1. Marbury v. Madison (1803)<br />Established that the Supreme Court has the final judgment on what is and is not Constitutional. Created “Judicial Review”<br />
2. Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)<br />Ruled that African Americans and their descendants were not citizens and therefore had no rights<br />Also ruled that Congress has no power to keep slavery out of new territories<br />*Overturned by the 14th Amendment to the Constitution*<br />
3. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)<br />Ruled that “separate but equal” facilities for African Americans were constitutional. Upheld legal segregation of races<br />
4. Brown v. Board of Education (1954)<br />Reversed Plessy v. Ferguson. Outlawed segregation in public schools.<br />
5. Engel v. Vitale (1962)<br />Ruled that states cannot require public school students to recite prayers <br />
6. Gideon v. wainwright (1963)<br />Required states to provide an attorney for accused people who could not afford one.<br />
7. Miranda v. Arizona (1966)<br />Ruled that people who are arrested must be informed of their right to an attorney, their right to remain silent, and the danger that they place themselves in if they talk.<br />Berghuis v. Thompkins (2010) – now in order to be protected by your right to remain silent you must speak to say you are remaining silent.<br />
8. Roe v. Wade (1973) <br />Ruled that women have the right to decide for themselves whether or not to have an abortion, with certain limitations.<br />
9. New Jersey v. TLO (1985)<br />Ruled that school staff may conduct searches of students without a warrant or probable cause as long as the search is reasonable.<br />
10. Hazelwood v. kuhlmeier (1988)<br />Ruled that schools have theright to censor student publications without violating the students first amendment rights.<br />
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