); </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Different Features <ul><li>Controlled Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>(Dublin Core: Good [controlled, professional], Bad [user may not be acquainted with particular terms]); </li></ul><ul><li>Language Translation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(useful at Universities, Eng vs US, different diacritics); </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Different Features <ul><li>Data Range </li></ul><ul><li>(archival aspect of docs, migration of data, new tech environment); </li></ul><ul><li>Refine Search </li></ul><ul><li>Related Items </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(image, clip, voice, presentations) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Different Features (Smith, 2000) <ul><li>Advanced Search </li></ul><ul><li>Display Feature </li></ul><ul><li>Help Information </li></ul>
  16. 16. Reference Sources Service Aspects Sources Aspects
  17. 17. Core Competencies Ferreira et al, 2007) Service Aspects Sources Aspects “ Core competencies are understood as: a proper attitude & capacity to exercise a wide number of functions or occupy various positions, even simultaneously which requires flexibility.”
  18. 18. Core Competencies Ferreira et al, 2007) Attitudes Skills Knowledge
  19. 19. (Viles, 2009) Virtual Reference (VR) “ an electronic mediation” <ul><li>Already in existence … </li></ul><ul><li>Answering machine </li></ul><ul><li>Auto-reply email </li></ul><ul><li>CCTV </li></ul>
  20. 20. (Keyama, 1999, p. 51 in Viles, 2009) Virtual Reference (VR) “ an electronic mediation” “ Cyberspace users prefer anonymity to in-person, over-the-desk delivery of reference service.”
  21. 21. (Ruppel & Fagan, 2002 in Nilsen, 2004 Physical Ref. vs VR “ Q: Why users usually do not ask for help at a traditional library” 29% Staff did not look like they want to help; look too busy; 23% Felt stupid for not knowing the answer already; 17% Did not bother to go to the library;
  22. 22. (Ruppel & Fagan, 2002 in Nilsen, 2004 Physical Ref. vs VR “ Q: Why users usually do not ask for help at a traditional library” 10% Did not think the person would know the answer; 23% Did not want to get up from the computer.
  23. 23. (Nilsen, 2004 Physical Ref. vs VR Writing vs Speaking “ It took me more to compose my question than to ask face-to-face” “ This seemed to be a very abrupt response…I took the impression that the librarian was slightly exasperated with me”
  24. 24. (Nilsen, 2004) Virtual Reference (VR) ALA 2003 “ VR is, reference initiated electronically, often in real-time, where users employ computers or other Internet technology to communicate with librarians without being physically present.”
  25. 25. (Nilsen, 2004) Virtual Reference (VR) ALA 2003 “ While online sources are often utilzed in provision of VR, use of e-sources in seeking answers is not in itself VR.”
  26. 26. (Nilsen, 2004) Virtual Reference (VR) ALA 2003 “ VR queries are often followed-up by telephone, fax & regular email, even though these models of communication are not considered virtual.”
  27. 27. Virtual Reference (VR) (Coffman, 2002; Coffman & Arret, 2004 in Kwon, 2006)
  28. 28. Virtual Reference (VR) <ul><li>IT Infrastructure (PCs, Network, video/audio); </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul>
  29. 29. Virtual Reference (VR) (Sloan, 2004 in Kwon, 2006) “… it is estimated that approx. 76 collaborative VR services exist since 2004” “ 77% - very likely to use the service again…68.2% - Excellent service (n=417)”
  30. 30. Quality of Information “ the quality of the information is the most important consideration in selecting an information source when the information sources available to users are equivalent in their information-yielding potential.” (Orr, 1970 in Bronstein, 2010)
  31. 31. (Bronstein, 2010) Which Source?
  32. 32. (Bronstein, 2010) Which Source?
