Ethnograph 10 Jul07
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  • 1. Introduction of a computer based research tool
    • Group members :
    • Clara Kwan
    • Lucile Leung
    • Phoebe Leung
    • Eliza Yu
  • 2. Qualitative research data collection
    • Data collection of qualitative research :
      • Field notes
      • Observation
      • Interviews
      • Audio/Video recordings
      • Journal notes, memos
      • Diaries
  • 3. Qualitative research data analysis
    • Stages of data analysis
      • Coding
      • Grouping into clusters, groups, patterns
      • Establishing relationship
      • Making speculative inferences
      • Summarizing
      • Seeking negative cases
      • Theory generation
    Where Ethnograph V5.0 can help Work to be done by researcher himself
  • 4. Examples of a interview report with handwritten codes
    • There are a lot of remarks/code made by researcher
    • Sometimes the data (interviews) maybe in hundreds, difficult for researchers to analyze if not organized systematically
    • e.g. a trend is echoed by many subjects or there are many overlapping points in a points in one interview
  • 5. What is Ethnograph v5.0 ?
    • A kind of Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) software
    • helps researcher to compile, organize and manipulate data
    • facilitates researcher analytic process
  • 6. Steps for Data Entry (1 to 6)
    • Creating projects
    • Entering Qualitative Data (manually)
    • Importing Qualitative Data (from outside sources)
    • Coding the data
    • Edit the code definition and code family tree
    • Applying the code for other data files
  • 7. 1. Creating projects
    • Project : is a list of data files that you want to treat as a group
    • Child project : is entirely optional
    To create a project (1 min) http://iln.cite.hku.hk/com/1391/users/mhckwan/session3/chpt1.wmv
  • 8. 2. Entering qualitative data (e.g. interviews)
    • the text editor allows researcher to type in text manually
    • It also automatically imports, numbers and adds the data file to the project
    To create a data file using the text Editor (1 min 30 sec) http://iln.cite.hku.hk/com/1391/users/mhckwan/session3/chpt2.wmv
  • 9. 3. Entering qualitative data (cont’d)
    • To create a data file using the Word Processor (e.g. MS-word) (2 mins)
    • another method is to import from frequently used sources, e.g. ms-word files the software can re-format to suit Ethnograph’s use
    http://iln.cite.hku.hk/com/1391/users/mhckwan/session3/chpt3.wmv
  • 10. 4. Two ways of Coding/Classifying Quick codes and Code Sets
    • To Enter the Code words using code sets & quick codes (2 mins)
    • researcher makes subjective judgment of coding keyword for future analysis – input from researcher at early stage
    http://iln.cite.hku.hk/com/1391/users/mhckwan/session3/chpt4.wmv
  • 11. Coding by hand to coding by Ethnograph
  • 12. 5. Editing code book definition and family tree
    • researcher can define the code words and view the entire relationship of the code book family tree (establishing relationship)
      • Editing the Code book & creating a code family tree (1 min)
    http://iln.cite.hku.hk/com/1391/users/mhckwan/session3/chpt5.wmv
  • 13. 6. Applying the coding for other data files
    • Two ways to enter codes : use either Master List or Family Tree to Enter Codes (3 mins)
    • Researcher can use both master list or family tree to enter codes for parts of interview clippings
    http://iln.cite.hku.hk/com/1391/users/mhckwan/session3/chpt6.wmv
  • 14. Steps for data analysis (7 – 12)
    • Conducting a single or multiple code searches
    • Creating memos
    • Creating face sheets
    • Use face sheets as search filters
    • Creating Identifier sheets
    • Use Identifier sheets as search filters
  • 15. 7. Conducting a single code and multiple code searches
    • Researcher can use one single/multiple code/key word/filters to search for data files containing the segment/paragraphs where the code words appear, this is helpful when there are large amount of qualitative data
    How to start a single and multiple searches with “Search” (1min 30 sec) http://iln.cite.hku.hk/com/1391/users/mhckwan/session3/chpt7.wmv
  • 16. Searching for single code
  • 17. Searching for multiple codes
    • This multiple code search is to search for code words that are overlapping each other.
