Freud - symptomatic behavior in neurotic individuals.
Adler – Family constellation
Sullivan – interpersonal relations view for families with schizophrenia.-
Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1968) – General systems theory and Circular causality
John Bell (1961) – Family group therapy
Bowen – Hospitalized families - family emotional systems.
Wynn – pseudomutuality – false sense of closeness
Nathan Ackerman – ‘The Psychodynamics of family life
• Families were researched (1950)
• Bateson's Palo Alto group.
• Theodore Lidz
• National Institute of Mental Health – Bowen, Wynn.
• Branched out to a systems point of view.
• Double bind communication messages – Mixed messages.
• Marital skew – domination by one whilst the other accepts and children
believe its normal.
• Marital Schism – undermine spouse, threats of divorce, looks for loyalty
and affection of child.
Combined into 8 view points
Object Relations Family Therapy
• Psychodynamic view
• Relationships with „objects‟
• Bring introjects into relationships
• Disturbs the family relations
• Gain insight
EXPERIENTIAL FAMILY THERAPY
Whitaker – Symbolic experiential family therapy
Brings symbols and fantasies so we can grow
Emotion focused couples therapy – change negative interactions
focusing on emotional connection
Transgenerational Family Therapy
• Each family member is tied in some way. Individual problems arise and
• Marries someone similar and the trend continues
• Can result in schizophrenia
STRUCTURAL FAMILY THERAPY
• SALVADOR MINUCHIN
• RULES, ROLES, ALIGNMENTS, COALITIONS, BOUNDARIES, SUB
• CHANGE PATTERNS TO UNFREEZE.
• STRATEGIC FAMILY THERAPY
• JAY HALEY – PARADOXICAL INTERVENTIONS
• SYSTEMIC FAMILY THERAPY – DIRTY GAMES AND POWER
• BOSCOLLO AND CECHING – CIRCULAR QUESTIONING
Cognitive Behavior Family Therapy
Behavior – Reinforcement
Cognitive – dysfunctional beliefs
Social Constructionist Family Therapy
Challenge systems thinking
Reality is mediated through language and are socially determined through our
offer new alternatives
Michael White – Reality is organized and maintained through our stories
Negative stories are overwhelming
Reduce power of problem stories
Reclaim successful stories
Life is multistoried
THEORY OF PERSONALITY
Rules regulate and
principle: Family dysfunction
FAMILY NARRATIVES AND ASSUMPTIONS
Assumptions of self, family and the world
Meanings given to events/situations
Dominant stories/assumptions passed on from one generation to next
PSEUDOMUTUALITY AND PSEUDOHOSTILITY
FRAGMENTED AND IRRATIONAL COMMUNICATION (TO AVOID DEALING WITH
Masking the main problem
To distort one‟s experience by denying what he/she believes is happening
Contradicts one person‟s perception
Avoid dealing with main issue
Blaming an identified individual for everything that goes wrong
The identified person carries on the role.
PARENT & CHILD
WHAT ARE INTERGENERATIONAL PROBLEMS?
DELEQUINCY AND AT RISK YOUTH
CHILDREN TO FOREIGN BORN PARENTS
EFFORTS BY THE
FAMILY TO DEAL
WHAT ARE MARITAL PROBLEMS
INEFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION PATTERNS
ANXIETY OVER MAKING/MAINTINIGN LONG TERM COMITMENT
• PHYSICAL ABUSE
• POWER AND CONTROL
WHAT CAN WE DO?
BRIEF OF EXTENDED
RELETIVLY SHORT TERM
OUTPATIENT OR INPATIENT
CONTACT, HISTORY AND
MIDDLE – REDEFINE THE
END – LEARN COPING
BACKGROUND: FRANK AND MICHELLE
F R A N K
Fathered two children: Ann
(13) and Lance (12.
Widower – Lost wife to cancer.
Children spent a lot of time
alone, Ann took over parenting
role for her brother Lance.
M I C H E L L E
Mothered one daughter, Jessica
Divorced husband b/c of
substance abuse, verbal
abuse, and lack of employment.
Michelle and Jessica developed
a very close mother-daughter
relationship for 12 years.
Frank: feeling guilt
about not being an
adequate provider for
the family, troubled
with little earnings and
jealousy due to Frank‟s
unattractive and fearful
of abandonment by
Frank. Ironically, her
focus on Frank caused
her to abandon Jessica
for the first time.
closeness to her
mother made her very
resentful towards the
entire family, sought
comfort and belonging
from a school gang and
became a “tagger”.
Ann: feels that Michelle
is unable to fill the
mothering her and her
brother. Shows no
Michelle, very bossy.
Lance: unable to
properly grieve over
the loss of his mother
and stressed by familial
conflict, he began
wetting his bed.
INCREASED TENSION BETWEEN THEIR
MOSTLY INDIVIDUAL ISSUES THAT WERE
TRIGGERED BY THE STRESS OF BECOMING
A N “ I N S T A N T F A M I L Y ”
Provide therapy sessions specific to each major subsystem. Good for strengthening
bonds where closeness had been severed.
Frank and Michelle: child-rearing, romantic getaway, alternative income.
Jessica, Ann, and Lance: build sibling relationship, give privacy to parents.
Frank, Jessica, and Lance: grieving the loss of their mother.
Michelle and Jessica: rebuild mother-daughter relationship, discuss Jessica’s school
Frank and Lance: develop father-son bond, help Lance eliminate bedwetting through
Ann: Make her feel special, discuss talents, hobbies, friendships and allow her to be
Discuss boundary issues with entire family.
S T R U C T U R A L C H A N G E
Moving forward they were able to
quickly recognize the dyad or
triad that caused dysfunctional
patterns and get themselves
back on track.
The family became
Ann, Lance, Michelle
and Jessica feel
much closer to one
B E H A V I O R A L C H A N G E
Frank became proactive at
work, received a promotion
and bought the family a
Lance stopped wetting his
Ann invested her interest in
school clubs and allowed
her self to “be a kid”.
Jessica broke away from
the school gang and began
focusing on attending a