  33. 33. (Bronstein, 2010) Missing…or? Academic Databases Printed Sources Library Catalogues
  34. 34. (Bronstein, 2010) “… accessibility of the source and the quality…” Reference Sources … speed & comfortability vs … a ccuracy … r eliability … a uthority
  35. 35. Internet: A Reference Source? “… If it looks good… it must be good.” (Webb, 2008, p. 133)
  36. 36. IL…Research Skills…LLL “ IL skills, closely allied to research skills of academia, also require an ability to read and think critically, as well as to problem-solve effectively.” (Webb, 2008, p. 128)
  37. 37. <ul><li>What’s Up? </li></ul>(Boelens, 2011) “ Digital Natives ” (Prensky, 2001) “ The informal learning environment of television, video games and the internet are producing learners with a new profile of cognitive skills.” (Greenfield, 2009 ) “… the need to help children to use media and the Internet safely and responsibly.” (Willard, 2007)
  38. 38. (Dewald & Silvius’s, 2005 in Bronstein, 2010) “… Web's ease of use and timeliness contributed to its heavy utilization. However, overall satisfaction with library databases was higher because of their accuracy and format . “ Reference Sources
  39. 39. (webb, 2008, pp. 20-21) “… ICT facilitated the capture, storage and dissemination of information… Easily accessible across time zones & geographical boundaries.“ Information Access
  40. 40. Reference Sources
  41. 41. Reference Sources <ul><li>Will printed sources survive? </li></ul><ul><li>Net Hype? </li></ul><ul><li>Out with the Old? </li></ul><ul><li>Who’s Effected? How? </li></ul>
  42. 42. www.infolitglobal.info/en www.nso.gov.mt/site/page.aspx Reference Sources www.um.edu.mt/library www.time.com/time www.economist.com http://ec.europa.eu/old-address-ec.htm#contribution www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco http://research.allacademic.com www.iwr.co.uk http://international.loc.gov/intldl/intldlhome.html http://informationr.net/
  43. 43. Reference Sources : Print <ul><li>What Type of Sources? </li></ul>
  44. 44. Reference Sources : Print <ul><li>What Type of Sources? </li></ul>Monographs Journals
  45. 45. Reference Sources : Print <ul><li>What Type of Skills? </li></ul>
  46. 46. Reference Sources : Print <ul><li>What Type of Sources? </li></ul><ul><li>What Type of Skills? </li></ul><ul><li>What Type of Effect? </li></ul>
  47. 47. Reference Sources : Print <ul><li>What Type of Sources? </li></ul><ul><li>What Type of Skills? </li></ul><ul><li>What Type of Effect? </li></ul><ul><li>What Type of Response? </li></ul>
  48. 48. Reference Sources : Print <ul><li>What type of Demand? </li></ul>
  49. 49. Reference Sources : Print Any Reasons?
  50. 50. Reference Sources : Digital <ul><li>Online Docs </li></ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul>Both May be Open Or Closed Access
  51. 51. Reference Sources : Digital <ul><li>What Type of Skills? </li></ul>Write them down... in Groups if you like...
  52. 52. Reference Sources : Digital <ul><li>Know the Research Question Well </li></ul>
  53. 53. Reference Sources : Digital <ul><li>Know the Research Question Well </li></ul><ul><li>Know the Db you are using </li></ul>
  54. 54. Reference Sources : Digital <ul><li>Know the Research Question Well </li></ul><ul><li>Know the Db you are using </li></ul><ul><li>Know the Topic (well?) </li></ul>
  55. 55. Reference Sources : Digital <ul><li>Know the Research Question Well </li></ul><ul><li>Know the Db you are using </li></ul><ul><li>Know the Topic (well?) </li></ul><ul><li>Keywords (vital) </li></ul>
  56. 56. Reference Sources : Digital <ul><li>Know the Research Question Well </li></ul><ul><li>Know the Db you are using </li></ul><ul><li>Know the Topic (well?) </li></ul><ul><li>Keywords (vital) </li></ul><ul><li>Read the Abstract (necessary) </li></ul>
  57. 57. Reference Sources : Digital <ul><li>Know the Research Question Well </li></ul><ul><li>Know the Db you are using </li></ul><ul><li>Know the Topic (well?) </li></ul><ul><li>Keywords (vital) </li></ul><ul><li>Read the Abstract (necessary) </li></ul><ul><li>Compare with other Sources (book/Journal) </li></ul>
  58. 58. Reference Sources : Digital <ul><li>Know the Research Question Well </li></ul><ul><li>Know the Db you are using </li></ul><ul><li>Know the Topic (well?) </li></ul><ul><li>Keywords (vital) </li></ul><ul><li>Read the Abstract (necessary) </li></ul><ul><li>Compare with other Sources (book/Journal) </li></ul><ul><li>Start building your &quot;background information&quot; </li></ul>
  59. 59. Reference Sources : Digital <ul><li>Become aware of any developments of the Topic </li></ul>
  60. 60. Reference Sources : Digital <ul><li>Become aware of any developments of the Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Take the necessary notes including the Bibliographic details </li></ul>
  61. 61. Reference Sources : Digital <ul><li>Become aware of any developments of the Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Take the necessary notes including the Bibliographic details </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarize yourself with Authors </li></ul>
  62. 62. Reference Sources : Digital <ul><li>What Type of Skills? </li></ul>
  63. 63. Reference Sources : Digital <ul><li>What Type of Sources? </li></ul><ul><li>What Type of Skills? </li></ul><ul><li>What Type of Effect? </li></ul>
  64. 64. Reference Sources : Digital <ul><li>What Type of Sources? </li></ul><ul><li>What Type of Skills? </li></ul><ul><li>What Type of Effect? </li></ul><ul><li>What Type of Response? </li></ul>
  65. 65. Reference Sources : Digital <ul><li>What Type of Sources? </li></ul><ul><li>What Type of Skills? </li></ul><ul><li>What Type of Effect? </li></ul><ul><li>What Type of Response? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of Demand? </li></ul>
  66. 66. Reference Sources : Digital Any Reasons?
