Cultural orientations mindset


Published on

Published in: Business, Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • This is not about how emotional we are. It's about how we are conditioned to display emotion.
    How would you describe your average financial institution?
  • Do you like to follow process? Do you think there are more reasons to stay within the guidelines or not?
  • Different from multi-tasking (the action). This is how people think.
    Multi-focus. Ability to be present in multiple activities simultaneously.
    Most people who are good at multi-tasking are single focus.
  • Linear thinkers fall into pattern ie. Step 1, 2, 3…
  • Look at it from two different perspectives. From the model perspective and from the COI
    Debrief the COI within each separate dimension.
    All about motivation.
  • Trimodal to bimodal. Harmony is collapsed in to the mild indication on this continua.
    Control: I am in control of my own sense of empowerment.
    Constraint: External parameters determines my empowerment.
    Your preferences can be influenced by your current environment. Which means that there is a possibility to change your preference.
  • Is the world of work Hierarchy for me and is it important that I perceive it that way?
  • Are we independent, dependent, or interdependent?
  • Manual Page(s):
    Key Notes:
  • SAY
    For this exercise…..(read each instruction) You may choose to use this activity to compare profiles with a person that you work with remotely, or with whom you have a difficult relationship, or your boss, etc.
    This activity focuses on differences but remember often there are equal challenges in similarity between those who share similar preferences. More specifically when e.g. you are part of a team or department and the differences are with those you engage with from other departments, functions or organizations.
    Ultimately we do not only want to overcome the impact of differences but our goal should be to find value in exploring different ways of doing things.
    Use template in the notebook.
    Ensure that everybody knows exactly what they need to do.
    It is important to answer any questions that participants may have about their orientations and or the COM/COI itself.
    Ensure that all participants enter into this activity in their own free will
    Cultural competency is the ability to effectively navigate – communicate, interrelate, and effectively function in diverse cultural settings.
  • Refer to the COG – Pages 109-125 It is not possible to style-switch along all continua. There may be continua that are more resistant or harder to change than others.
    Style switching is not a permanent personality change. It is a role change. It is like being an actor. It is a temporary process (or long term if necessary) to bridge a cultural gap leading to more effective business results.
    Discuss the concepts with examples. Emphasize that the individual maintains his/her integrity.
  • Demo of the Cultural Navigator®
  • Cultural orientations mindset

    1. 1. Four Behaviors that Define Great Global Leaders 界定杰出全球领导者的四大行为指标 • 1. Cultural Self-Awareness 文化自知 • 2. Invite the Unexpected 另辟蹊径 • 3. Results Though Relationships 通过关系取得成 果 • 4. Frame Shifting (Style Switching) 方式转换(行 为风格切换) • Source: “What is Global Leadership?”, Ernest Gundling
