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Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
Sema History and Overview
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Sema History and Overview

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History of United States Army Aviation Special Electronic Mission Aircraft (SEMA) from the Vietnam conflict to date.

History of United States Army Aviation Special Electronic Mission Aircraft (SEMA) from the Vietnam conflict to date.

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  • The first SEMA aircraft, the Grumman OV-1 Mohawk evolved out of a joint requirement in 1954 issued by both the U.S. Army and the U.S. Marine Corps. The Army required a two seat, twin turboprop aircraft designed to operate from small unimproved fields under all weather conditions for a mission that would include observation, artillery spotting, air control, emergency resupply and radiological monitoring. The Army also saw a need for improved crew survivability over the Bird Dog observation airplane which had proved vulnerable during the Korean War. The Army’s requirements called for an observation airplane with heavier armor and crew survivability features such as ejection seats. The Marines required an aircraft capable of operating from escort class carriers to be used for naval target spotting and light attack missions. The result was a Grumman built aircraft designated the G-134 or YAO-1AF Mohawk which made its first flight on April 14, 1959. The flight test program revealed that the YAO-1AF Mohawk had outstanding flight characteristics. It was fully aerobatic and the controls were found to be very responsive, especially in a roll. The YAO-1AF proved to have one of the fastest roll rates of any aircraft. In September of 1957 the Marines dropped out of the G-134 program, however, roughly 380 Grumman Mohawks were eventually delivered to the U.S. Army. The Mohawk’s mission evolved into the employment of sophisticated surveillance sensors.
  • The first Mohawks in Vietnam belonged to the 23rd Special Warfare Aviation Detachment. They would detect the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese enemy by virtue of their excellent downward visibility and sophisticated surveillance sensors, then immediately attack them with 2.75 inch rockets and .50-caliber heavy machine gun pod fire. The VC/NVA referred to the Mohawks as the "Whispering Death". One Mohawk, piloted by Captain Ken Lee, even shot down a NVAF MIG-17 jet fighter in 1968. Army field commanders needed their own fixed-wing aircraft capable of providing fast reactive air support from forward operating bases since they could be on the scene much faster than USAF aircraft requiring longer, paved runways on bases farther back from the battlefield.
    The Air Force did not like the armament capability of the Mohawk and tried to get it removed. Orders for the OV-1 were suspended in 1964 because of the controversy in the Pentagon over the armed Mohawk. The U.S. Air force succeeded in establishing a 1965 directive which prohibited the Army from operating armed fixed wing aircraft.
  • The continued success of Mohawk operational surveillance missions in Vietnam led to additional Mohawk orders in 1966, and by 1968 five OV-1 Mohawk surveillance companies were operating in Southeast Asia.
  • Mohawk variants included the original JOV-1 [armed reconnaissance] include the OV-1A [visual and photographic mission].
  • OV-1B - Mission: visual, photographic, and Side-Looking-Airborne-Radar (SLAR)
  • OV-1C - Mission: visual, photographic, and infrared
  • OV-1D – Mission: SLAR, infrared and photographic
  • RV-1D – Mission: advanced Electronic Intelligence (ELINT) Reconnaissance
  • The U.S. Army extensively used the Grumman OV-1 Mohawk -- the supreme battlefield surveillance aircraft. OV-1 Mohawks served the U.S. Army in Europe, Korea, Vietnam, Central and South America, Alaska, and during Operation Desert storm in the Middle East. The Mohawk was removed from U.S. Army service in September 1996.
  • The Army also operated many lesser-known aircraft systems to gather Signals Intelligence (SIGENT). For the most part those systems were known by highly classified code names, and much of the information on those programs is just now being released.
    For almost as long as there has been viable electronic communication, the U.S. military has been concerned with the field of signals intelligence (SIGINT): information gathered from the interception, processing, and analysis of electronic communications.
    As the first American advisors arrived in Vietnam, it soon became apparent that a need existed to collect Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) in order to support the South Vietnamese Government. Since the American advisors were primarily Army personnel, Army SIGINT units would be used.
    The 400th United States Army Security Agency (USASA) Operations Unit (Provisional) was activated in Saigon, Republic of Vietnam on 23 May 1961 to oversee all USASA operations in Vietnam. Since there was "no Army Security Agency (ASA) in Vietnam" (a favorite saying of ASA recruiters in the sixties), it operated under the "cover" designation of the 3rd Radio Research Unit (3rd RRU). The 3rd RRU was located at Tan Son Nhut Air base.
    On 20 Sep 1961, the 400th USASA Operations Unit (Provisional) was discontinued and the 82nd USASA Special Operations Unit was created. The "cover" name of the 3rd RRU was retained.
    In January 1962, the facility occupied by the 3rd RRU was named "Davis Station" in honor of SP4 James T. Davis who had been killed in Vietnam on 22 Dec 1961. SP4 Davis was a member of a 3rd RRU team operating the ground based AN/PRD-1 Direction Finder, which was the standard ASA DF system at that time.
  • The first Army Security Agency (ASA) personnel who arrived in Vietnam in May of 1961 were assigned to the 3rd Radio Research Unit (RRU). ASA personnel were chiefly concerned with ground based direction-finding (DF) operations to locate Viet Cong using low power transmitters operating in South Vietnamese territory.
  • Because of the anomalies of wave propagation in the thick southeast Asian jungles and sky-wave interference , the ground Radio Direction Finder (RDF) operator had to be close to the transmitter to detect it. The solution was an airborne DF platform, the first of which the Army security agency (ASA) deployed in March 1962.
