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Week One Esp101  What Is An Earthquake Clarakwan
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Week One Esp101 What Is An Earthquake Clarakwan

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  • 1. An earthquake is the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy 06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One
  • 2.
    • Focus and Epicenter
    • Focus is the point within Earth where the earthquake starts.
    • Epicenter is the location on the surface directly above the focus
    • Faults
    • Faults are fractures in Earth where movement has occurred
    06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One
  • 3. 06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One
  • 4.
    • Elastic Rebound Hypothesis
    • Most earthquakes are produced by the rapid release of elastic energy stored in rock that has been subjected to great forces.
    • When the strength of the rock is exceeded, it suddenly breaks, causing the vibrations of an earthquake.
    06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One
  • 5. 06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One
  • 6. 06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One
  • 7. 06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One
  • 8.
    • Earthquake Waves
    • Body Waves
    • Identified as P waves or S waves
    • P waves
    • Are push-pull waves that push (compress) and pull (expand) in the direction that the waves travel
    06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One
  • 9.
    • S waves
    • Seismic waves that travel along Earth’s outer layer
    • Shake particles at right angles to the direction that they travel
    • Travel only through solids
    • Slower velocity than P waves
    • A seismogram shows all three types of seismic waves—surface waves, P waves, and S waves.
    06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One
  • 10. 06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One
  • 11.
    • Locating an Earthquake
    • Earthquake Distance
    • The epicenter is located using the difference in the arrival times between P and S wave recordings, which are related to distance.
    • Earthquake Direction
    • Travel-time graphs from three or more seismographs can be used to find the exact location of an earthquake epicenter.
    • Earthquake Zones
    • About 95 % of the major earthquakes occur in a few narrow zones.
    06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One
  • 12. 06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One
    • Seismic wave behavior
      • P waves arrive first, then S waves, then L and R
      • Average speeds for all these waves is known
      • After an earthquake, the difference in arrival times at a seismograph station can be used to calculate the distance from the seismograph to the epicenter .
  • 13. 06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One
  • 14. 06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One
  • 15.
    • Three seismograph stations are needed to locate the epicenter of an earthquake
    • A circle where the radius equals the distance to the epicenter is drawn
    • The intersection of the circles locates the epicenter
    06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One
  • 16.
    • 1.bugnardo.files.wordpress.com/2008/04/08 earthquakes _and_earths_interior.ppt -
    06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One
  • 17.
    • The End
    06/04/09 ESP 101 Week One