    2. 2. What is Culture? 什么是文化? “The complex pattern of ideas, emotions, and behaviors that tend to be expected, reinforced and rewarded by and within a particular group.” “ 往往是某个特定的群体所 期望、强化和奖励的思想 、情感和行为的复合形 ”态。
    3. 3. Sources of Cultural Influence 文化影响的来源 国家文化 家庭文化 企业文化 功能型文化 个人文化 示意图 东道主文化 朋友 地区 家庭 宗教 教育 企业文化 职业 社会阶层性别 时代 社会 种族
    4. 4. The Cultural Iceberg 文化冰山 意识层面 认知层面 情感层面 观察 / 行为层面
    5. 5. Cultural Orientations Model (COM) 文化导向模型( COM ) • A neutral framework for describing and understanding cultural differences. 描述和理解文化差异的中立框架。 5 Thinking Style 思维方式 … how people process information 人们如何处理 信息Sense of Self 自我感 … how people view identity and motivation 人们如何看待身份和动 机 Interaction Style 互动方式 … how people communicate and engage with others 人们 如何与他人交流和相处 思 维 方 式 互动方式
    6. 6. The connection between behaviors, beliefs, and emotions that are expected, reinforced and rewarded by and within a particular group. 某个特定的群体所期望、强化和奖励的行 为、信念和情感之间的联系。 Aligned with our definition of culture 符合我们的文化定义 Values 价值观 Cognition 认知 (Beliefs and Assumptions 信仰和 假设 ) Emotions 情感 Behavior 行为 Norms 规范 Context/Situation 背景 / 情景 Interaction Style 互动方式 Orientations that impact how we communicate and engage others. 影 响我们与他人交流和相处方式的导 向。 Thinking Style 思维方式 Orientations that impact how we process information. 影响我们处 理信息方式的导向。 Sense of Self 自我感 Orientations that define how we view our “self” and are motivated. 定义我 们看待“自我”和产生动机的方式的导 向。 6
    7. 7. Fluid / Fixed 流动式 / 固定式 • How we prefer to use time. • 我们更喜欢如何使用时间。 Mild 弱 Mild 弱Very Strong 很强 ** Strong 强 * Very Strong 很强 ** FLUID 流动式 FIXED 固定式 Strong 强 * Actions/event and outcomes determine the use of time. Schedules are approximate and flexible. 行动 / 事件和结果决定时间的使用。 日程安排类似且灵活。 Schedules are firm and they structure interactions and events. Punctuality is critical. 时间安排固定且构成互动和事件。 守时很关键。 7
    8. 8. Being / Doing 所是 / 所为 • How we balance relationships and tasks. • 我们如何平衡关系与任务。 Mild 弱 Mild 弱Very Strong 很强 ** Strong 强 * Very Strong 很强 ** BEING 所是 DOING 所为 Strong 强 * Relationships have priority. Nurturing relationship are essential to accomplishing tasks and objectives. 关系优先。 培养关系对于完成任务和目标必不可少 。 Tasks have priority Tasks are independent of relationships. Relationships are nice to have, but not essential. 任务优先。 任务不依赖于关系。有了关系是不错,但 并非必不可少。 8
    9. 9. Indirect / Direct 间接 / 直接 • How we prefer to handle conflict, disagreements, and discord. • 我们更喜欢如何处理冲突、分歧和矛盾。 Mild 弱 Mild 弱Very Strong 很强 ** Strong 强 * Very Strong 很强 ** INDIRECT 间接 DIRECT 直接 Strong 强 * Discreet handling of conflict. Face-saving is essential. 谨慎处理冲突。 面子至关重要。 Straight forward and open conflict handling. 直截了当地公开处理冲突。 9
    10. 10. Instrumental / Expressive 工具性 / 表情性 • How we prefer to display and handle emotions. • 我们更喜欢如何表露和处理情绪。 Mild 弱 Mild 弱Very Strong 很强 ** Strong 强 * Very Strong 很强 ** INSTRUMENTAL 工具性 EXPRESSIVE 表情性 Strong 强 * Displaying rationality and “objectivity” builds trust and connection. 表露理性和“客观性”建立信任和联系。 Displaying feelings, passion and style builds rapport and connection. 表露情感、热情和风格建立默契和联系。 10
    11. 11. Informal / Formal 非正式 / 正式 • How we prefer and experience etiquette, protocol, and social conventions. • 我们如何看待和体会礼仪、惯例和社会习俗。 Mild 弱 Mild 弱Very Strong 很强 ** Strong 强 * Very Strong 很强 ** INFORMAL 非正式 FORMAL 正式 Strong 强 * Etiquette, protocol and social conventions are reduced or dispensed and experienced as disablers of relationships. 礼仪、惯例和社会习俗是阻碍关系进展 的羁绊,应尽量减免。 Etiquette, protocol and social conventions of propriety are adhered to and valued as enablers of relationships. 礼仪、惯例和社会习俗是促进关系发展的 重要因素,应坚持重视。 11
