Italian Cuisine

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Italian Cuisine

  1. 1. WHAT IS ITALIAN COOKING? Many non-Italians identify Italian cooking with a few of its most popular dishes, like pizza and spaghetti. People often express the opinion that all Italian cooking is pretty much alike. However, those who travel through Italy notice differences in eating habits between cities, even cities only a few miles apart. Not only does each region have its own style, but each community and each valley has a different way of cooking as well..
  2. 2. HISTORY
  3. 3. Italian cuisine has developed over the centuries. Although the country known as Italy did not unite until the 19th century, the cuisine can claim traceable roots as far back as the 4th century BCE. Through the centuries, neighbouring regions, conquerors, high-profile chefs, political upheaval and the discovery of the New World have influenced its development.
  4. 4. ANTIQUITY • The first known Italian food writer was a Greek Sicilian named orchestrates from Syracuse in the 4th century BCE. He wrote a poem that spoke of using "top quality and seasonal" ingredients. He said that flavors should not be masked by spices, herbs or other seasonings. He placed importance on simple preparation of fish. • Simplicity was abandoned and replaced by a culture of gastronomy as the roman empire developed. By the time de re coquinaria was published in the 1st century CE, it contained 470 recipes calling for heavy use of spices and herbs. The romans employed Greek bakers to produce breads and imported cheeses from Sicily as the Sicilians had a reputation as the best cheesemakers. The romans reared goats for butchering, and grew artichokes and leeks.
  5. 5. MIDDLE AGES from Rome and Athens, a cuisine developed in Sicily that some consider the • With culinary traditions first real Italian cuisine. Arabs invaded Sicily in the 9th century. The Arabs introduced spinach, almonds, and rice. During the 12th century, a Norman king surveyed Sicily and saw people making long strings made from flour and water called atria, which eventually became trii, a term still used for spaghetti in southern Italy. Normans also introduced casseroles, salt cod (baccalà) and stockfish which remain popular. • In the 15th century, maestro martino was chef to the patriarch of Aquileia at the Vatican. His libro de arte coquinaria describes a more refined and elegant cuisine. His book contains a recipe for maccaroni siciliani, made by wrapping dough around a thin iron rod to dry in the sun. The macaroni was cooked in capon stock flavored with saffron, displaying Persian influences. Of particular note is martino's avoidance of excessive spices in favor of fresh herbs. The roman recipes include coppiette (air-dried salami) and cabbage dishes. His Florentine dishes include eggs with bolognese torta, sienese torta and Genoese recipes such as piperata (sweets), macaroni, squash, mushrooms, and spinach pie with onions.
  6. 6. • Martino's text was included in a 1475 book by Bartolommeo platina printed in Venice entitled de honesta voluptate et valetudine ("on honest pleasure and good health"). Platina puts martino's "libro" in regional context, writing about perch from lake maggiore, sardines from lake garda, grayling from adda, hens from padua, olives from bologna and piceno, turbot from ravenna, rudd from lake trasimeno, carrots from viterbo, bass from the tiber, roviglioni and shad from lake albano, snails from rieti, figs from tuscolo, grapes from narni, oil from cassino, oranges from naples and eels from campania. Grains from lombardy and campania are mentioned as is honey from sicily and taranto. Wine from the ligurian coast, greco from tuscany and san severino and trebbiano from tuscany and piceno are also in the book.
  7. 7. ITALIAN FOOD COMMON INGREDIENTS Olive oil is the most commonly used vegetable fat in Italian cooking, and as the basis for sauces, often replaces animal fats of butter or lard. Tomatoes are a stereotypical part of Italian cuisine, but only entered common usage in the late 18th century. Pesto, a Ligurian sauce made out of basil, olive oil and pine nuts, and which is eaten with pasta. Garlic In an era before antibiotics, garlic may have kept the Greeks and Romans free of infection.
  8. 8. Seafood is a staple protein in Italian diets; any and all kinds of shellfish and fish are celebrated, often several in the same dish. Whole Grains Historically, unrefined grains (whole wheat pasta, whole grain bread, barley, whole wheat couscous) are the base of most Mediterranean diets. Beans are an essential, satisfying and healthy ingredient often found in Italian cuisine. Nut trees are almost as common as olive trees in Italy. Nuts are savored as snacks, ground into sauces and sprinkled on salads.
  9. 9. Dark Leafy Greens To be Italian is to appreciate dark leafy vegetables, especiall y broccoli rabe, an earthy bitter brassica that pairs beautifully with bold ingredients like sausage, anchovy and hot pepper. Red Wine What Italian dinner is complete without a glass of wine?
  10. 10. REGIONAL VARIATION •Each area has its own specialties, primarily at a regional level, but also at provincial level. The differences can come from a bordering country (such as france or austria), whether a region is close to the sea or the mountains, and economics. Italian cuisine is also seasonal with priority placed on the use of fresh produce.
