Autism is one of the five disorders coming under the umbrella of pervasive development disorders.
Pervasive developmental disorders is a group of disorders with similar features that usually begins early in childhood.
Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorders is a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders that is characterize by impairment in social interaction, communication difficulties and repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior.
The child is taught to hand a blank picture card to a communicative partner
2. Expanding the use of pictures
The child is taught to go to his PECS board, get a picture card, seek out a communicative partner, and place the card in his or her hand to receive a reinforcer.
3. Picture discrimination
The child is taught to discriminate among multiple pictures on the PECS board.
4. Sentence structure
Starts the child in the process of building sentences through "sentence strips “
5. Answering questions
Challenges the child to build questions using sentence strips, starters and pictures.
The child is taught to respond to the question; example, ‘‘What do you see?’’
Research have shown that one benefit of PECS is that some children often develop speech. Another benefit of using PECS is that many people in the child's community can use the system without special training. ( Ganz & Simpson, 2004)
Impaired verbal communication r/t speech and language delays
Impaired social interaction r/t communication barriers, inability to relate to others
Nurses and other health care provides need to be prepare and creative when working with children with Autism.
Parents are a major resource
A 15-30 minutes conversation in person or via the telephone with the parent prior to schedule clinical visits can be very helpful in developing the plan of care.
The nurse can assess the child ability to follow commands and how the child communicates. If the child is nonverbal the nurse can use PECS and other forms of augmentative communication to help the child communicate during clinical visits.
Nurses can help parents by developing pictures containing clinical procedures to help familiarize the child with the environment and the procedure before the clinical visit. Parents can bring in pictures of things the child like and other familiar items during visits..
Bondy, A. (2001). PECS: Potential benefits and risks. behavior analyst today , 2, 127-132
Charlop-Christy, M.H., Carpepenter, M., LE, L., LeBlance, LA., & Kellet, K. (2002). Using the PECS with children with Autism: asessessment of PECS Acquisition, speech, social-communicative behavior and problem behavior. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 35, 213-231
Ganz J. B., Simpson, R. L. (2004). Effects on Commnicative requesting and speechdevelopment of the Picture exchange communication System in children with characteristics of Autism. Journal of Autism and developmental disorders , 34, 395-402
Understanding the world of children with autism, Http//rn.modernmedicen.com, access 2/4/2010