    12. 12. Particularistic / Universalistic 特殊性 / 普遍性 • How we prefer to apply rules and standards of fairness. • 我们更喜欢如何运用公平的规则和标准 . Mild 弱 Mild 弱Very Strong 很强 ** Strong 强 * Very Strong 很强 ** PARTICULARISTIC 特殊性 UNIVERSALISTIC 普遍性 Strong 强 * Situation-dependent standards of behavior and application of rules. Focus on equity. 行为标准和规则运用视具体情况而定。 注重公平。 Consistent and uniform standards of behavior and application of rules. Focus on equality. 行为标准和规则运用整齐划一。 注重平等。 12
    13. 13. Thinking Style 思维方式 • Cultural orientations that impact how we process information; i.e. the way you think, perceive, remember and relate to information. • 对我们如何处理信息产生影响的文化导向;即思考、感知、记忆和关 联信息的方式。 13 Thinking Style: 思维方式: •Multi-Focus/Single-Focus 多焦点 / 单 焦点 •Past/Future 过去 / 未来 •Low Context/High Context 低语境 / 高语境 •Inductive/Deductive 归纳 / 演绎 •Linear/Systemic 线性 / 系统
    14. 14. Multi-Focus / Single Focus 多焦点 / 单焦点 • How we prefer to select and pay attention to information. • 我们更喜欢如何选择和关注信息。 Mild 弱 Mild 弱Strong 强 *Very Strong 很强 ** Strong 强 * Very Strong 很强 ** MULTI FOCUS 多焦点 SINGLE FOCUS 单焦点 Process information in a parallel way ; i.e., multiple things simultaneously. 并行处理信息;即:同时做多件事。 Process information sequentially; i.e., one thing at a time. 相继处理信息;即:一次做一件事。 14
    15. 15. Past / Future 过去 / 未来 • How we prefer to reference information. • 我们更喜欢如何参考信息。 Mild 弱 Mild 弱Strong 强 *Very Strong 很强 ** Strong 强 * Very Strong 很强 ** PAST 过去 FUTURE 未来 Reference to historical development and tradition 参考历史发展过程和传统 Reference to vision of the future and innovation objectives 参考未来前景和创新目标 15
    16. 16. Low Context / High Context 低语境 / 高语境 • How we derive and package meaning; i.e. how we interpret and understand information. • 我们如何得出和包装意思;即:我们如何解释和理解信息。 • 。 16 Mild 弱 Mild 弱Strong 强 *Very Strong 很强 ** Strong 强 * Very Strong 很强 ** LOW CONTEXT 低语境 HIGH CONTEXT 高语境 Meaning is explicit. Information is taken at face value; i.e., it means what is says 意思很明确。 信息具有表面价值;即:就是指说的那 个意思。 Meaning is implicit. Meaning is hidden; i.e. what is said stands for something else 意思很含蓄。 意思很隐晦;即:所说的话暗含别的意思 。
    17. 17. Inductive / Deductive 归纳 / 演绎 • How we reason; i.e., how we draw inferences, arrive at conclusions, and structure thoughts and arguments. • 我们如何推理;即:我们如何引出推论、得出结论并构建论点 和论据。 17 Mild 弱 Mild 弱Strong 强 *Very Strong 很强 ** Strong 强 * Very Strong 很强 ** INDUCTIVE 归纳 DEDUCTIVE 演绎 Specific to general. Data and specific cases reveal the underlying principle. 从特殊到一般。 数据和具体案例揭示了基本原理, General to specific. Principles are applied to specific instances and cases. 从一般到特殊。 原理适用于具体情况和案例。
    18. 18. Linear / Systemic 线性 / 系统 • How we perceive and organize information. • 我们如何感知和组织信息。 Mild 弱 Mild 弱Strong 强 *Very Strong 很强 ** Strong 强 * Very Strong 很强 ** LINEAR 线性 SYSTEMIC 系统 Component perception Focus on discrete components and cause-effect relationships. 组分感知 聚焦分立组分和因果关系。 Holistic perception Focus on the “big picture” and the interaction among components. 整体感知 聚焦“全局”和组分间的相互作用。 18
    19. 19. Sense of Self 自我感 • Cultural orientations that impact how we see and experience our “self”; i.e., our identity and core motivation. • 对我们如何看待和体会“自我”(即我们的身份和核心动机)产生影响 的文化导向。 19 Sense of Self: 自我感: •Control/Constraint 控制 / 约束 •Private/Public 私人 / 公共 •Hierarchy/Equality 等级 / 平等 •Collectivistic/Individualistic 集体主义 / 个人主义 •Cooperative/Competitive 合作 / 竞争 •Flexibility/Order 灵活性 / 秩序