  • In the early 1960s, the Electronics Warfare Laboratory developed Airborne Radio Direction Finding (ARDF) electronic gear designed to mitigate the sky-wave interference problem using two dipole antennas attached to the wingtips of a fixed-wing aircraft . In April 1962 the first operational airborne DF system was fielded in three U.S. Army De Havilland U-6A Beaver airplanes, re-designating them RU-6As. Apparently no special code names were applied to those aircraft at the time. Assigned to the Vietnam Flight Detachment of the 3rd Radio Research Unit in March 1962, these three aircraft became the first Army signals intelligence aircraft.
    The Army fielded more airborne DF systems installed on a variety U.S Army utility aircraft that were already in the inventory. Some of these airborne platforms were modified to perform a wide range of highly classified missions, including communications intelligence (COMINT), electronic intelligence (ELINT), signals intelligence (SIGINT), and photographic (PHOTINT), infrared (IR) and radar surveillance. Later, in the mid-197Os, all of these aircraft became known as SEMA. The earlier COMINT/SIGINT aircraft systems, were developed through the combined efforts of the Army security agency (ASA), the U.S. Army Electronics Command Electronics Warfare Laboratory (EWL) and private contractors, such as E-Systems in Texas. Their various successor organizations were involved as well. These systems were among the most valued intelligence assets in the entire war.
  • The RU-6 aircraft were joined in 1963 by two RU-8D Seminoles, code-named "Checkmate," and one RU-8F aircraft. The RU-6A had armored protection and its crews carried parachutes. The RU-8Ds had neither.
    The direction-finding performance of the RU-8E however, was not satisfactory. Later that year, seven more RU-6A Seven Roses and 10 more RU-8D Checkmates arrived. The last group of RU-6As and RU-8Ds to arrive were later designated either "Wine-bottle" or "Cefish Person" and totaled 41 RU-8Ds and a few RU-6As.
  • The RU-6, RU-1 and RU-8 systems were not true ARDF aircraft. They could home in on a transmitter but had great difficulty in determining the exact emitter location. The aircraft had to fly over the location before the precise position could be computed. Radio "fingerprinting" equipment, known as "Short Skirt," and later as "Lefair Knee," was installed on approximately 12 RU-8D aircraft. Most were assigned to the 509th Radio Research Group.
  • By the time the U.S. presence in Vietnam reached its height, the 509th Radio Research Group replaced the 3rd and ASA personnel in country numbered as many as 6,000. The agency itself had grown to include some 30,000 personnel, and in 1964 had become a major army field command.
  • On 1 June 1966 the 53rd USASA Special Operations Command was designated as the 509th USASA Group and as the 509th Radio Research Group (RRG).
      On 1 June 1966, the 224th Aviation Battalion (Radio Research) was activated under the command of the 509th RRG.  It consisted of four companies:
    · the 138th Aviation Company (RR) at Da Nang in support of I Corps tactical zone of operation · the 144th Aviation Company (RR) at Nha Trang in support of II Corps tactical zone of operation · the 146th Aviation Company (RR) at Saigon in support of III Corps tactical zone of operation · the 156th Aviation Company (RR) at Can Tho in support of IV Corps tactical zone of operation  
     aircraft from Cam Ranh Air Base, Vietnam, on 13-hour missions.  
     By June 1969, the 224th Aviation Battalion (RR) with its headquarters company and five operational aviation companies had over 1,100 personnel and eighty aircraft.  This battalion and the LEFT BANK elements within the two radio research companies supporting the 1st Cavalry Division and the 4th Infantry Division comprised the initial fleet of the Army airborne signals capability in Vietnam.
  • On 3 July 1967, the 1st Radio Research company (Aviation) was assigned to the 224th Aviation Battalion (RR) to provide direct support to the U.S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV), flying six RP-2E The AP-2E Neptune was utilized by the U.S. Army's 1st Radio Research Company (Aviation), call sign 'Crazy Cat,' located at Cam Ranh Bay in Vietnam. The AP-2P was a modified Lockheed P-2 Neptune which was used by the Navy for Maritime patrol and Anti submarine Warfare.
    The 1st Radio Research Company (Aviation) was an Army Security Agency airborne signals intelligence unit deployed to the Naval Air Station at Cam Ranh Bay in June 1967. There was a good reason why an Army aviation unit was "on station" with the Navy. They were flying a total of six converted P-2 Neptune aircraft - largely retired by the Navy after operation since 1945 - and only an NAS could provide the spare parts necessary to support operations. The ASA configuration was designated RP-2E and was the largest aircraft in the Army fleet at the time. Ground and air crews were trained at various NAS locations across the US, with SIGINT specialists obtained from the primary ASA training facility at Ft Devens, MA.
    Originally promoted by Gen Westmoreland for electronic countermeasure (jamming) missions, the primary use was for HF and VHF COMINT collection. Missions were flown all over Vietnam, with particular emphasis over the Ho Chi Minh trail. Crazy Cat (later designated CEFLIEN LION) became ASA's most prolific airborne collector in Vietnam.
    When the Crazy Cat company was stood down in 1972, it had accumulated 40,000 hours of accident free flying (although on Easter Sunday, 14 April 1969, enemy 37mm antiaircraft gunners scored a hit on an RP-2E, causing extensive damage to the aircraft). By war's end, a total of 900 officers and men had worn the Crazy Cat patch.
  • Pathfinder was a one-of-a-kind, High-Frequency/Very High-Frequency direction-finding (HFDF) system in the RCV-2B Caribou aircraft. This type of Caribou was assigned to the 146th Radio Research Aviation Company until it was turned over to the U.S. Air Force in April 1967.