  11. 11. FRIULI-VENEZIA GIULIA ARE KNOWN FOR THEIR TRADITIONAL SAN DANIELE DEL FRIULI HAM, MONTASIO CHEESE, AND FRICO CHEESE. OTHER TYPICAL DISHES ARE PITINA (MEATBALLS MADE OF SMOKED MEATS), GAME, AND VARIOUS TYPES OF GNOCCHI AND POLENTA. VENETO - POLENTA SERVED WITH SOPRESSA AND MUSHROOMS, A TRADITIONAL PEASANT FOOD OF VENETO TIRAMISU - (MADE OF BISCUITS DIPPED IN COFFEE, LAYERED WITH A WHIPPED MIXTURE OF EGG YOLKS AND MASCARPONE, AND FLAVORED WITH LIQUOR AND COCOA, BAICOLI (BISCUITS MADE WITH BUTTER AND VANILLA) AND NOUGAT.
  12. 12. TRENTINOSOUTH TYROL TRADITIONAL SPECK JUNIPERFLAVORED HAM. LOMBARDY – RISOTTO ALLA MILANESE WITH SAFFRON. TRADITIONA L COTOLETTA ALLA MILANESE
  13. 13. LIGURIAPASTA WITH PESTO SAUCE. EMILIA ROMAGNA – PARMIGIAN O CHEESE. TAGLIATEL LE WITH BOLOGNES E SAUCE
  14. 14. TUSCANYRIBOLLITA, A CLASSIC TUSCAN PEASANT DISH. UMBRIA– NORCIA BLACK TRUFFLES. LAZIO – SPAGHETTI ALLA CARBONAR A
  15. 15. 1. ITALIAN CUISINE IS KNOWN AS MOTHER OF MODERN EUROPEAN CUISINE. ITALIANS KEPT THEIR TRADITION ALIVE. THERE ARE NO OTHER CUISINES WHICH HAS SO ANCIENT TRADITIONS. THE HISTORY OF ITALIAN FOOD SHOWS ALSO ITALIAN CUSTOMS THROUGH TIMES. IT'S KNOWN WHEN SPAGHETTI WAS FIRST DONE (IN NAPLES) AND HOW PASTA WAS INVENTED (IT WAS LIKE BREAD WITH NO YEAST).
  16. 16. 2. HOW DID THE ITALIAN VALUE THEIR CUISINE IN THE KIND FEW WOULD DOUBT THE IMPORTANCE OF FOOD TO ITALIAN OF ENVIRONMENT THEY HAVE? NATIONAL AND CULTURAL IDENTITY. FOOD IS WIDELY RECOGNIZED TO BE A FUNDAMENTAL PART OF WHAT IT MEANS TO BE ITALIAN. NATIONAL SIGNATURE DISHES — WHICH ACTUALLY ORIGINATED IN THE ITALIAN CITIES, REGIONS, OR LOCALITIES — PROVIDE MANY PROUD ITALIANS WITH A CAUSE FOR NATIONAL CELEBRATION. ITALIAN FOOD ALSO CONSTITUTES A KEY FEATURE OF GLOBAL FOOD CULTURE. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL FOOD CHAINS SELLING PIZZA OR PASTA ENSURES THAT PEOPLE ACROSS THE GLOBE RECOGNIZE ITALY AS ONE OF THE WORLD'S GREAT FOOD NATIONS.
  17. 17. 3. HOW DID THEY CREATE THE IMPACT OF EUROPEAN CUISINE?