    20. 20. Control / Constraint 控制 / 约束 • How we experience our agency in the (work) world; i.e., how empowered you see yourself over the circumstance of your work/life. • 我们如何体会我们在(工作)社会上的行动能力;即:你认为你有多 大的能力处理好工作 / 生活中出现的各种情况。 Mild 弱Strong 强 *Very Strong 很强 ** Strong 强 * Very Strong 很强 ** CONTROL 控制 CONSTRAINT 约束 Internal locus of control or high sense of empowerment. Belief that we can determine outcomes through our actions and decisions. 内部控制源或高赋能感。 相信我们可以我们的行动和决策来决定结 果。 External locus of control or low sense of empowerment. Belief that outcomes are determined by forces we cannot influence. 外部控制源或低赋能感。 相信结果由我们无法影响的力量来决定。 Mild 弱 20
    21. 21. Private / Public 私人 / 公共 • How we experience boundaries and access; i.e., our need for and relationship to physical and psychological boundaries. • 我们如何体会边界和通道;即:我们对身体和心理边界的需求以及我 们与身体和心理边界的关系。 Mild 弱 Mild 弱Strong 强 *Very Strong 很强 ** Strong 强 * Very Strong 很强 ** PRIVATE 私人 PUBLIC 公共 Clear and firm boundaries. Demarcation, segmentation and preservation are key. 明确固定的边界。 划界、分割和保护很关键。 Weak and permeable boundaries. Accessibility, transparency and exchange with others are key. 弱势渗透性边界。 可接近、透明和与他人交流很关键。 21
    22. 22. Hierarchy / Equality 等级 / 平等 • How we experience and relate to social stratification and the differential distribution of privilege and power. • 我们如何体会和处理社会阶层以及特权和权力的差异性分布。 Mild 弱 Mild 弱Strong 强 *Very Strong 很强 ** Strong 强 * Very Strong 很强 ** HIERARCHY 等级 EQUALITY 平等 Differences in power and status are desirable. Deference to and special privileges for those of higher status. 权力和地位差异是可取的。地位高的人 应得到额外尊重和特权。 Differences in power are and ought to be minimized. No deference or special privileges to those of higher status. 权力差异在缩小且理应如此。地位高的人 不应得到额外尊重和特权。 22
    23. 23. Collectivistic / Individualistic 集体主义 / 个人主义 • How we experience group membership; i.e. how we identify with a given group. • 我们如何体会团体成员身份;即:我们对某个特定团体的认同 程度。 Mild 弱 Mild 弱Strong 强 *Very Strong 很强 ** Strong 强 * Very Strong 很强 ** COLLECTIVISTIC 集体主义 INDIVIDUALISTIC 个人主义 Identification with a group. The “we” predominates and submission to group norms and interests is expected. 认同某个团体。 以“我们”为主,希望服从团体规范和利 益。 Independence from groups. The “I” predominates and the pursuit of self-interest is encouraged. 独立于团体。 以“我”为主,鼓励追求自身利益。 23
    24. 24. Cooperative / Competitive 合作 / 竞争 • How we are motivated and what we find desirable to achieve. • 我们如何产生动机以及我们想要实现什么目标。 Mild 弱 Mild 弱Strong 强 *Very Strong 很强 ** Strong 强 * Very Strong 很强 ** COOPERATIVE 合作 COMPETITIVE 竞争 Harmony and balance is prized and a source of pride. 和谐与平衡很珍贵,是值得骄傲的事情 。 Maximum gain and achievement is prized and a source of pride. 最大增益和成就很珍贵,是值得骄傲的事 情。 24
    25. 25. Flexibility / Order 灵活性 / 秩序 • How we experience and respond to uncertainty and ambiguity. • 我们如何体会和应对不确定性和模糊性。 Mild 弱 Mild 弱Strong 强 *Very Strong 很强 ** Strong 强 * Very Strong 很强 ** FLEXIBILITY 灵活性 ORDER 秩序 Uncertainty and ambiguity are assumed and expected. Responsiveness to change, improvisation and resilience are sources of pride. 不确定性和模糊性在假设和预料之中。 应变力、即兴和弹性是值得骄傲的事情 。 Uncertainty and ambiguity are minimized and contained. Stability, consistency and predictability are sources of pride. 尽量减少和限制不确定性和模糊性。稳定 性、一致性和可预见性是值得骄傲的事情 。 25