  • The RU-1A Otter, designated "Cafe Girl"; and two RU-lA Systems, called "Laffing Otter" (originally designated "Happy Nights“) made up the first generation of Airborne Collection plus ARDF systems aircraft that were used in Vietnam. The rugged de Havilland U-1A Otter was very slow and had fixed landing gear. The reconnaissance versions, RU-1A Laffing Otters, were assigned to the 146th Radio Research Aviation Company. The Radio Research (RR) designation was used to classify all of the extra and numerous antenna on the aircraft. The RU-1A was withdrawn from service in January 1971, when America began pulling out of Vietnam. The main difference between the Cafe Girl and Laffing Otter was that the latter had a second on-hoard operator position. The Cafe Girl aircraft later was refitted with a second operator position. At least three aircraft were convened to accommodate two operators. Another RU-1A (tail No.57-1714) later was converted for a project called "Sore Thumb," the first attempt at 360-degree VHF direction finding using 'a spinning Adcock array antenna. Sore Thumb was not very successful, but it became the predecessor of what was later known as the "Left Jab" direction-finding system.
  • The second generation of ARDF Army aircraft reconnaissance systems, "Laffing Eagle" and Left Jab, were the most sophisticated Army ARDF systems in Vietnam at the time. Laffing Eagle was an RU-21D aircraft that was a logical development of the RU-8D system. The system's frequency coverage was expanded and a second operator position added. The RU-21D had a much larger interior capacity than the RU-8D. Additionally, an AN/ASN-86 Internal Navigation System replaced the AN/ASN-64 Doppler navigation system used on the RU-8Ds. The new system proved very difficult to maintain, however, requiring constant support from contractor representatives and a 40-foot trailer full of test equipment. Later on, a system known as V-SCAN, which gave 240-degree direction-finding coverage centered around the nose and tail, was added to the RU-21Ds. Those aircraft arrived in Vietnam in December 1968 and were used extensively after that.
  • In 1970 the Electronic Warfare Laboratory finished development of the Left Jab system for the JU-21A aircraft, which was the first Army airborne system to provide 360-degree direction-finding coverage. That system used some of the electronic equipment from the older "Left Bank" system Incorporating the AN/ARQ-38 radar, Left Jab was the first Army system to combine the use of a digital computer to store direction-finding calibration data and to take the aircraft's position from the internal navigation system in order to compute the locations of enemy emitters. At least three JU-2lAs (tail Nos. 67-18063, 67-18065 and 67-18069) were built, and all were assigned to the 138th Radio Research Aviation Company. The first Left Jab mission was flown in Vietnam on January 9, 1971. On March 4, 1971, a JU-21A (tail No.67-18065, call sign Vanguard 216) was shot down over North Vietnam, killing the entire crew of five. On February 16,1973, another Left Jab aircraft flew the last ASA mission in Vietnam.
  • The YO-3A was a low altitude SILENT STEALTH night reconnaissance airplane that was developed for the U.S. Army for use in the Vietnam War, 1970-71.  The YO-3A mission was to interrupt and destroy enemy night operations. The YO-3A was not armed.  It's only protection was its silence. The YO-3A was equipped with following mission equipment:-Night Vision Aerial Periscope (NVAP)-Infrared Illuminator (IR)-Laser Target Designator (LTD)
  • The Army's heliborn signal intelligence capability also includes six specially configured UH-1 helicopters. These aircraft were re-designated as EH-1 Left Bank aircraft and were assigned directly to the tactical war-fighting divisions in Vietnam. These Left Bank assets were manned and maintained by ASA operators, also found with the same divisions. Their flight profiles included both high and extremely low-altitude operating envelopes necessary to locate and target tactically oriented enemy threats of immediate and times-sensitive value.
  • Quick Fix is a tactical, heliborne intercept and electronic countermeasures system that was deployed on modified UH-1 and UH-60 utility helicopters. It’s primary mission to intercept, locate and jam enemy communications and pass such intelligence to Military Intelligence elements.
    The earlier EH-1H Quick Fix was an UH-1H Huey modified with electronic equipment to intercept, and jam enemy communications. The principal EW system was the ESL AN/ALQ-151 jamming system. At least 30 EH-1H modifications were completed. All were replaced by EH-60A and EH-60L Quick Fix two aircraft. The EH-1X QUICK FIX 2 and QUICK FIX 2A aircraft was an Electronic Countermeasures (ECM) variant of the Huey designed to intercept and jam enemy communications. It also had direction finding (DF) and location capabilities and could downlink the info to an Army ground station. Only ten EH-1Xs were built.
    The H-60A Quickfix is an important special electronic mission aircraft (SEMA) asset for conducting intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW). The EH-60A (Quickfix) and the follow on EH-60L (Advanced Quickfix) provide the commander with signal intelligence and electronic jamming capability using the advantage of aviation mobility.
    The EH-60A’ avionics include Aircraft Survivability Equipment (ASE), an Integrated Inertial Navigation System (IINS), communications intercept receiver (1.5-150 Mhz), communications direction Finder (20-76 Mhz), Jammer (20-80 Mhz) Standoff Jamming 15-30 Km behind FLOT.
    The Stand-Off Target Acquisition System (SOTAS) was helicopter borne radar system designed to detect moving targets on the battlefield and downlink the information to an Army ground station. It is an all-weather system capable of detecting, locating, tracking, and classifying surface targets.
  • On February 16,1973, a Left Jab aircraft flew the last ASA mission in Vietnam.