    • Important sometimes for researcher to do a Boolean “AND” search on two code words
  • 18. Results generated
    • Extract of the content of segment where the code word appears
    • Total number of segments where the code word appears and display on screen
    • Which data file does the code word belong to (e.g. interview with Group1, pointed out by subject, e.g. a female student studying Geology)
    • Whether the code word has been marked previously for future reference
    • Also indicates the line of code words on the data files and whether there are nested segments
  • 19.  
  • 20. 8. Creating memos
      • To record their thoughts into the data file (2 mins)
    • Researcher can input memo when he came across ideas associated with the interview
    • Memo could be attached to segment
    • attached to file
    • attached to a search output
    http://iln.cite.hku.hk/com/1391/users/mhckwan/session4/chpt8.wmv
  • 21. 9. Creating Search Filters - Face Sheets
    • Create a Face Template, enter variables
    • Enter Face Sheet values for different groups of subject
    • Face Sheet is about an entire data file (e.g. background of a group of students)
    How to create Face Sheet template ( 1 min ) http://iln.cite.hku.hk/com/1391/users/mhckwan/session4/chpt9.wmv
  • 22. Entering face sheet values for different groups Group 1 belongs to public school and had not changed subject major Group 2 belongs to private school students and had changed subject major 2 times
  • 23. 10. Using Face Sheets as Search Filters
    • Enter Face Sheet conditions, e.g. from Public school, has not changed subject major
    • Enter code words, e.g. DARWIN
    • Answer the question of “Do students who come from public school and has not changed subject major has different attitudes towards the Darwin’s theory of survival of the fittest”
    How to use Face Sheet as Search Filters (1 min) http://iln.cite.hku.hk/com/1391/users/mhckwan/session4/chpt11.wmv
  • 24. 11. Creating search filters - Identifier Sheets
    • How to create Identifier Sheet Template (1 min)
    • Create a Identifier Sheet Template, enter variables
    • Enter values for different individuals
    • Id sheet is a set of information about particular sections or subjects within a file
    http://iln.cite.hku.hk/com/1391/users/mhckwan/session4/chpt10.wmv
  • 25. Entering identifier sheet values for different subjects Group 1 M2 subject whose parents income is $10,000 per month and the education level is not high Group2 M1 subject whose parents income is $67,000 per month and the education level is not high
  • 26. 12. Using Id Sheets as Search Filters
    • How to Use Identifier Sheets as Search Filters
    • (1 min)
    • Enter Id Sheet conditions, e.g. parents’ income (between $35,000 and $999999 and level of education = “college” as the parameters
    • Enter search code words, e.g. DARWIN
    • Answer the question of “Study the effect of how parents’ income and educational level affect students attitude to Darwin’s survival of fittest theory”
    • Ethnograph will search all files to yield result
    http://iln.cite.hku.hk/com/1391/users/mhckwan/session4/chpt12.wmv
  • 27. Results generated
    • Results generated may be no match
    • Depends on the search filter/criteria of the researcher and the match with the interview subject
  • 28. Comments about Ethnograph v5.0
    • Pros
    • comprehensive and easy to learn within short period of time
    • Generates results from large sets of data files
    • Helps researchers to organize points, group clusters, count frequencies, pull out patterns, establish relationships within groups or individuals
    • some steps/format need to be followed, yet this is common for all other QDA tools
    • Only finishes the first 3 stages of data analysis
    • Cons
    • could not help researchers to think/analyze
    • still rely on human intelligence to generate the search queries/establish relationships and theories generation (the last 4 stages of data analysis)
  • 29. References
    • http://www.qualisresearch.com/
    • Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Airasian, P. (2006). Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Applications. Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall
    • Cohen, L., Mansion, L., & Morrison, K. (2000). Research methods in education. London. RoutledgeFalmer