    26. 26. Understanding the COI: Gap Analysis 了解文化导向指数( COI ):差异分析 26 Continua: Being / Doing 续:所是 / 所为 所是 所为 很强 强 弱 弱 强 很强 你 点击各柱状图查看细节 。 红色指所存在的差异。
    27. 27. Sample Country COI Profile (China) 示例国家 COI 示意图(中国) 27 自我感思维方式互动方式 流动式 所是 间接 工具性 正式 特殊 多焦点 过去 高语境 归纳 系统 约束 私人 等级 集体主义 竞争 秩序
    28. 28. Exercise: COIReflection 练习: COI 思考 • Identify one strong/very strong preference. 确定一个强 / 很强的首选项 。 • In which situations do you act on this preference? 你在何种情况下会落实该首 选项? • What are the positive consequences? 产 生了哪些积极后果? • What are the negative and/or unintended consequences? 产生了哪些消极和 / 或非 预期后果? • How do the consequences contribute to your challenges at work? 这些后果对你应 对工作中的挑战产生了哪些作用? 28 思 维 方 式 互动方式
    29. 29. Exploring Cultural Gaps 1 on 1 一对一探讨文化差异• Step 1: Place a checkmark () next to each orientation indicating your preference. • 步骤 1 :在每个导向旁放置一个复选标记()指出你的首选项。 • Step 2: Select a partner. • 步骤 2 :挑选一位搭档。 • Step 3: Review your partner’s COI and put a checkmark next to his or her preferences for each continuum on the following pages. • 步骤 3 :查阅你搭档的 COI 并在以后各页的导向连续集内的首选项旁放置一个复选标 记。 • Step 4: Identify any potential culture gap that exists between your preferences and that of your counterpart . • 步骤 4 :确定你的首选项与你搭档的之间所存在的任何潜在文化差异。 • Step 5: Identify specific strategies and tactics you could employ to work together more effectively. • 步骤 5 :确定你会采取的能使共事更高效的具体战略战术。 • Step 6: Discuss your strategies and tactics with your partner. Check your conclusions • 步骤 6 :与你的搭档讨论你的战略战术。核实你的结论。 29
    30. 30. MODULE 4: 模块 4 : Understanding Your Cultural Profile and Exploring the Four Key Cultural Skills 了解你的文化概况并探讨四个主要的文化技能
    31. 31. Four Key Cultural Skills 四个主要的文化技能 • Cultural Due Diligence: Assessing and preparing for the possible impact of culture and cultural differences • 文化审慎:评估文化和文化差异可能带来的影响并做好相应的 准备 • Style Switching: Using a different behavioral approach to accomplish one’s goals • 行为风格切换:使用不同的行为方式来完成自己的目标 • Cultural Dialogue: Exploring cultural differences and negotiating mutual adaptations • 文化对话:探索文化差异并协调相互适应 • Cultural Mentoring: Helping others with cultural adaptation and integration. • 文化辅导:帮助他人完成文化适应与融合。31
    32. 32. Four Key Cultural Skills – Model –四个主要的文化技能 模型Cultural Due Diligence 文化审慎 Assessing and preparing for the possible impact of culture and cultural difference 评估文化和文化差异可能带来的 影响并做好相应的准备 Is it reasonable or feasible for my counterpart(s) to change? 让我的搭档做出 改变是否合理可行? YES NO Cultural Mentoring 文化辅导 Helping others with cultural adaptation and integration 帮助他人完成文化适应与融合 Cultural Dialogue 文化对话 Exploring cultural differences and negotiating mutual adaptations 探索文化差异并协调相互适应 YES 是 Style-Switching 行为风格切换 Using a different behavioral approach to accomplish one’s goals 使用不同的行为方式来完成 自己的目标 NO 否 32
    33. 33. Cultural Due Diligence 文化审慎 • Cultural Due Diligence: Assessing and preparing for the possible impact of culture and cultural differences. • 文化审慎:评估文化和文化差异可能带来的影响并做好相应的准备 。 • Observation • 观察 • Third Parties • 第三方 • Inquiry/Probing • 询问 / 探究 • Cultural Orientations Indicator® Profile • 文化导向指数 ® 示意图 • Information Tools (e.g., Cultural Navigator® ) • 信息工具(如文化导航仪 ® ) 33
    34. 34. Cultural Due Diligence 文化审慎 Requirements for Shared Understanding and Success: 要求共识和成功 • Non-judgmental comparative framework • 非主观的比较框架 • Shared vocabulary • 共享词汇 Potential Actions & Outcomes 潜在的行动和结果 • Identifying salient challenges • 识别突出的挑战 • Generating hypotheses • 产生假设 • Preparing approaches and strategies • 准备方法和策略 34
