Design Mgmt


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Design Mgmt

  1. 1. Australian Graphic Design Association AG D A ‘35% growth in an orchestra’s subscriber base over three years – no increase in marketing activity, just profound, communicative and emotive design, year after year.’ AGDA Member UNLOCKING THE GRAPHIC DESIGN PROCESS DESIGN management
  2. 2. We live in a consumer environment constantly surrounded by graphic design in one form or another – corporate identity systems applied to stationery and signage, architectural graphics, packaging, corporate literature, product brochures, posters, internet home pages – in fact, anything that visually represents an organisation to its markets or stakeholders. Most businesses use graphic design as an integral part of their marketing strategy to enhance the competitive positioning of their product, service or company. The graphic design process is a problem solving process, one that requires substantial creativity, innovation and technical expertise. An understanding of the client’s product or service and goals, their competitors and the target audience is translated into a visual solution created from the manipulation, combination and utilisation of shape, colour, imagery, typography and space. Successful graphic design powerfully aligns consumer perception with the marketing message, elicits the desired consumer response and confers competitive advantage.
  3. 3. [ = V I S U A L C O M M U N I C AT I O N T H I S P U B L I C AT I O N This publication has been produced by the Australian Graphic Design Association (AGDA) to support client understanding of our profession. What buyers of design services will gain from this explanation of the graphic design process is the knowledge to manage their own projects better. Just as the client What buyers of design services will gain from this explanation of the graphic design process is the knowledge to manage their own projects better. GRAPHIC DESIGN & QUALITY CONTROL A good graphic design process is structured around ensuring that the client gets the highest quality and designer benefit enormously solution and service appropriate from a solid understanding of the to their business, marketing or client’s business and marketing communication problem. activities, so too can the same Quite often there is a temptation team benefit from an understanding to ‘crunch’ the time allowed for of the designer’s activities. graphic design. Clients who face The graphic design process map this temptation should remember provides an overview of the steps that reproduction processes, involved in a typical project. The text such as printing and electronic provides a short explanation of each publishing, are ‘garbage-in, step, including the responsibilities garbage-out’ processes. of client and designer. If clients want to ensure that This publication is not intended their investment not only in design, to be the definitive guide to graphic but also in reproduction, is design project planning. No single maximised, the focus should be document could possibly on making sure that the input, ‘ 35% growth in an orchestra’s subscriber base over three years – encompass all the permutations and unique details that each graphic design project generates during its the design and artwork, is right. If clients face irresolvable time constraints, AGDA recommends development and implementation. that the client discuss with the no increase in marketing activity, just profound, communicative and ‘ AGDA recommends that the client and designer take the time to designer how these constraints may be dealt with in a manner establish an actual project plan for that does not irretrievably emotive design, year after year. each project, using this information compromise the commercial AGDA MEMBER as a guide. value of the entire project.
  4. 4. graphic design process map 1 2 3 4 5 (OVERVIEW) BRIEFING PROPOSAL DESIGN ARTWORK REPRODUCTION ( D E TA I L ) re s e a rc h initial p re p a re p ro j e c t commission handover to + concept discussion outline other suppliers printer development p re p a re p re l i m i n a r y design artwork p re p a re f i l m + design + artwork re s e a rc h development p re p a r a t i o n f i l m p ro o f s quote o rg a n i s e f o r concept + briefing artwork p ro o f c h e c k other suppliers design meeting p re s e n t a t i o n + a p p ro v a l quotes p re s e n t a t i o n a p p ro v e d design artwork commence w r i t e p ro p o s a l brief re f i n e m e n t a p p ro v a l printing p re s e n t design p re s s c h e c k p ro p o s a l a p p ro v a l p ro p o s a l delivery a p p ro v e d to client LEGEND: stage involves client input Note: AGDA recommends that designers adapt this generic process map to fit their actual working style and type of projects before using it to enhance client understanding of design project management issues.
