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How to design underground car parks in very narrow and restricted city areas

How to design underground car parks in very narrow and restricted city areas

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  • 1. UUNNDDEERRGGRROOUUNNDD CCAARR PPAARRKKSS IINN RREESSTTRRIICCTTEEDD UURRBBAANN AARREEAASS Claudio Angelino, M.Sc., D.I.C. Geotechnical engineer 63angelino@gmail.com +39 (0) 366 2172423
  • 2. Claudio Angelino, M.Sc., D.I.C., geotechnical engineer 1 Overall presentation Claudio Angelino is a geotechnical engineer with 24+ year of experience in the design of geotechnical works for the construction and infrastructure industry. During his career Claudio Angelino has worked many times in the narrow spaces of the centers of European cities, dealing with new and innovative design procedures for underground car parks. Our modern cities: few space, too many cars In our modern culture there is always less space in our cities: more people and more cars means less and less areas dedicated to our life and free time. There are too many cars using too much space on surface, often in restricted areas, with narrow alleys and roads, especially in the busy congested downtown areas of our major cities. This situation, which is getting worse, means that efforts must be done to pursue technical solutions capable of returning to people more space on surface, to provide wider spaces and more green areas in our cities. In the last years Claudio Angelino and some of his clients have pushed some of their design efforts towards finding technical solutions that allow to put more cars underground, particularly in very restricted areas. This document is about these solutions and the possibility of extending them to other similar situations around the world. The solution Claudio Angelino has worked in the last few years in many different projects where civil and industrial engineering have been joined together to find solutions capable of eliminating cars from our streets.
  • 3. Claudio Angelino, M.Sc., D.I.C., geotechnical engineer 2 The different technical capacities of Claudio Angelino have been implemented to achieve outstanding results in very restricted areas by storing tens of cars in very small areas (down to 15 x 15 m2 ). The preliminary study: geology and geotechnics A detailed site investigation is carried out, with ground borings, to investigate the engineering properties of the soil involved in the construction, the presence of the water table and the resistance of the material to be excavated. These data are used to determine the technical and economical feasibility of the construction, to ascertain the type of machinery to be used for the excavation and its cost and the need of dealing with the water table during the construction and the life of the structure (waterproofing). The design: geotechnics Once the design process has started the geotechnical expertise of our engineers plays a vital role in determining the best technical and economical solution to build the new underground park. The support structures have to be designed, often by keeping account of the very narrow spaces available: the solution is chosen in terms of accessibility (available room to operate) of the machinery to the site and in terms of the geomechanical parameters of the ground. Existing structures are representing major problems: small alleys, overhanging structures and balconies not allowing the use of big machineries, small entrances to internal courts that have to be excavated, problems of vibrations in the vicinity of old masonry
  • 4. Claudio Angelino, M.Sc., D.I.C., geotechnical engineer 3 buildings, etc: everything has to be taken into account to find a viable solution. Different techniques can be used: top-down excavations, multi anchored berlinese walls, traditional underpinning with reinforced concrete structures, etc.. Every possible technical solution must be analyzed to optimize the costs and the construction procedures. Where anchors cannot be used due to restricted areas and problems with neighboring properties the definitive concrete structures (slabs) are used to help the supporting phase during excavations. By working very adjacent to old buildings, often masonry, particular care must be taken in the process of minimizing ground stress release to avoid settlements in the old buildings: in many case a detailed topographical and geotechnical monitoring is put in place during the construction to track the deformations in the ground. In many cases the water table represents a difficult problem: different systems can be adopted from pumping (well points system or similar) to waterproof barriers that do not physically allow the flow of the water table within the excavation (jet grouting or similar). The design: structures Once the geotechnics of the problem has been sorted out the structural engineers are doing their part of the design, by providing options that can be easily coupled with the retaining structures, often by choosing a solution that minimizes the opening time of the (un)supported excavations. The mechanics and the electronics Finally, once the structure has been built, the park is completed with the elevators that allow cars to be stored underground without the use of a normal ramp, in those cases where there is no space for it. Polithema does not design these aspects but in these years has been deeply involved by its clients in the choice of the final solutions where the mechanical machinery has to be conveniently implemented according to the small available space.
  • 5. Claudio Angelino, M.Sc., D.I.C., geotechnical engineer 4 Works Claudio Angelino has fully designed and supervised, through the years, many underground car parks in very restricted areas in our narrow historical city centres. Just to mention few of them:  Sai Fondiaria insurance company: underground car park in downtown Turin, Italy, 42 places, no ramp, mechanized storage system, 13 m below ground level, berlinese wall with minipiles and without anchors, traditional underpinning, top down excavation. Geotechnical / structural design and works supervision  Sai Fondiaria Insurance Company, refurbishment of the former Lux Cinema in downtown Turin, 30+ places with ramps, 16 m below ground level inside one of the most important historical building in the city. Berlinese walls with minipiles, anchors, soil nailing, fully excavated. Geotechnical / structural design and works supervision  Bank of Alba, underground car park in the city of Alba, 15 places without ramp, very narrow area available of about 15 x 15 m2 , adjacent to an old masonry tower 25 m high. Berlinese walls, anchors, top down excavation, jet grouting to control the water table. Geotechnical / structural design and works supervision  Private client, underground car park downtown Turin, mechanized without ramp, 25 places, berlinese wall with minipiles, no anchors, top down excavation. Geotechnical / structural design and works supervision  City of Moncalieri, multi-storey car park in the historical center, traditional ramp, 470+ places, multianchored berlinese walls 25 m high. Geotechnical design