The Beijing Olympics experience –
    what is needed to make a mega-event
 produce long lasting benefits for host cities?
...
Air Quality in Beijing has been improved
  Attainment days are increasing (Source: Beijing EPB)

       Attainment Days   ...
The improvement can be attributed to the 14 stages of
air pollution controlling measures in Beijing, since 1998.
       Cl...
The vehicle number is increasing fast in Beijing
since 1990
  4.0

  3.5

  3.0

  2.5

  2.0

  1.5

  1.0

  0.5

  0.0
...
TOMS
MODIS          TOR

AOD            O3
             Monthly
             100km




           MOPITT
  NO2
 (6day,    ...
Main Findings of CAREBEIJING
Integrated observation of ground, towers, aircraft, and satellite

1. Regional Efforts requir...
Area: 1.17 M. km2, Population: 240 M, GDP in 2006:                                     Beijing:
5.2 Trillion RMB,18%, 19%,...
HEART (Health Effects of Air Pollution
Reduction Trial) (HEI+NIEHS, Beijing EPB)
  Pre-Olympics                During-Olym...
CAREBeijing-H Study Schedule
            (NSFC, Beijing EPB)
                     Pre-Olympics          During-Olympics
  ...
Long lasting benefits:
      • air quality improvement
      • public awareness (health study)
      • experience and conf...
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Civic Exchange 2009 The Air We Breathe Conference - The Beijing Olympics Experience

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Civic Exchange 2009 The Air We Breathe Conference - Experts Symposium 9 January 2009

The Beijing Olympics Experience
presented by Prof. Zhu Tong (College of Environmental Studies and Engineering, Peking University)
http://air.dialogue.org.hk

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Civic Exchange 2009 The Air We Breathe Conference - The Beijing Olympics Experience

  1. 1. The Beijing Olympics experience – what is needed to make a mega-event produce long lasting benefits for host cities? Tong Zhu College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering Peking university, Beijing , China and the CAREBEIJING team (Campaigns of Air Quality Research in Beijing and Surrounding Region)
  2. 2. Air Quality in Beijing has been improved Attainment days are increasing (Source: Beijing EPB) Attainment Days PM10 !g m-3 SO2 !g m-3 NO2 !g m-3 CO mg m-3 2000 177(48.4%) 162 71 71 2.7 2001 185(50.7%) 165 64 71 2.6 2002 203(55.6%) 166 67 76 2.5 2003 224(61.4%) 141 61 72 2.4 2004 229(62.5%) 149 55 72 2.2 2005 234(64.1%) 142 50 66 2.0 2006 241(66.0%) 161 53 66 2.1 2007 246(67.4%) 148 47 66 2.0
  3. 3. The improvement can be attributed to the 14 stages of air pollution controlling measures in Beijing, since 1998. Close and/relocate polluting industry Close small size coal burner/stoves Change the energy structure, replacing coal with natural gas Control the dust from construction site Strict vehicle emission standards, European IV Phase out old fleets of buses, passenger cars, and trucks Power plants: control on SO2, NOx, and particle emission
  4. 4. The vehicle number is increasing fast in Beijing since 1990 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 1980 1990 1995 2000 2003 2006
  5. 5. TOMS MODIS TOR AOD O3 Monthly 100km MOPITT NO2 (6day, CO 25km) Once every 3-6 days 100 km (Alexis Lau, HKUST)
  6. 6. Main Findings of CAREBEIJING Integrated observation of ground, towers, aircraft, and satellite 1. Regional Efforts required 2. Controlling SO2 is an effective way in reducing fine particle concentration 3. Controlling VOC is an effective way in reducing O3 ~40-60% VOC from Vehicle emission 3. Besides traffic control, systematic controlling measures, including those for construction and industries, are necessary. Aircraft Regional Controlling Policy Suggestions: Central Government Adopted !"#NO2$%&'()*+ - , ./011234562- 7 , 8/9:; 50.00 < , (/=/>1?61/@1 45.00 $ , %A/ 37.50 30.00 22.50 15.00 NO2 7.500 0 120 100 IJ 80 H HI FG 60 ! 40 DE 20 , 0 0 40.0 BC 116.5 N 39.9 F 116.4 J G F / L M M 116.3 L / 39.8 G F F 116.2 K J OPDOASQ RST
  7. 7. Area: 1.17 M. km2, Population: 240 M, GDP in 2006: Beijing: 5.2 Trillion RMB,18%, 19%, and 25% of China 1. Shift of energy structure 2. Restructuring of the industry 3. Install and operating Inner Mongolia: pollution prevention and 1. Install and control measures operating pollution 4. Traffic control prevention and control measures Shanxi: 1. Shift of energy structure 2. Restructuring of the industry 3. Install and operating pollution prevention and control measures Tianjin: Hebei: 1. Shift of energy structure 1. Shift of energy structure 2. Restructuring of the 2. Restructuring of the Shandong: industry industry 1. Install and 3. Install and operating 3. Install and operating operating pollution pollution prevention and pollution prevention and prevention and control measures control measures control measures 4. Traffic control 4. Traffic control
  8. 8. HEART (Health Effects of Air Pollution Reduction Trial) (HEI+NIEHS, Beijing EPB) Pre-Olympics During-Olympics Post-Olympics V1 V6 V2 V5 6/10 V3 V4 to 10/20 6/23 to 10/31 6/24 10/6 8/4 8/16 to to to to 7/7 10/17 8/15 8/29 July 20, September 24, 2008 2008
  9. 9. CAREBeijing-H Study Schedule (NSFC, Beijing EPB) Pre-Olympics During-Olympics Post-Olympics Children Children Panel Elderly Panel Panel CVD Elderly Children Elderly Panel Elderly Panel 10/20 Panel 6/9-20 Panel to June, 10/31 Sept 6/23-7/11 9/1 -12 July-Aug 8/11-15 8/23-29 9/15-19 Summer July 20, September 24, 2007 2008 2008
  10. 10. Long lasting benefits: • air quality improvement • public awareness (health study) • experience and confidence among authorities and scientific community • infrastructure: energy, industry, transportation • a case for cost-benefits analysis • models for other cities: Shanghai World Expo, Guangzhou Asian Game Reasons for success: 1. Strong political will: Long term commitment and clear goal: 14 stages action in Beijing Central government coordinates regional efforts 2. Systematic research: Solid Scientific Evidences, Blue Sky, 8M, 12 M, 26 M RMB projects 3. Public concern and pressure: daily life + Olympics 4. Favorable meteorological condition
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