    35. 35. Style-Switching 行为风格切换 • Style-Switching: Using a different behavioral approach to accomplish one’s goals. • 行为风格切换:使用不同的行为方式来完成自己的目标。 • Techniques: • 技巧: • Introspection/Reflection: Identify situations where Style-Switching may be beneficial. • 反省 / 反思:确定在哪些情况下行为风格切换可能有益。 • Meditation: A technique to shift your cognitive and emotional reactions and focus your mind. • 冥想:转变你的认知和情感反应并集中你的思想的一种技巧。 • Modeling: Copy the behaviors of others, particularly when interacting with an unfamiliar culture. • 建模:复制他人的行为,尤其当与陌生文化打交道时。 • External Practice: Practice outside of the immediate need in a similar situation to become more comfortable • 外在实践:在类似情况下忽视迫切需要使实践过程变得更轻松舒适35
    36. 36. Style-Switching 行为风格切换 36 可协商 核心
    37. 37. Exercise: Style-Switching Scenario Analysis 练习:行为风格切换情景分析 • Instructions: • 指示: • In a small group, review the scenario assigned to your group. Please identify the following: • 在一个小组中,回顾分配给你的小组的情景。请确定以下信息: • How the individual would approach the situation based on his/her cultural orientation. What is the likely effect of doing so in this way? • 个人将如何基于其文化导向来处理这种情况?以这种方式这样做可能 会产生什么结果? • How the individual may want to change his/her approach to improve the outcome • 个人可能需要如何改变其方法才能改善该结果 37
    38. 38. Cultural Dialogue 文化对话 Cultural Dialogue: Exploring cultural differences and negotiating mutual adaptations. 文化对话:探索文化差异并协调相互适应。 Proactive: raising awareness and knowledge about potential differences. 主动:提高对潜在差异的认知和了解。 Reactive: identifying the cultural underpinnings of specific challenges. 被动:确定具体挑战的文化基础。 38
    39. 39. Cultural Dialogue 文化对话 •Frame the conversation 搭建对话框架 •Articulate critical issues 阐明关键问题 •Extend an invitation 发出邀请 •Listen and paraphrase 倾听与释义 •Inquire and probe 询问与探究 •Share your perspective and/or experiences 分享你的观点和 / 或经验 •Identify options 确定选项 •Jointly visualize success 共同实现成功 •Set guiding principles 设置指导原则 Analyze 分析Analyze 分析 Prepare 准备Prepare 准备 Implement 实施Implement 实施 Phase I 第一阶段 Initiate 初期 Phase II 第二阶段 Create Shared Understanding 建立共识 Phase III 第三阶 段 Problem Solve Jointly 共同解决问题 39
    40. 40. Cultural Mentoring 文化辅导 Cultural Mentoring: Helping others with cultural adaptation and integration. 文化辅导:帮助他人完成文化适应与融合。 •Establish the rationale for using cultural dialogue. •建立使用文化对话的理论基础。 •Achieve clarity about the process and objectives. •明确过程和目标。 •Distinguish between understanding and problem-solving. •区分理解与问题解决的差异。 •Suspend status hierarchies. •暂停地位等级。 40
    41. 41. MODULE 5: 模块 5 : Reflection and Action Planning 反思与行动规划
    42. 42. Review of Key Insights 回顾关键见解 Awareness: 意识: • Understanding Culture and Developing Cultural Competence • 了解文化并培养文化素养 Applications: 应用: • Introduction to the Cultural Orientations Approach • 介绍文化导向法 • Understanding Your Cultural Profile and Exploring the Four Key Cultural Skills • 了解您的文化概况并探讨四个主要的文化技能 42
    43. 43. Personal Reflection & Action Planning 个人思考和行动计划 1. What have been the most valuable insights and ideas that you gained in this program? 你在本课程中收获的最有价值的见解和想法是什么? 2. Identify two or three challenges that you can now address differently. 找出你现在可以用不同方法解决的两个或三个挑战。 3. Plan for how you will act/behave differently regarding the challenge after today. 计划一下今后面对挑战你会有哪些不同的行为 / 举止。 – Share at your table – 与你的同桌分享 – Flip chart and report out to the group – 活动挂图和向小组汇报 43