Security from the Bottom-Up in Haiti:  Before and After the Quake Dr. Robert Muggah  PUC-IRI Small Arms Survey  November 2...
 
 
Outline <ul><li>Historical  and  contemporary  dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>First and second generation  approaches to secur...
Fragile, Failing, Failed? <ul><li>US occupation (1919-1934) </li></ul><ul><li>Haitian armed forces   </li></ul><ul><li>Duv...
Conventional security (1990-present) <ul><li>Modernizing the  judiciary  </li></ul><ul><li>recruiting, training and vettin...
Stabilization in Haiti (2007-) <ul><li>UN approach  « sticks and carrots » </li></ul><ul><li>US approach  « carrots and st...
MINUSTAH Approach  <ul><li>Muscular MINUSTAH operations and  restoration of  national policy capacity </li></ul><ul><li>MI...
US Approach <ul><li>Haitian stabilization initiative (HSI) focused on Cité Soleil –  « a laboratory » </li></ul><ul><li>US...
Other Approach <ul><li>A focus on  community-based stabilization  and development in Bel Air </li></ul><ul><li>Local-level...
Trends in homicidal violence  (per 100,000)
Trends in physical assaults  (per 100,000)
Trends in sexual assaults  (per 100,000)
Perceived security:  2009 and 2010
Reporting on property crime:  2004-2009
Stabilization in Haiti: Outcomes <ul><li>Sustained security dividends </li></ul><ul><li>Positive public perceptions of HNP...
Assessing security  from the bottom-up  (2005-2010)
Survey themes <ul><li>Demographic and socio-economic profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality and morbidity (verbal autopsy) <...
Surveying security <ul><li>2005 household survey  (n: 1,260) cluster survey focused on Port-au-Prince </li></ul><ul><li>20...
Survey methods <ul><li>Multi-cluster random sampling  – GPS coordinate sampling and random number table (and ILO, USDA foo...
How serious is a problem is crime where you live before/after (n: 2, 947)
Percentage of households reporting property crime 2004-2010 (n: 2,947)
Who would you turn to first if robbed or threatened (n: 2,947)
Ideally, who should be responsible for security (n: 2, 947)
When was the last time you saw the police in 2010 (n: 2,947)
Reported perpetrators of property crimes (Jan-Feb 2004-2010)
Outlawing armed groups would make my community safer (2009) <ul><li>Peace accords between armed groups would make us safer...
Assessing security  from the bottom-up (2011)
Sample and profile <ul><li>Approximately  2,805 households  (1,800 from general P-au-P with 88.4% RR and 1,005 IDP populat...
Preliminary findings: crime <ul><li>Property crime since quake  – 1 in 10 in general population and 5 in 10 in IDP populat...
 
HNP should be primary security provider? Percentage who: Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly...
The armed forces of Haiti  should be re-established? Percentage who: Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disag...
 
 
 
 
Service I used this Other adult used this Child used this Police (HNP) services – interacted with HNP 0 <1 1.2 Private sec...
Technical observations <ul><li>Critical role of  evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys  are rapid and cost-effective </li></u...
Substantive observations <ul><li>Stabilization activities have generated some  positive returns </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on...
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Robert Muggah - Security from the Bottom-Up in Haiti: Before and After the Quake

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Robert Muggah - Security from the Bottom-Up in Haiti: Before and After the Quake