  5. 5. IS A PROCESS [ 2 1 PROPOSAL WRITTEN PROPOSAL BRIEFING • Design firm prepares a written proposal detailing: INITIAL DISCUSSION BETWEEN - what is required CLIENT & DESIGN FIRM ( in communication/design/ • Client and design firm discuss production objectives ). project objectives timing and - design and production fees, budget in broad outline. treatment of author’s PRELIMINARY RESEARCH corrections and material expenses. • Client prepares and reviews background material. - timetable from approval of proposal to delivery to client. • Client begins to prepare briefing information (see Briefing - terms and conditions Checklist, back page). of engagement, including copyright assignment. • Design firm reviews their own background material and/or This stage may also include previous projects, in preparation procuring subcontractor quotes, for briefing meeting: this research e.g. photography, illustration, helps the design firm to focus copywriting, etc. on the key issues in the context C L I E N T A P P R O VA L O F P R O P O S A L of the work (competitors, other products/services within the • Client checks proposal and line, etc.). compares it to brief to confirm the design firm’s understanding BRIEFING MEETING ‘ Telstra had some challenging news for a key industrial users’ segment – this • Client and design firm meet to discuss brief in detail and clarify of the project’s purpose and strategic directions, as well as technical considerations. any technical issues ( budget, • If the design firm’s understanding was addressed through a well-designed timetable, corporate identity of the project cannot be guidelines, etc.). direct mail piece that achieved a confirmed, client reviews written ‘ 94% recall rate and even had customers C L I E N T A P P R O VA L O F B R I E F proposal with the firm and a new proposal is prepared. • Client seeks internal approval ringing for extra copies! of brief, including budget • Client accepts proposal and AGDA MEMBER and timetable. prepares order for design firm.
  6. 6. 3 DESIGN 5 CONCEPT AND DESIGN DEVELOPMENT REPRODUCTION • Designer reviews brief, ARTWORK HANDOVER & background material and identity PRINT BRIEFING standards to ensure that the • Designer and/or client hands project context is understood over artwork files, proofs and and corporate requirements related materials to prepress are met. house or printer/print broker, • Designer develops creative with film specifications, print concepts, with designs being specifications and an order form produced from the concepts. • Preliminary designs are reviewed 4 specifying quantity, delivery date and shipping instructions. It is also useful to provide samples and critiqued to select the most of work that demonstrate the appropriate designs for further ARTWORK print quality required. development or presentation. A P P R O VA L O F F I L M P R O O F S CONCEPT AND DESIGN F I N I S H E D A R T P R E PA R AT I O N P R E S E N TAT I O N A N D P R E S E N TAT I O N • Designer and/or client checks colour proofs prepared from film • Designer prepares visuals • Client provides signed-off text. to verify the technical accuracy and design rationale for client • Designer commissions remaining (registration) and colour of the presentation. photography/illustration. expected printed result. • Client and designer evaluate the Since this quality control step • Designer prepares artwork files presentation against the brief focuses on technical accuracy, and final laser proofs for film and written proposal. If the initial it is generally the designer who production (prepress). briefing is adequately prepared, reviews the chemical proofs first. it is rare for a presentation to be • Designer prepares SUPERVISION OF PRINTING totally off the mark. Personal comprehensive prepress and taste should not be used as the print specifications to ensure that • Once the film proofs are primary criteria for a design’s the client’s and designer’s quality approved, plates are made acceptance or rejection. expectations are understood and printing commences. and maintained throughout the The authorised print buyer • Criticisms should be specified reproduction process ( client /designer/broker ) checks as tangibly as possible, using the printed results at the the Briefing Checklist. These • Designer delivers artwork commencement of printing – criticisms are important for the files, final colour and/or laser this is known as ‘press checking’. next stage of development. proofs and related material The printed colours are ( transparencies, illustrations, DESIGN REFINEMENT compared to the designer’s etc.) to client. original colour specifications, the • Criticisms of the design F I N I S H E D A R T A P P R O VA L transparencies and the chemical recommendations are addressed proof. Print registration is also by the designer. • Client approves artwork and checked. Any discrepancies related material ( with a signature • A second design presentation between the desired result and on every laser proof ). This is held, using the same actual printing are corrected stage may also include legal evaluation process, including before the entire print run department approval of any the list of criticisms. is completed. statutory requirements. D E S I G N A P P R O VA L DELIVERY TO CLIENT • If client-requested changes • Client accepts design in terms ( also known as ‘author’s • Printer or designer organises of the visual appearance and corrections’ ) are necessary they delivery of printed items as per construction. are corrected at this point. the client’s instructions.