  • After the withdrawal of American forces from Vietnam, some RU-21Ds were transferred to the Aviation Detachment of the 7th Radio Research Station at Udorn Air Force Base, Thailand. On July 15, 1974, operations were transferred to U Tapao Air Force Base, Thailand, where they remained until May 1975, when all were re-deployed to the United States.
  • Approximately 16 of RU-2lAs that saw action in Vietnam returned to the United States and were retrofitted as the RU-21E "Left Foot."
  • Three A200s were brought by the US Army for use in the Cefly Lancer program in the early 1970s. These aircraft were equipped with the AN/ALQ-150 tactical Electronic Support measures (ESM) equipment and were targeted against Warsaw Pact multichannel microwave systems which carried high level trunk communications. They also carried the AN/ALQ-151 (Quick Fix) DF intercept and Electronic Counter Measure (ECM) system and the AN/ALQ-156 Missile Detector System which could evaluate threats and automatically deploy decoys from a M-130 flare dispenser.
  • CEFIRM LEADER was formed in Ft. Bliss, TX, in 1971 and was intended to replace the P2 Neptune, Crazy Cats. The unit was composed of nine aircraft capable of performing DF, Jamming and Command and Control via a data link. Due to problems with one of the systems the unit was not deployed and the war ended. The system was later turned over to the 138th Aviation (Reserve) Company. The system was deployed to Central America and subsequently to the Iraq War.
     
  • In 1993 the CEFIRM LEADER System transitioned into CRAZYHORSE, a platform that had been operated by B Co MILI in Honduras. The 138th MI Co operated the three "RC-12G" aircraft nick-named CRAZYHORSE until 30 Sep 1998  when RC-12G 80-23380 flew its last mission. The three RC-12G  aircraft have had their mission equipment removed and were ferried to Ft. Sill, OK for retirement on 12 Oct 1998. 
  • During the early 1970’s, the original Guardrail I system was followed by a rapid succession of Guardrail systems that included Guardrail II, III, and IV. Guardrail I–IV (GR I–IV). These early systems were procured by NSA as Quick Reaction Capability (QRC) programs. They were designed as theatre level assets that led to a long-term requirement for Guardrail as an Army Corps level asset.
    2011 completed 40 years of flying the Guardrail System. Introduced under the auspices of NSA and then managed by the Army, the Guardrail System has proven itself as a successful and significant tactical and national asset providing continuous surveillance capability over these many years; adapting to the evolutionary changes in technology and always rising to meet the challenges of the ever changing threat scenarios. The Guardrail System has continually demonstrated its staying power and universal position as a force multiplier through the years of changes in cost, schedule, and force constraints
  • In early 1976, the Guardrail V (GR-V) program was conceived. In 1977, as a result of the Intelligence Organization and Stationing Study, responsibility for the Guardrail program was transferred from NSA to the Department of the Army, Electronics Command (ECOM, later to be Electronics and Communications Command.
  • Since the implementation of the Intelligence Organization and Stationing Study (IOSS) in 1977, tactical intelligence units have meandered through a labyrinth of cosmetic name changes, product Improvements and structural realignments in search of the right mix of Intelligence and Electronic Warfare (IEW) support for maneuver commanders.
    New doctrine called for placing the “Aerial Surveillance Companies (AS)” and “Combat Electronic Warfare intelligence" (CEWI) assets into detachments (Military Intelligence Detachment Aerial Surveillance -MIDAS), companies (Electronic Warfare Company (EW) and Aerial Surveillance (AS), battalions, and groups. These individual units would be directly attached to the tactical units they supported. In dividing along strategic and tactical lines, the Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) and Combat Electronic Warfare Intelligence (CEWI) units were created. All Army intelligence assets at the strategic level would fall under INSCOM while all tactical assets would go into a CEWI unit. In 1978, CEWI planning called for each USAREUR corps to have one CEWI group, part of which would be composed of a CEWI aerial exploitation battalion and an Aerial Surveillance (AS) company. However, the command only had enough aircraft and equipment to form one aerial exploitation battalion. Eventually all SEMA units with Combat Electronic Warfare Intelligence (CEWI) and Aerial Surveillance assets were joined into what is now known as the Aerial Exploitation Battalion (AEB).
    As a consequence the 2d MI Battalion (Aerial Exploitation - AE) was reorganized as on 16 May 1979. It continued to be assigned to the 502d ASA Group, an INSCOM unit, until 16 January 1981, when it was reassigned to USAREUR. It was subsequently reassigned to VII Corps on 16 June 1983, and finally to its CEWI group, the 207th MI Group, when the latter was activated and assigned to VII Corps on 16 October 1983 (the 207th had been in carrier status since 16 April 1983). While all of these macro reorganizations were going on above them, the two micro units that actually performed the aerial surveillance missions along the border were also undergoing changes. On 15 May 1979 the 73d MI Company (AS) had been renamed the 73d Combat Intelligence (CBTI) Company (AS) and the 330th ASA Company was renamed the 330th Electronic Warfare (EW) Aviation Company (Forward -FWD). In 1983 Department of the Army insisted that doctrine be followed and the two companies be renamed with letter designations; as a consequence, the 73d became Company A and the 330th became Company B of the 2d MI Battalion (AE). However, as of the end of 1983, both companies were still generally known by their number designations, and they still steadfastly referred to themselves as the 73d CBTI Company (AS) and the 330th EW Aviation Company (FWD), respectively. 
