U.S. Politics and Laws as Drivers for Air
      Quality Management (AQM)

       John G. Watson (johnw@dri.edu)

  Desert ...
Main Points
• Basic human needs must be met before citizens care
  about air pollution
• People respond first to what they...
Citizens were upset with poor visibility in major cities




9:20am in downtown Pittsburgh, 1946   Afternoon in Los Angele...
Citizens were also concerned about poor
    visibility in treasured national parks




Grand Canyon, 6/21/1985, 9 AM   Fou...
U.S. Air Quality Management is an Iterative Process
    Establish
      Goals
                                            ...
Multiple Emission Reduction Laws and Regulations
       have Been Promulgated for U.S. AQM
•   Ambient air quality standar...
U.S. AQM has been Successful for Individual Pollutants
Future Challenges for U.S. Air Quality
              Management

• Simplify overlapping rules and regulations
• Regulate p...
Source Material

• Simplify overlapping rules and regulations
• Regulate pollutant combinations rather than
  individual p...
Source Material
•   Bachmann, J.D. (2007). Will the circle be unbroken: A history of the US national ambient air quality s...
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Civic Exchange 2009 The Air We Breathe Conference - U.S. Politics and Laws as Drivers for Air Quality Management (AQM)

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Civic Exchange 2009 The Air We Breathe Conference - Experts Symposium 9 January 2009

U.S. Politics and Laws as Drivers for Air Quality Management (AQM)
presented by John G Watson (Desert Research Institute)

http://air.dialogue.org.hk

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Civic Exchange 2009 The Air We Breathe Conference - U.S. Politics and Laws as Drivers for Air Quality Management (AQM)

