Grammar book final


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Grammar book final

  1. 1. Grammar Book<br />Alejandro Bentle<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br />Ser<br />Estar<br />Verbs like Gustar<br />Hacer Expressions<br />Preterito<br />Trigger words<br />Car, Gar, Zar<br />Spock Verbs<br />Cucuracha Verbs <br />DOP<br />Affirmative Commands<br />Irregular Commands<br />IOP<br />Snakes<br />Snakeys<br />Se Impersonal<br />
  3. 3. SER!<br />Description-¿Quees? (Ex: Un papel, un libro)<br />Origin-¿De Donde Es? (Ex: Nicaragua)<br />Characteristics-¿Como Es? (Ex: Alto)<br />Time- ¿QueHora Es? (Ex: Son las dos)<br />Occupation- ¿QueHace (Ex: Es Doctor)<br />Relationships- ¿Quien Es? (Ex: Es mi mama)<br />Possession- ¿De Quien Es? <br />Events- ¿Cuando/Donde Es? (Ex: La Clase)<br />Dates- ¿QueDiaes Hoy? (Ex: Lunes)<br />
  4. 4. ESTAR!<br />Health- ¿Como Estas? (Ex: Bien)<br />Emotions- ¿Como Estas? (Ex: Triste)<br />Location- ¿DondeEstas? (Ex:La Casa)<br />Present condition- ¿Como Esta? (Ex: Nublado)<br />“ING”- ar: ando/ er-ir: endo<br />
  5. 5. VERBS LIKE GUSTAR<br />Gustar: To like <br />Verbs Like “gustar” operate and are used in the same ways as “gustar”.<br />Examples:<br />Encantar- To love<br />Fascinar- To Fascinate<br />Molestar- To bother<br />Doler- To Hurt<br />Faltar- To miss<br />Importar- To matter<br />Disgustar- To dislike<br />Examples:<br /><ul><li>Io pronouns:
  6. 6. Me
  7. 7. Te
  8. 8. Les
  9. 9. Nos
  10. 10. Os
  11. 11. Les</li></ul>-Me gustancarros<br />-Les gustanzanahorias<br />
  12. 12. HACER EXPRESSIONS<br />Use hacer expressions to express time using hace and a conjugated verb<br />Present Tense: Since/For<br />Past Tense: Ago<br />Example:<br /><ul><li>Hacecincodiasquecomounahamburguesa</li></li></ul><li>PRETERITO<br />A definite time in the past with a beginning and/or Ending<br />Trigger words for preterite:<br /><ul><li>Ayer
  13. 13. Antayer
  14. 14. A las (any time)
  15. 15. El (insert day)</li></ul>Estoes el preterito!<br />
  16. 16. PRETERITO (continued)<br />YO<br />Tú<br />Él, ella, Ud<br />Nosotros<br />Ellos, Ustedes<br />
  17. 17. TRIGGER WORDS<br />
  18. 18. CAR, GAR, ZAR<br />In order to preserve the sound of the infinitive, a number of verbs change spelling in the preterite tense. The following changes occur in the "yo" form only<br />
  19. 19. SPOCK VERBS<br />Dar<br />Di<br />Diste<br />Dio<br />Dimos<br />Dieron<br />Ver<br />Vi<br />Viste<br />Vio<br />Vimos<br />Vieron<br />Ir/Ser<br />Fui<br />Fuiste<br />Fue<br />Fuimos<br />Fueron<br />Hacer<br />Hice<br />Hiceste<br />Hizo<br />Hiceimos<br />Hicieron<br />Ser<br />Dar<br />Ir<br />Ver<br />Hacer<br /><ul><li>The “Spock” verbs are irregular verb forms of the preterite. They have different conjugations.</li></li></ul><li>CUCARACHA VERBS<br />Andar- aduv<br />Estar- estuv<br />Poder- pud<br />Poner- pus<br />Querer- quis<br />Saber- sup<br />Tener- tuv<br />Venir- vin<br />Conducir- conduj<br />Producir- produj<br />Traducir- traduj<br />Decir- dij<br />Traer- traj<br /><ul><li>e
  20. 20. Iste
  21. 21. o
  22. 22. Imos
  23. 23. Isteis
  24. 24. ieron</li></li></ul><li>DOPs<br />DOPs receives the direct action of the verb.<br />Lo<br />La<br />Los<br />Las<br />I ate a steak<br />Comí un bistec. <br />She ate the steak<br />Ella comió lo bistec.<br />
  25. 25. AFFIRMATIVE COMMANDS<br />Formal:<br />Affirmative:<br /><ul><li>Ud./Uds.- put in the ‘yo’ form and change the opposite </li></ul>Examples:<br />Bebela<br />Negative:<br />Same<br />Informal:<br />Affirmative<br />Tu- simply drop the ‘s’<br />DOP and IOP can attach to the affirmative command<br />Negative:<br />Tu- Put it in ‘yo’ form and change opposite vowel, add an ‘s’<br />
  26. 26. IRREGULAR COMMANDS<br />Affirmative<br />Negative<br />
  27. 27. IOPs<br />Answers the question:<br />To Whom<br />For Whom<br />Has no feminine factors<br />Examples:<br />I gaveitto her -----›Se lo di<br />Give it to him -----› déselo<br />
  28. 28. SNAKES <br />Snakes stem change in 3rd person<br />
  29. 29. SNAKEYS<br />Snakeys are verbs like leer, creer, and oir.<br />Change the I to the y in the 3rd person<br />
  30. 30. SE IMPERSONAL<br />Use se to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb.<br />Sevendefruta en la frutería.<br />When using se, the verb is always in the 3rd person.<br />Aquísehablaespañol.<br />Se can be used in all tenses.<br />Sehizo mucho.<br />Sehará mucho.<br />Sehabíahecho.<br />