    As was noted earlier, there were not enough assets to create a CEWI group or aerial exploitation battalion for V Corps, but throughout this period bits and pieces of its CEWI group (205th MI Group and battalion (1st MI Battalion (AE) were being accumulated. A key element of the 1st MI Battalion had been present since 16 June 1982, when the 144th ASA Company was activated at Echterdingen and initially attached to the 2d MI Battalion. Although it had some personnel, when its set of six QUICK LOOK II aircraft and equipment arrived in the summer of 1982 (see above) it was still under-strength, and the 73d initially fielded the equipment and maintained it until 1983, when it handed it over to the 144th. Also in 1983 the 144th ASA Company was renamed the 144th ASA Aviation Company (Forward) and assigned to its parent unit, the 1st MI Battalion (AE), on 16 August 1983, which at that time was in carrier status under its parent, V Corps. It, like the other two aerial surveillance companies, also picked up a letter designation in 1983 and became Company B of the 1st MI Battalion. It remained at Echterdingen, however, and was still attached to the 2d MI Battalion. By the end of 1983, the 144th had moved to Wiesbaden Air Base, where plans called for it to be collocated with the 1st MI Battalion, which was scheduled to be activated on 16 January 1984. The 1st MI Battalion was scheduled to activate another aerial surveillance company in the FY 1985-86 timeframe and, sometime in FY 1985, accept delivery of the second set of six Improved GUARDRAIL V aircraft and equipment. In 1984 the 330th EW Aviation Company (FWD) would move from Ramstein Air Base to Echterdingen, thus collocating all of the 2d MI Battalion's aerial surveillance assets at one location. When all of these activations, equipment and aircraft accessions, and unit movements were completed, the command would have a significantly improved aerial surveillance posture that would allow even better peacetime aerial surveillance coverage of the border area.
  • The Aerial Exploitation Military Intelligence Battalion (AE) rapidly deploys from the Region to contingency AORs and conducts Aerial Reconnaissance Intelligence Electronic Warfare operations in support of The Military Intelligence Theater Brigade throughout the full spectrum of military operations.
  • There are 5 AEBs in the Army right now. 204th MI in Ft Bliss which consists of DH-7s and C-12s and is tasked to support SOUTHCOM. 15th MI in Ft Hood which is currently tasked to support Iraq. 224th MI in Savannah Ga. And is tasked to support Afghanistan. 1st MI in Wiesbaden Germany and is tasked to support Afghanistan, and 3rd MI in Korea tasked to support the Korean peninsula.
  • Korea currently flies the D and H model aircraft which is the oldest fleet with D models scheduled for retirement soon.
  • 1st MI currently flies the K and X Models with a move going towards the X Model.
  • The D, H, and K model cockpit is the oldest cockpit.
  • The N Model is currently being flown by 224th and 15th
  • The RC-12 has traditionally been limited to the signals intelligence mission, using antennas and onboard processors to intercept an enemy's transmissions and triangulating to determine their position. But intelligence-gathering aircraft, such as the US Air Force's MC-12 Liberty, are increasingly being delivered with Full Motion Video (FMV) capability, allowing the same aircraft to identify the source of the emission visually.
  • Task Force ODIN — Short for Observe-Detect-Identify-Neutralize. ODIN is an Army task force that uses unmanned aerial vehicles and unconventional aircraft to find and kill roadside-bomb emplacers in Iraq and Afghanistan.
    Task Force ODIN was created at Fort Hood, Texas, in 2006 and sent to Iraq later that year, worked under the 1st Infantry Division in Tikrit. ODIN has roughly 100 soldiers used UAVs, 10 modified C-12 surveillance planes and ground communication stations and has killed more than 3,000 bomb-planters and capture several hundred more. Updated versions are Task Force ODIN II, III and IV.
  • Description: The Multi-Mission Airborne Reconnaissance & Surveillance System (MARSS) is an airborne intelligence and C4I system that can conduct at the same time Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) and Image Intelligence (IMINT) missions in all-weather conditions. In addition, the system is equipped with Communication Intelligence (COMINT) to provide real-time Electronic Order of Battle (EOB) for all communications networks and radars in the theater. The MARSS was developed by IAI's Elta Systems Group.
    The army is currently planning to replace the legacy Guardrail fleet with Enhanced Medium Altitude Reconnaissance Surveillance System (EMARSS).
  • The RC-12 has traditionally been limited to the signals intelligence mission, using antennas and onboard processors to intercept an enemy's transmissions and triangulating to determine their position. But intelligence-gathering aircraft, such as the US Air Force's MC-12 Liberty, are increasingly being delivered with Full Motion Video (FMV) capability, allowing the same aircraft to identify the source of the emission visually.
    Description: The Enhanced Multi-Mission Airborne Reconnaissance & Surveillance System (E-MARSS) is an airborne intelligence and C4I system that can conduct at the same time Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) and Image Intelligence (IMINT) missions in all-weather conditions. In addition, the system is equipped with Communication Intelligence (COMINT) systems to provide real-time Electronic Order of Battle (EOB) for all communications networks and radars in the theater. IMINT high quality imagery is collected a long range electro-optical sensor. EMARSS is the Army's future force airborne intelligence collection, processing, and targeting support system. EMARSS is a manned multi-INT Airborne Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (AISR) system that provides a persistent capability to detect, locate, classify/identify, and track surface targets in day/night, near-all-weather conditions with a high degree of timeliness and accuracy.