  1. 1. U.S. Politics and Laws as Drivers for Air Quality Management (AQM) John G. Watson (johnw@dri.edu) Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV, USA Presented at THE AIR WE BREATHE: a public health dialogue January 10, 2009 Wan Chai, Hong Kong, SAR China
  2. 2. Main Points • Basic human needs must be met before citizens care about air pollution • People respond first to what they can see and smell • Basing emission reduction strategies on healthful ambient concentrations (NAAQS) has driven pollution control technology • Single pollutant control strategies have been effective for most directly-emitted pollutants • Multi-pollutant control strategies are needed for pollutants that form after emission (ozone, sulfate, nitrate, organic carbon) • The piecemeal development and lack of accountability of the U.S. AQM system has resulted in inefficiencies, excessive litigation, implementation delays, and rentention of older assessment technologies
  3. 3. Citizens were upset with poor visibility in major cities 9:20am in downtown Pittsburgh, 1946 Afternoon in Los Angeles, early 1960s
  4. 4. Citizens were also concerned about poor visibility in treasured national parks Grand Canyon, 6/21/1985, 9 AM Four Corners coal-fired power station, east of Grand Canyon, 1970s
  5. 5. U.S. Air Quality Management is an Iterative Process Establish Goals Determine Monitoring Inventories NAAQS Emissions Analysis & Modeling Visibility Goals PSD increments Reductions PAMS network Photochemical Grid Modeling Acid Rain SOx Cap Track and Develop Evaluate Programs to Scientific Results achieve Research Tools: SIPs, Local &Tribal plans Monitoring (air quality, Legislative Mobile Reductions visibility, deposition, emissions). Federal Fuel additive Rules Attain 3-5 years NSPS NESHAP (risk) Attain 3, 5-10 years Attain 3, 5-10(+2) years Implement “Subpart D” in Nonattainment Areas or 3, 6, 9, 15-17, 20 years (O3) and Enforce - RACT and New Source Review - Reasonable progress Rule Effectiveness CEMs Strategies -Mobile I/M Utility NSPS % Reduction Sources comply Federal Acid Rain Program Permits Federal MACT plus risk 1970 Clean Air Act Amendments Enforcement Tier 2, toxics mobile standards 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments NSR Permits O3/PM area classification, 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments Title V permit programs Requirements: VOC, NOx RACT; Federal CTG, I/M, from Bachmann, 2007 3%/yr progress, New source offsets, O3 Transport Commission
  6. 6. Multiple Emission Reduction Laws and Regulations have Been Promulgated for U.S. AQM • Ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) • Emissions caps and trading • Demonstrated reasonable progress • Emission fees and fines • Emission limits (NSPS, Tiers 1,2,3,4,5) • Effluent treatment requirements (RACT, BACT, MACT, LAER) • Retrofit Requirements (NSR, BACT) • Product design specifications • Forced shutdowns • Fuel specifications • Inspection and Maintenance programs • Energy efficiency requirements
  7. 7. U.S. AQM has been Successful for Individual Pollutants
  8. 8. Future Challenges for U.S. Air Quality Management • Simplify overlapping rules and regulations • Regulate pollutant combinations rather than individual pollutants • Re-design source characterization and ambient networks for data uses beyond compliance and phase-in new measurement technologies • Expand spatial domains for AQM beyond local, state, and national boundaries
  9. 9. Source Material • Simplify overlapping rules and regulations • Regulate pollutant combinations rather than individual pollutants • Re-design source characterization and ambient networks for data uses beyond compliance and phase-in new measurement technologies • Expand spatial domains for AQM beyond local, state, and national boundaries
  10. 10. Source Material • Bachmann, J.D. (2007). Will the circle be unbroken: A history of the US national ambient air quality standards-2007 Critical Review. J. Air Waste of standards- Manage. Assoc., 57(6):652-697. 57(6):652- • Chow, J. C. 2001 Critical review discussion - Diesel engines: Environmental impact and control. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 2001, 51(9), 1258- 51(9), 1258- 1270. • Chow, J. C.; Bachmann, J. D.; Wierman, S. S. G.; Mathai, C. V.; Malm, W. C.; White, W. H.; Mueller, P. K.; Kumar, N. K.; Watson, J. G. 2002 Critical Wierman, Mathai, Malm, review discussion - Visibility: Science and regulation. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 2002, 52(9), 973-999. 52(9), 973- • Chow, J. C.; Watson, J. G.; Shah, J. J.; Kiang, C. S.; Loh, C.; Lev-On, M.; Lents, J. M.; Molina, M. J.; Molina, L. T. 2004 Critical review discussion: Loh, Lev- Megacities and atmospheric pollution. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 2004, 54(10), 1226-1235. 54(10), 1226- • Chow, J. C.; Watson, J. G.; Feldman, H. J.; Nolan, J.; Wallerstein, B. R.; Bachmann, J. D. 2007 Critical review discussion - Will the circle be Wallerstein, unbroken: A history of the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 2007, 57(10), 1151-1163. Standards. 57(10), 1151- • Chow, J. C. 2007 Critical review introduction - Will the circle be unbroken: A history of the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards. J. Air Ambient Waste Manage. Assoc. 2007, 57(6), 650-651. 57(6), 650- • Civic Exchange Air Pollution - Air quality management issues in the Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta Region. prepared by Civic Exchange, River Hong Kong, 2004. • Hedley, A. J.; Mcghee, S. M.; Barron, B.; Chau, P.; Chau, J.; Thach, T. Q.; Wong, T. W.; Loh, C.; Wong, C. M. Air pollution: Costs and paths to a Mcghee, Chau, Chau, Thach, Loh, solution in Hong Kong - Understanding the connections among visibility, air pollution, and health costs in pursuit of accountability, environmental justice, and health protection. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health-Part A-Current Issues 2008, 71(9-10), 544-554. Health- A- 71(9- 544- • Hopkinson, L.; Stern, R. One country, two systems, one smog cross-boundary air pollution policy challenges for Kong Kong and Guangdong. Hopkinson, cross- Guangdong. China Environment Series 2003, (6), 19-36. 19- • Lee, S. C.; Watson, J. G.; Chow, J. C.; Ho, K. F.; Wangberg, I.; Lau, A. K. H.; Guo, H.; Liu, S. Feasibility of establishing air monitoring supersites in Wangberg, Guo, Hong Kong. prepared by Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the Desert Research Institute, Hong Kong, SAR, China, 2008. http://www.cse.polyu.edu.hk/~HKsupersite/ http://www.cse.polyu.edu.hk/~HKsupersite/ • Lloyd, A. C.; Cackette, T. A. Critical review - Diesel engines: Environmental impact and control. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 2001, 51(6), 809-847. Cackette, 51(6), 809- • Molina, M. J.; Molina, L. T. Critical review: Megacities and atmospheric pollution. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 2004, 54(6), 644-680. 54(6), 644- • Ng, K. L.; Obbard, J. P. Strategic environmental assessment in Hong Kong. Environ. Int. 2005, 31(4), 483-492. Obbard, 31(4), 483- • NRC (National Research Council) Air Quality Management in the United States. The National Academies Press: Washington, DC, 2004; States. • NRC (National Research Council) New Source Review for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution. The National Academies Press: Washington, DC, Pollution. 2006; • NRC (National Research Council) Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution Challenges for China and the United States. National Academies Press: States. Washington, DC, 2008; • Watson, J. G. Visibility: Science and regulation. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 2002, 52(6), 628-713. 52(6), 628-

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