Deism Unitarianism Reason rather than revelation God exists in only one Science rather than the Bible person, rather than the orthodox Trinity. Rejected the concept of Denied the deity of Jesus. original sin and denied Stressed the goodness of Christ’s divinity human nature over vileness. Believed in a Supreme Being Belief in free will and the who created the universe and possibility of salvation mankind. through good works Helped inspire an important Pictured God as a loving spinoff of Puritanism... father rather than a stern creator.Unitarianism!
A series of religious revivals swept through the country between 1790 and 1830. Traveling preachers and “camp meetings” led large numbers of people to convert through an enthusiastic style of preaching and audience participation. Many “saved” went back to their sinful ways, but the revivals boosted church membership and stimulated a variety of humanitarian reforms such as temperance (abstaining from consuming alcoholic drinks), abolition, and women’s rights. Evangelicalism was at the heart of the Second Great Awakening and it favored ordinary people over elites.
Methodists Peter Cartwright Stressed personal Best known of the Methodist traveling preachers conversion (contrary to Ranged for half a century predestination) from Tennessee to Relatively democratic Illinois, calling for sinners to repent. control of church affairs Bellowing voice, flailing Rousing emotionalism arms: converted many people to the Lord “With his fists he knocked out rowdies who tried to 1785 - 1872 break up the meetings.”
By 1770 black preachers had many of their own Baptist and Methodist Congregations. November 1787, white elders attempted to downgrade black worshippers a gallery at St. George’s Methodist Church in Philadelphia. That resulted in the founding of the black-governed Bethel Church, and in 1816, the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) was founded. Richard Allen was its first bishop. Black church membership was predominately female, even though men could only serve on the clergy. Women led home prayer meetings, and served on missionary and Sunday school boards. They were also permitted by the AME church to become traveling evangelists.
Greatest of the revival preachers Burned-over District Trained as a lawyer but became Refers to the religious scene in Western an New York which was “burned over” by religious revivals of the Second Great evangelist Awakening. Led massive revivals Coined the term when used by Charles Preached old-time religion but Grandison Finney to refer to an area touched by the Second Great Awakening was also an innovator as a “burnt district.” Devised the “anxious bench” • Comes from the where repentant sinners could notion that the area was so sit in full view of the heavily evangelized congregation that there was no more Denounced alcohol and slavery “fuel” left to “burn” Became president of Oberlin aka, there was no one College in Ohio, which became a left to convert. hotbed of revivalist activity and abolitionism 1792 - 1875
Millerites/Adventists were led by William Miller Mustered up several supporters Rose after the burned-over district in the 1830s Interpreted the bible to predict that Christ would return on Oct. 22 1844 Gathered in assemblies to meet their redeemer When Christ did not 1782 - 1849 come, dampened but did not destroy the movement
Joseph Smith 1805 - 1844 Brigham Young 1801 - 1877 Rugged visionary Saved Mormanism from Supposedly received collapse golden plates from an Only 11 days of formal angel schooling Deciphered plates as the Aggressive leader, eloquent preacher, gifted administrator Book of Mormon 1846-1847 led Latter-Day Church of Jesus Christ of Saints to Utah to escape Letter-Day Saints oppression (Mormons) launched Territorial Governor in 1850 Murdered in 1844 27 wives, 56 children.
Voted as a unit Believed in polygamy, which delayed the statehood of Utah until 1896. They were oppressed and hated Almost collapsed after the death of Smith 1846 – 1847, led by Young to Utah as they sang “Come, Come, Ye Saints.” Made the desert “bloom” by using cooperative methods of irrigation. (The crops of 1848 were threatened by hoards of crickets, but flocks of gulls appeared to eat the crickets, saving the crops.) By the end of 1848, about 5,000 settlers had arrived. Dedicated Mormons made the 1,300 mile journey across the plains pulling two-wheeled carts.
More than forty “communitarian” colonies were set up by various reformers. Definition of a utopian community: “Consists of a group of people who are attempting to establish a new social pattern based upon a vision of the ideal society and who have withdrawn themselves from the community at large to embody that vision in experimental form." (Robert V. Hine, author of Californias Utopian Colonies) Sought to establish human happiness and the belief in the cooperative way of life. Religious roots, followed early Christian communities , developed from a monastic context.
Robert Owen 1771 - 1858 New Harmony Prolific writer and Sought to lead a society free campaigner, Scottish of individual possessions and believed that harmony textile manufacturer. between males and females Strove to improve the would be reestablished by health, education, well- their efforts. being, and rights of the Consisted of hard-working visionaries, radicals, work-shy working class. theorists, and scoundrels. 1825, founded a communal Little harmony (haha, how society in New ironic...) prevailed and the Harmony, Indiana. About a colony failed due to much contradiction and confusion. thousand people.
Founded in 1848 in New York by John Humphreys Noyes. Noyes believed in a benign deity, sweetness of human nature, and a perfect Christian community. The key to happiness: suppression of selfishness. True Christians should possess no private property, or indulge in exclusive emotional relationships. Material things and sexual partners should be shared. Marriage should not be monogamous. Practiced free love, also known as “complex marriage.” Eugenic selection of parents to produce superior offspring. Birth control (through “male continence”) Practiced Noyes’s system, which was known as “Bible Communism” Because of neighbors’ criticisms, the Oneidas gave up complex marriage in 1879, and shortly after, in 1880, they abandoned communism altogether only to become a joint-stock company specializing in the manufacture of silver tableware.
Formally known as the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Coming Began in the 1770s and were led by Mother Ann Lee. Attained membership of about six thousand in 1840, but since their monastic customs prohibited both marriage and sexual relations, they were extinct by 1940. Included communal living, productive labor, celibacy, pacifism, the equality of the sexes, and a ritual noted for its dancing and shaking.
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/91087/c amp-meeting http://www.teachushistory.org/second-great- awakening-age-reform http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h3800.html http://www.ushistory.org/us/22c.asp The American Pageant