  18. 18. THE COUNTRIES CULTURE OF DIFFERENT REGIONS IN ITALY. SIMILARITIES 5. DESCRIBE THE IN EASTERN EUROPE HAVE MANY THE LOCATIONBETWEEN THEIR RESPECTIVE CUISINES AND MANY DIFFERENCES. THE DIFFERENCES LIE MAINLY IN AND CLIMATE OF THE COUNTRY. POLAND IS KNOWN FOR THEIR NATIONAL DISH CALLED BIGOS AND FLAKI, WHICH IS A TRADITIONAL POLISH STEW. KIELBASA AND PIEROGIES ARE ALSO POPULAR AND ARE SEEN THROUGHOUT OTHER COUNTRIES AS WELL. RUSSIA IS FAMOUS FOR VODKA, AS WELL AS CHICKEN KIEV, BEEF STROGANOFF AND BLINI. IN SLOVAKIA YOU CAN FIND BRYNDZOVÉ HALUŠKY, A DISH OF POTATO DUMPLINGS SERVED WITH SHEEP CHEESE AND BACON. THIS DISH IS OFTEN ACCOMPANIED BY ŽINÈICA, A BEVERAGE MADE OF SHEEP’S MILK WHEY. THE BALKAN COUNTRIES ARE, HOWEVER, ARE MUCH MORE INFLUENCED BY THE BOUNTY OF THE MEDITERRANEAN AND THE AVAILABILITY OF GREAT PRODUCE. EVEN INSIDE THE BALKAN PENINSULA THERE ARE AS MANY DIFFERENCES AS THERE ARE SIMILARITIES TO THE CUISINE. MOUSSAKA IS THE NATIONAL DISH OF GREECE, AND IN ALBANIA THE NATIONAL DISH IS MADE OF FRIED MEAT, LIVER, EGGS AND TOMATOES. IN SLOVENIA YOU CAN FIND HORSE MEAT ON MENUS, AND CAN EVEN ENJOY A HORSE BURGER FROM THE HOT HORSE RESTAURANT IN LJUBLJANA. NORTHERN EUROPE IS ANOTHER MELTING POT OF VARIOUS CUISINES. HERE YOU CAN FIND AUTHENTIC DUTCH DISHES IN THE NETHERLANDS, IDENTIFIED BY ―NEERLANDS DIS‖ ON RESTAURANT SIGNS. IN THE NORTH YOU CAN ALSO FIND SUCH NATIONAL SPECIALTIES SUCH AS HAGGIS FROM SCOTLAND, IRISH STEW AND CHICKEN TIKA MASALA WHICH IS ARGUABLY ENGLAND’S NATIONAL DISH (OR IS IT FISH AND CHIPS, OR ROAST BEEF WITH YORSHIRE PUDDING?). ICELANDIC, FINNISH AND NORWEGIAN CUISINES RELY HEAVILY ON THE BOUNTY OF THE SEA AS DO OTHER NORTHERN COUNTRIES BORDERING THE OCEAN.
  19. 19. GERMANY’S NATIONAL DISH OF SAUERBRATEN TO THE FAMOUS BRATWURST. WHEN IN BERLIN BE SURE TO ORDER A CURRYWURST FROM AN IMBISS (SNACK) KIOSK ON THE STREET. BELGIUM IS KNOWN FOR SUPERB CHOCOLATE, WAFFLES, AND MUSSELS WITH POMMES FRITES. IN GHENT, BELGIUM TRY THE LOCAL SPECIALTY, WATERZOOI, A CREAMY FLEMISH STEW USUALLY MADE WITH CHICKEN, FRESH HERBS, LEEKS, POTATOES, CELERY, ONION, AND CARROTS. AND DON’T FORGET TO TRY SOME OF THE BEST BEER IN THE WORLD WHILE EATING IN GERMANY AND BELGIUM. AUSTRIA HAS GIFTED THE WORLD WITH WEINER SCHNITZEL AND THE TAFELSPITZ FROM THE PLACHUTTA RESTAURANT IN VIENNA IS VERY POPULAR. VIENNA IS ALSO THE ONLY WORLD CAPITAL WHICH PRODUCES LARGE QUANTITIES OF WINE, THEREFORE WINE BARS ARE VERY POPULAR. IN FRANCE, LYON IS CONSIDERED THE FOOD CAPITAL OF THE COUNTRY. FAMOUS FOR THEIR CASSOULET, LYONNAIS SAUSAGE AND TRIPE, IT IS ALSO WELL KNOWN FOR THEIR BREADS AND PASTRY CREATIONS. MANY FAMOUS CHEFS HAIL FROM LYON, INCLUDING CHEF DANIEL BOULUD. SOUTHERN EUROPE IS HOME TO SOME OF THE WORLD’S BEST LOVED CUISINES, AND THE BEST PLACE ON EARTH FOR PASTA. ITALY’S EMILIA-ROMAGNA REGION INCLUDES THE FOOD CAPITAL OF BOLOGNA, BUT MODENA AND PARMA ARE EQUALLY LOVED FOR THEIR BALSAMIC VINEGAR AND HAMS, PROSCIUTTO AND CHEESES, RESPECTFULLY. SUNNY SPAIN IS KNOWN FOR THEIR TAPAS AND WHILE MOST CONSIDER PAELLA TO BE THE NATIONAL DISH, LOCALS CONSIDER IT TO BE A VALENCIAN DISH.