    EMARSS aircraft will be located within Aerial Exploitation Battalions (AEB), which are assigned to the U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM). The EMARSS system will consist of a commercial derivative aircraft equipped with Electro-optic/Infrared (EO/IR) Full Motion Video (FMV) sensor, a COMINT collection system, an Aerial Precision Guidance (APG) system, line-of-site (LOS) tactical and beyond line-of-site (LOS/BLOS) communications suites, two operator workstations and a self-protection suite. EMARSS will operate as a single platform in support of tactical missions. Mission altitude and flight tracks are chosen to optimize sensor data collection on the target area of interest while avoiding known threats. Flight tracks may be selected to strike a balance among the capabilities of multiple sensors, or to optimize collection from individual sensors based upon the daily collection tasking dictated by the tactical commanders Priority Intelligence Requirements (PIRs). EMARSS will provide efficient response to Combat Forces ISR tasking with centralized Processing, Exploitation & Dissemination (PED) of ISR while simultaneously transmitting critical FMV and intelligence products to engaged tactical forces.
  • As the United States Army SEMA program proceeds in the twenty-first century, the COMINT and ELINT capabilities will be adjoined with imagery intelligence (IMINT) and measurement signature intelligence (MASINT) capabilities. This will be the next step in the relentless succession of Guardrail systems. It is a system that stands on the shoulders of giants when one views its extraordinary technological heritage.
    Credidts:
    J. Daniel Sherman received a B.S. degree from the University of
    Iowa, an M.A. degree from Yale University, and a Ph.D. in organizational
    theory/organizational behavior from the University of Alabama. In
    1989–1990, he was a visiting scholar at the Stanford Center for
    Organization Research at Stanford University. He currently serves
    as the Associate Dean of the College of Administrative Science at
    the University of Alabama in Huntsville. He has been principal
    investigator (PI) or co-PI on a number of contracts with the U.S.
    Army. He is the author of over 40 research publications, and his
    research has appeared in a number of leading management journals
    including Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Management,
    IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, and Journal of
    Product Innovation Management. His research interests since 1990
    have focused on cross functional integration.
  • Transcript

    • 1. History of SEMA
    • 2. Terminal Learning Objective Action: Define the Origins of the Special Electronic Mission Aircraft Community Condition: In a classroom without reference for the written exam. Standard: IAW the Guardrail student evaluation plan.
    • 3. Administrative Data SAFETY REQUIREMENTS: NONE RISK ASSESSMENT LEVEL: IV/E – Low ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS: No Impact. Evaluation: This material may be evaluated in the Common Core Evaluation. Classification: Unclassified.
    • 4. Agenda •Discuss Origins of the Special Electronic Mission Aircraft Community •Aircraft •Systems •Organization
    • 5. Project 134 1957 G-134 T-Tail 1959 YAO-1AF 1960 OV-1A STOL
    • 6. JOV-1A
    • 7. Five Mohawk Companies in Vietnam “Spuds” – 131st “Redeyes” – 245th “Phantom Hawks” – 225t “Warriors” – 73rd “Delta Hawks” – 244th
    • 8. OV-1A Mission: Visual and Photographic Surveillance
    • 9. OV-1B Mission: Visual, Photographic, and Side-Looking-Airborne-Radar (SLAR) Surveillance
    • 10. OV-1C Mission: Visual, Photographic and Infrared Surveillance
    • 11. OV-1D Mission: Interchangeable between SLAR and Infrared Surveillance Photographic Surveillance
    • 12. RV-1D Quick Look Mission: Advanced Electronic Intelligence (ELINT) Reconnaissance
    • 13. “A SEMA Contributor”
    • 14. The Badlands Again
    • 15. The Bad Guys
    • 16. The Good Guys AN/PRD-1 Radio Direction Finder Operator
    • 17. Enter the RU-6A (Beaver) Mission: Airborne Radio Direction Finding (ARDF)
    • 18. Setting up…..getting ready!!!!!
    • 19. RU-8 (Seminole) Mission: Airborne Radio Direction Finding
    • 20. The 509th Radio Research Group Army Security Agency (ASA)
    • 21. 509th Radio Research Group (RRG) 138 AVN CO 144 AVN CO 146 AVN CO 156 AVN CO
    • 22. 224th Aviation Battalion (RR) 138th Avn Co 144th Avn Co 146th Avn Co 156th Avn Co 1st Avn EW Co
    • 23. RP-2E (Neptune) CRAZY CAT and CEFLIEN LION Mission: EW Jamming, HF and VHF COMINT collection
    • 24. CV-2B (Caribou) PATHFINDER or GOPHER DELTA Mission: HF/VHF Collection and ARDF
