Nazi State-Women and Church
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Nazi State-Women and Church Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Role of Women in the Third Reich Clarissa Nitihardjo 002171-012 IB History HL>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 2. Focus Questions • What role were women to play in the Nazi state? • How did the Nazi try to implement their ideas? • How successfully did the Nazis impose their ideology on German women?>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 3. WHAT ROLE WERE WOMEN TO PLAY IN THE NAZI STATE?>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 4. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 5. Sources in p. 293-294 • Sources 2-6 – To have kids – To work in the kitchen & take care of households – To be ―womanly complement of man‖ • Sources 7-9 – Woman’s world is smaller than men’s – Women can’t go to men’s world – Only think emotionally>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 6. • Source 10-13 – To be pretty – Have to get married – Have kids no matter how bad their living conditions are • Sources 14-15 – To ask other women to be the same  All of these will lead women to find their man>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 7. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 8. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 9. HOW DID THE NAZI TRY TO IMPLEMENT THEIR IDEAS?>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 10. Laws • 1933: The Law for the Reduction of Unemployment – Linking it with women policy • Marriage loans • Restrictions on women’s employment in the Civil Services • Divorce become easier – Too boost birth rate>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 11. Organizations • Series of organizations – Not mere propaganda – Support women & children • Number of women attending recuperation homes after childbirth increases (1934- 1938) • Prolific mothers were awarded medals>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 12. Nazi Organizations for Women • 10-14 Young Girls • 14-18 League of German Girls • 18-21 Faith and Beauty • NSF (National Socialist Women’s Organization) • DFW (German Women’s Enterprise) • RAD and DAF women’s sections • NSV (National Socialist People’s Welfare)>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 13. How effective were Nazi policies? • Contradictions – Attitude towards marriage • Hitler Youth taught the children to challenge any non-Nazi attitude  parents = victim – Divorces & sterilization for non-Aryan • Anger Church – Attempts to drive women back home  less successful • Employment of women increased – Opportunities in universities was restricted • But later reversed>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 14. How effective were Nazi policies? • Historian Mason argued ―The regime was more popular with women than men‖>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 15. Conclusion • Impact of Nazi policy on women – Debate among historians • This illustrates some of the limitations of the totalitarian nature – Cautious approach • Complex & varied – Not simply reflection of Nazi ideology>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 16. Churches vs. Nazi in the Third Reich Clarissa Nitihardjo 002171-012 IB History HL>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 17. Focus Questions • How did the Nazis regime treat the Churches? • How did the Churches react to the Nazi state? • How did the German people respond to the uneasy relationship between Church and state?>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 18. INTRODUCTION>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 19. Rewind to 1933 • Concordat between Pope and Hitler • Sept 1933: Hundreds of Pastors created a break away movement>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 20. Churches before 1933 • Catholic – Members 22 million – Powerful: range of bodies, schools, charities – Catholic Z and BVP parties received about 20% of the votes in Weimar elections • Protestants – Members: 40 million – Majorly: Lutheran and Calvinist – Youth organizations: 0.7 million>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 21. Religious Organization during the Third Reich • Reich Church – Organization of the Protestant Churches – Hitler hoped to dominate it – But state-controlled Church  reaction & broke away • German Christians – Wanted to restructure Protestantism  racially based – ―SA of the Church‖  adopted Nazi styles (uniform & salute)>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 22. Religious Organization during the Third Reich • Confessional Churches – 1934 broke away from Reich Church – Not based on opposition to Nazism as such – To defend the Protestant Church against state interference • German Faith Movement – Stage 3 – Wanted to replace Christianity with a new pagan Nazi faith – Remained small sect>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 23. HOW DID THE NAZI REGIME TREAT THE CHURCHES?>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 24. Nazi Policy Towards the Church STAGE ONE CONTROL – Gain as much control as possible over Churches a. Creating of a unified Protestant Reich Church  Failed since Confessional Church broke away b. Concordat agreement with Pope  OK at first, later criticism of state infingement>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 25. Nazi Policy Towards the Church STAGE TWO WEAKEN – Weaken hold of traditional Christianity a. Make Protestantism more Nazi via German Christians  Provoked reaction and increased support for Confessional Church b. Undermine and reduce influence of Catholic Church  Public hostility>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 26. Nazi Policy Towards the Church STAGE THREE REPLACE – Replace Christianity with a true Nazi religion a. Replace Christianity with German Faith Movement  Only sporadic attempts to achieve this; postponed until after war>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 27. Nazi  Church • Attacking what they saw as Church interference – However, Several Gauleiter abandoned anti- Church activities • Hitler Youth—Less and less stress was put on religious education in schools – 1935: 65%, 1937: 5%, 1939: none>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 28. Nazi  Church • 200 priests were accused of sexual & financial affairs • 1937: over 100,000 Christians left Church 1939: 3.5 million Neo-pagan movement>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 29. HOW DID THE CHURCH REACT TO THE NAZI STATE?>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 30. Churches  Nazi • Churches were more concerned with protecting their institutions • There were several critical statements • 1937: Pope issued the encyclical ―With Burning Grief‖ – Government’s breaking of Concordat – Harassment of priests – Nazi idolatry of the state & race>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 31. Ludwig Müller • Nationalist & anti-Semitic Protestant • Became a Bishop in 1933 • Pushed into the background after break away of Confessional Church • 1946: Committed Suicide>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 32. Alfred Rosenburg • Anti-Semitic, Anti-Christian Nazi Ideologue • German Faith Movement (Pagan) • Fought hard against Christianity • Hanged in 1946>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 33. Dietrich Bonhöffer • 1935: Confessional Church • Broadcast a critique of the Führerprinzip • Cut off • Taught and encourage trainee pastors to resist Nazism – College closed and banned form preaching • 1945: Executed in concentration camp>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 34. HOW DID GERMAN PEOPLE RESPOND TO THE UNEASY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHURCH AND STATE?>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 35. German  Church vs. State • Source 16.16 p. 313 – Police report in Cologne, March 1934 • Source 16.17 p. 313 – Bavarian district police report, June 1939>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 36. German  Church vs. State • Christian faith remained strong & increased in WWII • German Faith Movement (Pagan) failed • There was more criticism and opposition to the regime from individual than from the Churches>> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 37. Thank You >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>