  1. 1. Security from the Bottom-Up in Haiti: Before and After the Quake Dr. Robert Muggah PUC-IRI Small Arms Survey November 2011
  2. 4. Outline <ul><li>Historical and contemporary dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>First and second generation approaches to security promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes of security promotion from the bottom-up </li></ul>
  3. 5. Fragile, Failing, Failed? <ul><li>US occupation (1919-1934) </li></ul><ul><li>Haitian armed forces </li></ul><ul><li>Duvaliers dictatorships (1950s-1980s) </li></ul><ul><li>Ton Ton Macoutes </li></ul><ul><li>Aristide era (1990-2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Chimeres and HNP </li></ul><ul><li>From Preval to Martelly (2004-) </li></ul><ul><li>Les “gangs” </li></ul>
  4. 6. Conventional security (1990-present) <ul><li>Modernizing the judiciary </li></ul><ul><li>recruiting, training and vetting the national police </li></ul><ul><li>corrections and penal reform </li></ul><ul><li>Counter-narcotics , customs and border control </li></ul>
  5. 7. Stabilization in Haiti (2007-) <ul><li>UN approach « sticks and carrots » </li></ul><ul><li>US approach « carrots and sticks » </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil, Canada, Norway « mostly carrots » </li></ul>
  6. 8. MINUSTAH Approach <ul><li>Muscular MINUSTAH operations and restoration of national policy capacity </li></ul><ul><li>MINUSTAH-led (5 UN agencies) community violence reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing on reducing authority of gangs and reinforcing rural community structures </li></ul>
  7. 9. US Approach <ul><li>Haitian stabilization initiative (HSI) focused on Cité Soleil – « a laboratory » </li></ul><ul><li>USAID/Dyncorps/IOM focus on infrastructure and service delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on empowering communities and returning HNP </li></ul>
  8. 10. Other Approach <ul><li>A focus on community-based stabilization and development in Bel Air </li></ul><ul><li>Local-level mediation , gradual phasing in of HNP and service delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Create enabling conditions for security to allow penetration of water, education and youth programmes </li></ul>
  9. 11. Trends in homicidal violence (per 100,000)
  10. 12. Trends in physical assaults (per 100,000)
  11. 13. Trends in sexual assaults (per 100,000)
  12. 14. Perceived security: 2009 and 2010
  13. 15. Reporting on property crime: 2004-2009
  14. 16. Stabilization in Haiti: Outcomes <ul><li>Sustained security dividends </li></ul><ul><li>Positive public perceptions of HNP </li></ul><ul><li>Access by humanitarian actors </li></ul>
  15. 17. Assessing security from the bottom-up (2005-2010)
  16. 18. Survey themes <ul><li>Demographic and socio-economic profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Mortality and morbidity (verbal autopsy) </li></ul><ul><li>Victimization and insecurity </li></ul><ul><li>Mental health </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Access to services </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes toward service providers </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes toward disarmament </li></ul>
  17. 19. Surveying security <ul><li>2005 household survey (n: 1,260) cluster survey focused on Port-au-Prince </li></ul><ul><li>2009 household survey (n: 2,800) including 1,800 from Port-au-Prince and 1,000 national </li></ul><ul><li>2010 household survey (n: 2,947) including 1,800 from Port-au-Prince and 1,147 from IDP camps (25 randomly selected) </li></ul>
  18. 20. Survey methods <ul><li>Multi-cluster random sampling – GPS coordinate sampling and random number table (and ILO, USDA food sec, Pearsons QoL index) </li></ul><ul><li>Haitian, Canadian and US team members deployed from September-October 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>(Wayne State, University of Michigan, University of McMaster, SAS) </li></ul>
  19. 21. How serious is a problem is crime where you live before/after (n: 2, 947)
  20. 22. Percentage of households reporting property crime 2004-2010 (n: 2,947)
  21. 23. Who would you turn to first if robbed or threatened (n: 2,947)
  22. 24. Ideally, who should be responsible for security (n: 2, 947)
  23. 25. When was the last time you saw the police in 2010 (n: 2,947)
  24. 26. Reported perpetrators of property crimes (Jan-Feb 2004-2010)
  25. 27. Outlawing armed groups would make my community safer (2009) <ul><li>Peace accords between armed groups would make us safer (2009) </li></ul>
  26. 28. Assessing security from the bottom-up (2011)
  27. 29. Sample and profile <ul><li>Approximately 2,805 households (1,800 from general P-au-P with 88.4% RR and 1,005 IDP population from 30 camps with 91.8% RR) </li></ul><ul><li>Respondent profile – 52.8 per cent women, mea age 26.76 (SD 8.6 years), HHS 4.3 </li></ul>
  28. 30. Preliminary findings: crime <ul><li>Property crime since quake – 1 in 10 in general population and 5 in 10 in IDP population </li></ul><ul><li>Physical assaults since quake : 1.2 per cent (n: 23) of general population and 15 per cent (n: 150) of IDP population </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual assaults since quake : 2 per cent (n: 35) of general population and 22 per cent of IDPs (n: 220) </li></ul>
  29. 32. HNP should be primary security provider? Percentage who: Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree General Population 44.96 30.27 17.31 5.45 2.00 IDP Camp Population 39.78 29.91 19.24 7.98 3.09 Crime Victims & their Household Members 35.16 28.71 1.29 11.29 22.90
  30. 33. The armed forces of Haiti should be re-established? Percentage who: Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree General Population 0.67 0.72 1.33 32.61 64.67 IDP Camp Population 0 0.10 1.59 8.96 89.35 Crime Victims & their Household Members 0.32 0.32 3.21 33.01 63.14
  31. 38. Service I used this Other adult used this Child used this Police (HNP) services – interacted with HNP 0 <1 1.2 Private security company services 1.1 1.9 1.1 Received free prepared meals <1 <1 6.2 Received free food (unprepared) 2.3 2.1 3.3 Participated in a cash or food for work program 0 <1 N/A Received free household items 1.1 <1 1.9 Received free untreated water 63.5 63.8 63.9 Received free treated water 21.8 24.7 32.4 Residential care for my child (eg.: orphanage) 2.1 2.8 1.4 Free toilets provided by an NGO/International Organization 69.3 69.3 72.2 Received assistance rebuilding my home <1 <1 N/A Attended classes led by a community organization 7.4 9.2 19.4 Received free vocational training 1.2 2.6 3.4 Attended adult literacy class <1 1.1 N/A Participated in microcredit program <1 <1 N/A Community sports program 2.0 2.6 5.2 Religious education/enrichment 8.3 8.9 19.7 Arts/Music program <1 <1 2.7 Participated in organized community service (volunteering) 4.9 4.7 1.4 Youth development (eg, Kiwo) <1 1.0 16.9 Child sponsorship program (eg, Compassion, World Vision) <1 <1 1.1 Used neighborhood meeting space/community center 30.9 29.7 32.2 Used neighborhood park/plaza/play area 78.9 76.4 91.2 Used public lights to study/read at night 31.2 30.9 20.1 Government-run medical services <1 <1 1.1 Medical services from NGO/IO 1.1 1.3 6.4 Participated in a women’s group 9.1 11.2 N/A Disability or physical rehabilitation services for injury <1 <1 <1
  32. 39. Technical observations <ul><li>Critical role of evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys are rapid and cost-effective </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of well-trained local teams </li></ul><ul><li>Value of longitudinal and geo-tagged datasets </li></ul>
  33. 40. Substantive observations <ul><li>Stabilization activities have generated some positive returns </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on preventing and reducing violence in IDP camps </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen investments in HNP with focus on enhancing community relations </li></ul>
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