    • 25. RU-1 (Otter) Mission: Airborne Collection and Radio Direction Finding
    • 26. RU- 21D “Laffing Eagle” Mission: Sophisticated Airborne Radio Direction Finding (ARDF)
    • 27. JU- 21A “Left Jab” Mission: Sophisticated Airborne Radio Direction Finding (ARDF)
    • 28. YO-3A Mission: SILENT STEALTH night reconnaissance
    • 29. Split Focus • • • • BACK IN CONUS-1970 ASAs NEW CONCEPTS PROJECT LEFT FOOT PROJECT CEFLY LANCER PROJECT CEFIRM LEADER PROJECT GUARDRAIL
    • 30. UH-ID/H Left Bank
    • 31. SEMA’s Helicopter Fleet MULTEWS QUICKFIX QUICKFIX LEFT BANK SOTAS
    • 32. Vietnam Cease Fire
    • 33. JU-21A Left Jab & RU-21 Laffing Eagle (7th RRFS) Udorn ,Thailand
    • 34. Accomplishments • • • • • • • MARCH 1962 – MARCH 1973 11 YRS MEGA HOURS OF COVERAGE 5 KIA (LEFT JAB), 9 KIA (LEFT BANK) “ELECTRONIC HIGH GROUND” IT WORKED HI/LO MIX NEW CAREER FIELD
    • 35. RU-21A to RU-21E Left Foot
    • 36. RU-21J Cefly Lancer
    • 37. RU-21 A, B, C Cefirm Leader
    • 38. RC-12G Crazy Horse
    • 39. “Outline” For The Future • DEDICATED AIRCRAFT PARTNER • TRANSITION TO DF PODS • MULTIPLE AIRCRAFT - ELECTRONICALLY CONNECTED • DEDICATED GROUND PROCESSING VAN - LECTRONICALLY CONNECTED • CONNECTIVITY AND REPORTING - ELECTRONICALLY CONNECTED • TO&E ASSIGNED TO BATTLEFIELD CHAIN OF COMMAND • EXTENDING PROFESSIONAL EXPERTISE OF EMERGING INTELLIGENCE AVAITORS
    • 40. •GUARDRAILDEDICATED AIRCRAFT PARTNER • TRANSITION TO DF PODS • • MULTIPLE AIRCRAFT - ELECTRONICALLY CONNECTED • DEDICATED GROUND PROCESSING VAN - LECTRONICALLY CONNECTED • CONNECTIVITY AND REPORTING - ELECTRONICALLY CONNECTED • TO&E ASSIGNED TO BATTLEFIELD CHAIN OF COMMAND • EXTENDING PROFESSIONAL EXPERTISE OF EMERGING INTELLIGENCE AVAITORS
    • 41. 115Kts, FL230, Zero Zero
    • 42. GUARDRAIL V VV
    • 43. “The Transition” 1978 1977 1976 MI CO/DET (AS) I ASA INSCOM O S Mohawks CEWI S INSCOM 501st MI Group 3rd MI BN (AE) (146th AVN Co & 704th MIDAS) Korea FORSCOM 641st AVN BN Reserves Ft Lewis, WA Aerial Exploitation Battalion WN I GE NCE D VIGILA 66th MI Group 2nd MI BN (AE) (330th EW & 73rd AS COs) Germany 205th MI BDE 1st MI BN (AE) 144th ASA Germany 525th MI Group 504th MI Group 15th MI BN (AE) 156th ASA CO & 131st AS CO III Corps CONUS 224th MI BN (AE) 224th ASA CO XVIII Abn Corps CONUS 151st AVN BN Reserves Atlanta, GA
    • 44. Remote Relay V
    • 45. Integrate …….why not??? GUARDLOOK V GUARDRAIL with COMINT Mohawks with ELINT
    • 46. GUARDRAIL COMMON SENSOR Systems 2, 1 Systems 4, 3
    • 47. RC-7 ARL (Crazy Hawk)
    • 48. RC-7 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imagery SAR Side Scanning RADAR MTI Collect, analyze, & disseminate IMINT (MTI/SAR/FMV) AEB CORP S A ARM Y AIR FIELD
    • 49. The Aerial Exploitation Battalion (AEB) MISSION The Aerial Exploitation Military Intelligence Battalion (AE) rapidly deploys from the Region to contingency AORs and conducts Aerial Reconnaissance Intelligence Electronic Warfare operations in support of The Military Intelligence Theater Brigade throughout the full spectrum of military operations.
    • 50. The Five Aerial Exploitation Battalions (AEB) 204TH MI BN (AE) FT. BLISS, TX 1ST MI BN (AE) GERMANY 224TH MI BN (AE) SAVANNAH, GA 15TH MI BN (AE) FT. HOOD, TX 3RD MI BN (AE) REPUBLIC OF KOREA
    • 51. RC-12D/H 3RD MI BN, KOREA
    • 52. RC-12K
    • 53. RC-12D/H/K Cockpit
    • 54. RC-12N
    • 55. RC-12N/P Cockpit
    • 56. RC-12 (X) FORT HUACHUCA, AZ (X)
    • 57. RC-12X Cockpit
    • 58. Guardrail Modernization RC-12X
    • 59. Guardrail / GRCS XX Theater Level Asset XX X XX XX XX XX X X “EYES AND EARS” Deep Battle COMINT / ELINT Emitter Targets XX X X XX X No “On-Board” Operators TCDL’s Collection / Reporting Mission Operations Facility (MOF) System Description
    • 60. Guardrail / GRCS • The Guardrail system has an unclassified range of 300NM from ground station, to target • The RC-12 is an all weather high altitude (30,000-35,000 ft) aircraft with a 4 to 5 hour mission time • The Guardrail flies multi-aircraft missions with 2-3 aircraft. Target BIHAC BIHAC Ground station (MOF) 150 NM PRIJEDOR BRCKO BANJA LUKA DOBOJ BRCKO DOBOJ BANJA LUKA TUZLA ZVORNIK ZENICA TUZLA M. GRAD ZENICA JAJCE BUGOJNO GORAZDE SARAJEVO SARAJEVO MOSTAR 150 NM MOSTAR BILECA BILECA
    • 61. Guardrail / GRCS • The unclassified collection footprint is a 150 NM radius from the aircraft geographic location • Of the six primary intelligence tasks (MI-METL) Guardrail provides: •Peace time operations = Indications and Warnings •War time operations = Target Intelligence (Target Development / Support to Targeting) 150 NM(radius from aircraft) 300NM diameter
    • 62. Student Checks STUDENT CHECK Q: Guardrail/GRCS is a _____ level asset? A: Theater