  67. 67. Reference Sources : Digital Any Cost?
  68. 68. 1000w = 6 sources Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
  69. 69. Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
  70. 70. Click video clip to Play Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
  71. 71. 1000w = 6 sources Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
  72. 72. +/- 10% rule (of Total) Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
  73. 73. Introduction/Ending ~ 10% of Total Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
  74. 74. References (referred-to resources) Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
  75. 75. Bibliography (resources read but not cited) Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
  76. 76. Citation Method Ground Rules for Assignment Writing
  77. 77. Citation Methods Author, Date (Harvard) MLA APA Turabian
  78. 78. Citation Methods Author’s Name: In-Text citation In general, when writing for a professional publication, it is good practice to make reference to other relevant published work. This view has been supported in the work of Cormack (1994). http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/files/Harvard_referencing_2010.pdf Author, Date (Harvard)
  79. 79. Citation Methods Author’s Name: In-Text citation Making reference to published work appears to be characteristic of writing for a professional audience (Cormack, 1994). Author, Date (Harvard)
  80. 80. Citation Methods Journal Articles: Reference List Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an indepth look. Political Science Quarterly , 42(6), pp.564-78. Perry, C., 2001. What health care assistants know about clean hands. Nursing Times , 97(22), pp.63-64. Cox, C., 2002. What health care assistants know about clean hands. Nursing today , Spring Issue, pp.647-85. Author, Date (Harvard)
  81. 81. Citation Methods Corporate Authors: In-Text Citation 1st citation: … research in 2006 undertaken by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) has shown that … 2nd citation: More recently the RCN (2007) has issued guidelines http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/files/Harvard_referencing_2010.pdf Author, Date (Harvard)
  82. 82. Citation Methods Author’s Name: In-Text citation Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a &quot;spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings&quot; (263). Romantic poetry is characterized by the &quot;spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings&quot; (Wordsworth 263). http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/2/ MLA
  83. 83. Citation Methods Book with One Author: Reference List Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads . London: Oxford U.P., 1967. Print. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/2/ MLA
  84. 84. Citation Methods Book with One Author: In-Text Citation: Adding own Words Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states: &quot;some individuals [ who retell urban legends ] make a point of learning every rumor or tale&quot; (78). http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/2/ MLA
  85. 85. Citation Methods Same Author: Reference List Burke, Kenneth. A Grammar of Motives . [...] ---. A Rhetoric of Motives . [...] http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/2/ MLA
  86. 86. Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf One Author: In-Text Citation Rowling (2005) argues for the development of new curricula. APA
  87. 87. Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf No Author: In-Text Citation Statistics show a higher incidence of criminal activity during summer months (“Study Results,” 2007, p. 77). APA
  88. 88. Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf Old Works, date not applicable: In-Text Citation Aristotle argues . . . (trans. 1922). APA
  89. 89. Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf One Author: Reference List Broadway, B. (2002). Pink houses and family taverns. Bloomington, IL: Indiana University Press. APA
  90. 90. Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf No Author: Reference List The Chicago manual of style (15th ed.). (2003). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. APA
  91. 91. Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf Journal Article: Reference List Tyson, P. A., & Gordon, M. G. (1998). The Psychology of women. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 46, 361-364. APA
  92. 92. Citation Methods http://www.uis.edu/ctl/writing/documents/APACitationMethods.pdf Electronic Source: From the Dbase: Reference List Jackson, G. (2004). Multiple historic meanings of the Spanish civil war. Science and Society, 68(3), 272-276. Retrieved from the Lexis Nexis Academic database. APA