  20. 20. 6.BEGINNINGS FOOD HABITS EXISTING • ITALIAN IN THE FIRST MEAL OF THE DAY THERE IS LITTLE HINT OF WHAT LIES AHEAD. ITALIANS START THE DAY SIMPLY, PERHAPS WITH A CORNETTI (CROISSANT) OR SLICE OF BRIOCHE, ACCOMPANIED BY A CAPPUCCINO, OR JUST AN ESPRESSO TAKEN STANDING UP AT A LOCAL COFFEE BAR -- CHEAPER THAN SITTING AT A CAFE TABLE. • LEISURELY LUNCH PRANZO (LUNCH) TRADITIONALLY WAS THE MAIN MEAL OF THE DAY, AND IN THE COUNTRYSIDE IT STILL IS FOR MANY WORKERS. IN URBAN AREAS, LUNCH HAS BECOME LIGHTER, ALTHOUGH IT REMAINS A THREE-COURSE MEAL -- ANTIPASTO (APPETIZER), PRIMO PIATTO (FIRST PLATE), USUALLY PASTA, SOUP OR RICE, FOLLOWED BY SECONDO PIATTO, A MEAT OR FISH DISH. IT IS ALSO A LEISURELY AFFAIR, LASTING MORE THAN AN HOUR AND ENDING WITH FRESH FRUIT. ITALIANS PREFER TO ENJOY CAKES AND PASTRIES WITH A MID-AFTERNOON COFFEE BREAK. • TAKE TWO CENA (DINNER) FOLLOWS THE SAME PATTERN OF LUNCH, USUALLY THREE COURSES BEGINNING WITH ANTIPASTO -SMALL SERVINGS OF CURED MEAT, OLIVES, LITTLE BITES TO PERK THE PALATE. NEXT IS PASTA, RICE OR SOUP, FOLLOWED BY A MEAT OR FISH DISH, ACCOMPANIED BY CONTORNI (VEGETABLE SIDE DISHES), ENDING WITH FRUIT AND PERHAPS A GLASS OF GRAPPA. • RELAX, ENJOY ITALIANS CONSIDER DINNER AN OPPORTUNITY TO RELAX WITH FRIENDS AND FAMILY, TO CHAT AND GOSSIP, LAUGH AND SHARE. TYPICALLY, ITALIANS EAT LATER THAN MANY AMERICANS AND NORTHERN EUROPEANS -- LUNCH AT 1 P.M. AND DINNER NEVER BEFORE 8 P.M., OFTEN LATER IN SUMMER. WAITERS WILL NOT BRING A CHECK UNTIL ONE IS REQUESTED, AND NO ONE WILL BE ASKED TO HURRY UP AND EAT TO FREE A TABLE.
  21. 21. • DEFINITIONS THERE HAS BEEN A BLURRING OF THE LINES IN DEFINING TYPES OF RESTAURANTS IN ITALY. TRATTORIA USED TO REFER TO A LOCAL RESTAURANT FEATURING AFFORDABLE, REGIONAL FOODS IN A RELAXED SETTING, BUT THE NAME HAS BEEN CO-OPTED BY SOME CHIC URBAN RESTAURANTS TO DENOTE AUTHENTICITY AND RUSTIC COOKING. AN OSTERIA IS A MORE HUMBLE ESTABLISHMENT, USUALLY FAMILY OWNED AND OPERATED, A PLACE WHERE CUSTOMERS ARE SERVED HOMECOOKED-STYLE MEALS, OFTEN AT COMMUNAL TABLES AND FOR A REASONABLE PRICE. • THE RULES THERE ARE TWO CARDINAL RULES OF ITALIAN CUISINE -- EAT LOCALLY AND EAT SEASONALLY. IMPORTED FOODS ARE CHANGING THIS PICTURE, BUT FAITHFUL ITALIAN COOKS WOULD NEVER EAT ASPARAGUS, TOMATOES OR ARTICHOKES OUT OF SEASON. FOOD IS PART OF THE RHYTHM OF LIFE, AND SO ITALIANS EAGERLY AWAIT THE ARRIVAL OF SEASONAL INGREDIENTS FROM MUSHROOMS IN THE FALL TO WILD STRAWBERRIES IN THE SPRING. • FOLLOW THE LOCALS EAT LIKE THE LOCALS TO SAVE AND SAVOR: BUY PICNIC FARE AT OUTDOOR MARKETS AND CITY SALUMERIAS (ITALIAN DELIS). OPT FOR A TAKE-OUT PANINI (SANDWICH) FOR LUNCH FROM A BAKERY. BUY PIZZA AL TAGLIO (BY THE SLICE) FROM A TINY HOLE-IN-THE-WALL PIZZERIA. EAT CAFETERIA-STYLE AT A TAVOLA CALDA (HOT TABLE) -- CHOOSE FROM A WIDE VARIETY OF HOME-STYLE DISHES AND PAY AT THE REGISTER. IT IS HARD TO EAT BADLY IN ITALY, BUT LOOK FOR A SPOT WHERE THE LOCALS ARE EATING, PASS ON THE "MENU TURISTICO" AND ASK FOR THE "MENU DEL GIORNO" -- THE DAILY SPECIALS.

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