  7. 7. The following checklist can be used as a guide in preparing a brief for a graphic design project. PRODUCT / SERVICE DESCRIPTION s History/present position/ future s Competitor information MARKETING BACKGROUND s Previous marketing activity s Present marketing activities – research, advertising, direct mail, graphic design, public relations, distributor promotions s Future marketing activity C O M M U N I C AT I O N TA S K – ‘ T H E M E S S A G E ’ s Context of specific marketing message in relation to business plans s Information to be included in the designed item s Medium of transmission s Target market ( see next section of this checklist ) s Function or desired response s Evaluation procedure TA R G E T M A R K E T s Segmentation s Demographics – age, gender, income, employment, geography, lifestyle s Purchase motivations – needs, wants, corporate image, product /service positioning s Purchase decisions – decision initiators /influencers /makers, end user BUDGET s Similar past projects s Estimates ( based on past projects and other information ) s Future budgetary allocations (what else needs to be done in the current budget period) s Contingencies T I M E TA B L E s Consultation ( research, strategy, brief development ) s Creative ( concept and design development ) s Production ( artwork, printing and other production ) ‘ Advertising pushes the consumer ‘ towards the product but design brings s s Distribution Contingencies the product to the consumer. All suggested topics are considered relevant, although not all will be AGDA MEMBER necessary depending on the type of project.
  8. 8. [ GRAPHIC DESIGN... ABOUT AGDA The Australian Graphic Design Association’s mission is to advance excellence in graphic design as a discipline, profession and cultural force. AGDA is a member organisation of ICOGRADA, the International Council of Graphic Design Associations, which holds consultative status with the Council of Europe, UNIDO and UNECSO. By channelling the experience of successful designers into a single resource, AGDA assists designers in improving their design quality and professional practice, and also enhances clients’ ability to make informed decisions when buying design services. AGDA conducts an extensive range of activities at State and National level, including biennial National Graphic Design Awards, biennial Design Conference and 40-50 state-based seminars annually. AGDA produces a web site and publications, including a Code of Ethics, an Industry Study, a Benchmarking Report, Designer Selection, template contracts and other professional practice topics. ENQUIRIES AGDA National Secretariat PO Box 283 Cammeray NSW 2062 Australia Tel 02 9955 3955 Fax 02 9955 0566 Email Web This publication was prepared by Andrew Lam-Po-Tang in conjunction with Kate Dilanchian and Andrew Lewis (Lewis/Kahn). It is based on original material developed by Andrew Lam-Po-Tang and John Frostell (Dialogue Visual Communication) for a marketing communications seminar commissioned in 1992 by Sheryn Lister of the National Marketing Communications Department of National Mutual. AGDA gratefully acknowledges the generosity and support of National Mutual in allowing this material to be redeveloped for AGDA publication. © AGDA, 1996. While every care has been taken in the preparation of this material, neither AGDA nor the author gives any warranties as to the correctness of the information contained in it and no liability will be accepted for any error, misdirection or omission. Design by Annie Schwebel. Cover Photography by Paul Henderson-Kelly. Printed on Saxton Brilliant White 140gsm. Paper sponsored by Australian Paper. Print sponsored by Inprint.