    • 63. Guardrail / GRCS THREE OR MORE LINES OF BEARING (LOBs) USED TO DETERMINE THE GEO-LOCATION OF AN EMITTER FIX GUARDRAIL IS THE ONLY SIGINT ASSET THAT FLYS 2-3 AIRCRAFT PER MISSION
    • 64. Guardrail / GRCS Six Major Sub Systems RC-12 AIRCRAFT AIRBORNE RELAY FACILITY ARF REPEATER WITH TRACKERS (TCDL) GR/CS SYSTEMS 1, 2, 4 Satellite Link Forward TACTICAL MEDIUM EARTH TERMINAL (TMET) GR/CS SYSTEMS 1, 2, 4 Rear GUARDRAIL GROUND BASELINE (GGB) AUXILIARY GROUND EQUIPMENT (AGE) VAN MISSION OPERATION FACILITY
    • 65. Doctrinal Employment XX XX X XX XX DIV XX X XXX TAC XX TEB XX X XX DIV X XX X XX XX DIV XXX X CORPS OPS TCDL’s ACE AEB EW MOF
    • 66. Employment Scenarios (Korea) Local Mode (Direct Tether) TCDL’s Operator Facility GGB Shelter (S-280) Mission Operations Facility (MOF) • GGB Forward Elements are in a SCIF • No Satellite Connectivity Exists • Intelligence Operations in the Forward Area 2/2/06 UNCLASSIFIED 107AISR.2.021
    • 67. Employment Scenarios (224th, 1st MI, 15th MI) Remote Mode (Splt-Based) 30 Workstations Provided, 10 With Capability to go Forward TCDL’s GGB TMET TST • Split-Based Option • GGB Forward Elements are in a SCIF 2/2/06 Mission Operations Facility (MOF) UNCLASSIFIED 107AISR.2.022
    • 68. Student Checks STUDENT CHECK Q: Where does the processing and reporting of intelligence occur within the Guardrail/GRCS System? A: Mission Operations Facility* (MOF)
    • 69. Guardrail / GRCS IS • Getting locations directly to the shooters that need it • The number 1 tactical producer of SIGINT in theater • Able to be dynamically re-tasked using multiple tracks to focus on specific target areas and AORS BOTTOM LINE IS THAT WE SAVE LIVES EVERY MISSION!
    • 70. USAF MC-12W Liberty
    • 71. Task Force ODIN
    • 72. Desert Owl Description • • • • • Army C-12 Aircraft Mission Operation Altitude: 5K-14K feet Endurance: 5.5 Hours ASE/ Blue Force Tracker Aircrew of four: two pilots and up to two onboard analysts who provide real-time imagery analysis for the warfighter on the ground Benefits/Capabilities Status • WESCAM MX-15 –Enhanced FLIR –Laser Illuminator/Designator –NRT FMV downlink to OSRVT •SAR radar for IED change detection. •Capability to send the data to any command level in the theater • 1 OIF Systems Operational • CDRT – NICHE • SRI is the integrator for Desert Owl
    • 73. ARMS ( Airborne Reconnaissance Multi-Sensor System ) Description • • • • Army C-12R Aircraft Mission Operation Altitude: 5K-14K feet Endurance: 5.5 Hours ASE/ Blue Force Tracker Benefits/Capabilities • WESCAM MX-15 –Enhanced FLIR –Laser Illuminator/Designator –NRT FMV downlink to OSRVT • Digital Pan Camera (PeARL) Capable of high resolution mapping Change Detection Spatial and Spectral filtering STATUS • 10 Systems Operational • Additional Systems Being Procured for TFO-A • Will be designated as MARSS • CDRT - NICHE
    • 74. MARSS (Medium Altitude Reconnaissance and Surveillance System) Description • • • • • Benefits/Capabilities • WESCAM MX-15 –Enhanced FLIR –Laser Illuminator/Designator –NRT FMV downlink to OSRVT •Airborne intelligence and C4I system that can conduct at the same time Signals Intelligence (SIGINT). •Communication Intelligence (COMINT) to provide real-time Electronic Order of Battle (EOB) for all communications networks and radars in the theater. •Capability to send the data to any command level in the theater Army C-12 Aircraft Mission Operation Altitude: 5K-14K feet Endurance: 5.5 Hours ASE/ Blue Force Tracker Aircrew of four: two pilots and up to two onboard analysts who provide real-time imagery analysis for the warfighter on the ground Status • 2 OEF Systems Operational • 4 additional Systems in retrofit • CDRT - NICHE
    • 75. E-MARSS (Enhanced-Medium Altitude Reconnaissance and Surveillance System) Description • • • • • Army C-12 Aircraft Mission Operation Altitude: 5K-14K feet Endurance: 5.5 Hours ASE/ Blue Force Tracker Aircrew of four: two pilots and up to two onboard analysts who provide real-time imagery analysis for the warfighter on the ground Benefits/Capabilities Status • WESCAM MX-15 –Enhanced FLIR –Laser Illuminator/Designator –NRT FMV downlink to OSRVT •Under development •Initial 4 aircraft •Airborne intelligence and C4I system that can conduct at the same time Signals Intelligence (SIGINT). •Communication Intelligence (COMINT) systems to provide real-time Electronic Order of Battle (EOB) for all communications networks and radars in the theater. •Capability to send the data to any command level in the theater UNDER DEVLOPMENT
    • 76. Summary
    • 77. More then Four Decades of Questions? ………..Flying the Frontiers of Freedom E WIN GED VIGI LANC

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