  93. 93. Citation Methods http://www.uwp.edu/departments/library/guides/turabian.htm One Author: In-Text Citation These are multiple historic meanings of the Spanish civil war (Yarbrough 1999, 84). Turabian
  94. 94. Citation Methods http://www.uwp.edu/departments/library/guides/turabian.htm One Author: Reference List Yarbrough, Stephen R. 1999. After rhetoric: The study of discourse beyond language and culture. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press Turabian
  95. 95. Citation Methods http://www.uwp.edu/departments/library/guides/turabian.htm Editor as Author: In-Text Citation These are multiple historic meanings of the Spanish civil war (Roe 1995, 22) Editor as Author: Reference List Roe, Nicholas, ed. 1995. Keats and history. New York: Cambridge University Press. Turabian
  96. 96. Citation Tools
  97. 97. Ground Rules for Web Evaluation Type of Website Authors Dates: Creation & Update Type of URL
  98. 98. Note Taking Notes With pages C O M M E N T S Bibliographic Details Q U E S T I O N S
  99. 99. Note Taking Group: Authors/Tags Notes With pages C O M M E N T S Bibliographic Details Q U E S T I O N S Notes With pages C O M M E N T S Bibliographic Details Q U E S T I O N S Notes With pages C O M M E N T S Bibliographic Details Q U E S T I O N S Notes With pages C O M M E N T S Bibliographic Details Q U E S T I O N S
  100. 100. Note Taking 1 Alphabetic Notes Dbase Author/s DoP Notes Tags
  101. 101. Reference Sources How would you know that, “ this” source is good?
  102. 102. Good Source Checklist <ul><li>Author </li></ul><ul><li>New </li></ul><ul><li>Known </li></ul><ul><li>Relevancy </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Scan paragraphs </li></ul><ul><li>Citation Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chain-linking </li></ul></ul>
  103. 103. Good Source Checklist Author <ul><li>Citation Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chain-linking </li></ul></ul>Reference Page Check Cited Authors
  104. 104. The Information Professional Power Culture (Webb, 2008, pp. 119-122)
  105. 105. The Information Professional Role Culture (Webb, 2008, pp. 119-122)
  106. 106. The Information Professional Task Culture (Webb, 2008, pp. 119-122)
  107. 107. The Information Professional People Culture (Webb, 2008, pp. 119-122)
  108. 108. Attitude of the Information Professional “ Knowledge Store” (Evans, 2003, p. 253) <ul><li>An expertise Database (who is who and who is working on what); </li></ul><ul><li>Capabilities Information (what people know or any working papers); </li></ul><ul><li>A resource to support collaborative team work. </li></ul>
  109. 109. Thank you [email_address] http://www.slideshare.net/ClaudioLaferla/reference-sources
  110. 110. References Bronstein, J. (2010). “Selecting and using information sources: Source preferences and information pathways of Israeli library and information science”, Information Research , 15(4), viewed online on February 8, 2011, <http://informationr.net/ir/15-4/paper447.html>. Evans, C. (2003). “Managing for knowledge: Hr’s strategic role”, Butterworth-Heinemann, Amsterdam. Ferreira, F. et al. (2007). “Information professionals in Brazil: Core competencies and professional development”, Information Research , 12(2), viewed online on July 20, 2011, from <http://informationr.net/ir/12-2/paper299.html>. Johson, C. A. (2004). “Choosing people: The role of social capital information seeking behaviour”, Information Research , 10(1) , viewed online on September 1, 2011, <http://informationr.net/ir/10-1/paper201.html>. Kwon, N. (2006). “User satisfaction with referrals to a collaborative virtual reference service”, Information Research , 11(2), viewed online on May 20, 2011, from <http://informationr.net/ir/11-2/paper246.html>. Nilsen, K. (2004). “The library visit study: User experiences at the virtual reference desk”, Information Research , 9(2), viewed online on May 20, 2011, from <http://informationr.net/ir/9-2/paper171.html>. Smith, A. G. (2000). “Search features of digital libraries”, Information Research , 5(3), viewed online on July 10, 2011, from <http://informationr.net/ir/5-3/paper73.html>. Viles, A. (2009). “Discussion group on reference work report”, IFLA, viewed online on February 15, 2011, from <http://archive.ifla.org/VII/dg/dgrw/dp99-06.htm>. Webb, J. (2008). “Strategic information management: A practitioner’s guide”, Chandos Pub., Oxford, England.
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