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Ethnograph 11 Jul07
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Ethnograph 11 Jul07



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  • Researcher frequently collect qualitative data by the following ways


  • 1. Qualitative research data collection
    • Data collection of qualitative research :
      • Field notes
      • Observation
      • Interviews
      • Audio/Video recordings
      • Journal notes, memos
      • Diaries
  • 2. Qualitative research data analysis
    • Stages of data analysis
      • Coding
      • Grouping into clusters, groups, patterns
      • Establishing relationship
      • Making speculative inferences
      • Summarizing
      • Seeking negative cases
      • Theory generation
    Where Ethnograph V5.0 can help
  • 3. Examples of a interview report with handwritten codes
    • There are a lot of remarks/code made by researcher
    • Sometimes the data (interviews) maybe in hundreds, difficult for researchers to analyze if not organized systematically (e.g. a trend is echoed by many subjects)
  • 4. Introduction of a computer based research tool
  • 5. What is Ethnograph v5.0 ?
    • A kind of Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) software
    • helps researcher to compile, organize and manipulate data
    • facilitates researcher analytic process
  • 6. Several steps for Data Entry
    • Step 1 Creating projects
    • Step 2 Entering Qualitative Data (manually)
    • Step 3 Importing Qualitative Data (from outside sources)
    • Step 4 Coding the data
    • Step 5 Edit the code definition and code family tree
    • Step 6 Applying the code for other data files
  • 7. 1. Creating projects
    • Project : is a list of data files that you want to treat as a group
    • Child project : is entirely option;
    To create a project (1 min)
  • 8. 2. Entering qualitative data (e.g. interviews)
    • the text editor allows researcher to type in text manually.
    • It also automatically imports, numbers and adds the data file to the project.
    To create a data file using the Ethnograph Editor (1 min 30 sec)
  • 9. 3. Entering qualitative data (cont’d)
    • To create a data file using the Word Processor (e.g. MS-word) (2 mins)
    • another method is to import from frequently used sources, e.g. ms-word files the software can re-format it to suit Ethnograph’s use
  • 10. 4. Two ways of Coding/Classifying Quick codes and Code Sets
    • To Enter the Code words using code sets & quick codes (2 mins)
    • researcher make subjective judgment of coding keyword for future analysis – input from researcher at early stage
  • 11. 5. Editing code book definition and family tree
    • researcher can define the code words and view the entire relationship of the code book family tree (establishing relationship)
      • Editing the Code book & creating a code family tree (1 min)
  • 12. 6. Applying the coding for other data files
    • Two ways to enter codes : use either Master List or Family Tree to Enter Codes (3 mins)
    • Researcher can use both master list or family tree to enter codes for parts of interview clippings
  • 13. Data Analysis
    • Steps 7 to 12 are for data analysis
  • 14. 7. Conducting a single code and multiple code searches
    • Researcher can use one single/multiple code/key word/filters to search for data files containing the segment/paragraphs where the code words appear, this is helpful when there are large amount of qualitative data
    How to start a single and multiple searches with “Search” (1min 30 sec)
  • 15. Searching for single code
  • 16. Searching for multiple codes
    • This multiple code search is to search for code words that are overlapping each other.
    • Important sometimes for researcher to do a Boolean “AND” search on two code words
  • 17. Conducting a single code and multiple code searches (cont’d)
    • Results generated :
      • Extract of the content of segment where the code word appears
      • Total number of segments where the code word appears and display on screen
      • Which data file does the code word belong to (e.g. interview with Group1, pointed out by subject, e.g. a female student studying Geology)
      • Whether the code word has been marked previously for future reference
      • Also indicates the line of code words on the data files and whether there are nested segments
  • 18.  
  • 19. 8. Creating memos
      • To record their thoughts into the data file (2 mins)
    • Researcher can input memo when he came across ideas associated with the interview
    • Memo could be attached to segment
    • attached to file
    • attached to a search output
  • 20. 9. Creating Search Filters - Face Sheets
    • Create a Face Template, enter variables
    • Enter Face Sheet values for different groups of subject
    • Face Sheet is about an entire data file (e.g. background of a group of students)
    How to create Face Sheet template ( 1 min )
  • 21. Entering face sheet values for different groups Group 1 belongs to public school and had not changed subject major Group 2 belongs to private school students and had changed subject major 2 times
  • 22. 10. Using Face Sheets as Search Filters
    • Enter Face Sheet conditions, e.g. from Public school, has not changed subject major
    • Enter code words, e.g. DARWIN
    • Ethnograph will search all files to yield result
    How to use Face Sheet as Search Filters (1 min)
  • 23. 11. Creating search filters - Identifier Sheets
    • How to create Identifier Sheet Template (1 min)
    • Create a Identifier Sheet Template, enter variables
    • Enter values for different individuals
    • Id sheet is a set of information about particular sections or subjects within a file
  • 24. Entering identifier sheet values for different subjects Group 1 M2 subject whose parents income is $10,000 per month and the education level is not high Group2 M1 subject whose parents income is $67,000 per month and the education level is not high
  • 25. 12. Using Id Sheets as Search Filters
    • How to Use Identifier Sheets as Search Filters
    • (1 min)
    • Enter Id Sheet conditions, e.g. parents’ income (between $35,000 and $999999 and level of education = “college” as the parameters
    • Enter search code words, e.g. DARWIN
    • Ethnograph will search all files to yield result
  • 26. Results generated
    • Results generated similar to those searched by single keyword
    • Depends on the search filter/criteria of the researcher and the match with the interview subject, there may be results
    • Or they may be no match
  • 27. Comments about Ethnograph
    • Pros
    • comprehensive and easy to learn within relatively short period of time
    • Generates results from large set of data files in a short period time
    • some steps/format need to be followed, yet this is common for all other QDA tools
    • Cons
    • could not help researchers to think/analyze
    • still rely on human intelligence to generate the search queries/hypotheses/theory
  • 28. References
    • Cohen. L., Manion. L., Morrison. K. Research Methods in Education. (2006) 5 th ed. London. RoutledgeFalmer