Robert Muggah - Security from the Bottom-Up in Haiti: Before and After the Quake

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Robert Muggah's talk from CMIS11.

Robert Muggah's talk from CMIS11.

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  • 1. Security from the Bottom-Up in Haiti: Before and After the Quake Dr. Robert Muggah PUC-IRI Small Arms Survey November 2011
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
  • 4. Outline
    • Historical and contemporary dynamics
    • First and second generation approaches to security promotion
    • Outcomes of security promotion from the bottom-up
  • 5. Fragile, Failing, Failed?
    • US occupation (1919-1934)
    • Haitian armed forces
    • Duvaliers dictatorships (1950s-1980s)
    • Ton Ton Macoutes
    • Aristide era (1990-2004)
    • Chimeres and HNP
    • From Preval to Martelly (2004-)
    • Les “gangs”
  • 6. Conventional security (1990-present)
    • Modernizing the judiciary
    • recruiting, training and vetting the national police
    • corrections and penal reform
    • Counter-narcotics , customs and border control
  • 7. Stabilization in Haiti (2007-)
    • UN approach « sticks and carrots »
    • US approach « carrots and sticks »
    • Brazil, Canada, Norway « mostly carrots »
  • 8. MINUSTAH Approach
    • Muscular MINUSTAH operations and restoration of national policy capacity
    • MINUSTAH-led (5 UN agencies) community violence reduction
    • Focusing on reducing authority of gangs and reinforcing rural community structures
  • 9. US Approach
    • Haitian stabilization initiative (HSI) focused on Cité Soleil – « a laboratory »
    • USAID/Dyncorps/IOM focus on infrastructure and service delivery
    • Emphasis on empowering communities and returning HNP
  • 10. Other Approach
    • A focus on community-based stabilization and development in Bel Air
    • Local-level mediation , gradual phasing in of HNP and service delivery
    • Create enabling conditions for security to allow penetration of water, education and youth programmes
  • 11. Trends in homicidal violence (per 100,000)
  • 12. Trends in physical assaults (per 100,000)
  • 13. Trends in sexual assaults (per 100,000)
  • 14. Perceived security: 2009 and 2010
  • 15. Reporting on property crime: 2004-2009
  • 16. Stabilization in Haiti: Outcomes
    • Sustained security dividends
    • Positive public perceptions of HNP
    • Access by humanitarian actors
  • 17. Assessing security from the bottom-up (2005-2010)
  • 18. Survey themes
    • Demographic and socio-economic profiles
    • Mortality and morbidity (verbal autopsy)
    • Victimization and insecurity
    • Mental health
    • Quality of life
    • Access to services
    • Attitudes toward service providers
    • Attitudes toward disarmament
  • 19. Surveying security
    • 2005 household survey (n: 1,260) cluster survey focused on Port-au-Prince
    • 2009 household survey (n: 2,800) including 1,800 from Port-au-Prince and 1,000 national
    • 2010 household survey (n: 2,947) including 1,800 from Port-au-Prince and 1,147 from IDP camps (25 randomly selected)
  • 20. Survey methods
    • Multi-cluster random sampling – GPS coordinate sampling and random number table (and ILO, USDA food sec, Pearsons QoL index)
    • Haitian, Canadian and US team members deployed from September-October 2011
    • (Wayne State, University of Michigan, University of McMaster, SAS)
  • 21. How serious is a problem is crime where you live before/after (n: 2, 947)
  • 22. Percentage of households reporting property crime 2004-2010 (n: 2,947)
  • 23. Who would you turn to first if robbed or threatened (n: 2,947)
  • 24. Ideally, who should be responsible for security (n: 2, 947)
  • 25. When was the last time you saw the police in 2010 (n: 2,947)
  • 26. Reported perpetrators of property crimes (Jan-Feb 2004-2010)
  • 27. Outlawing armed groups would make my community safer (2009)
    • Peace accords between armed groups would make us safer (2009)
  • 28. Assessing security from the bottom-up (2011)
  • 29. Sample and profile
    • Approximately 2,805 households (1,800 from general P-au-P with 88.4% RR and 1,005 IDP population from 30 camps with 91.8% RR)
    • Respondent profile – 52.8 per cent women, mea age 26.76 (SD 8.6 years), HHS 4.3
  • 30. Preliminary findings: crime
    • Property crime since quake – 1 in 10 in general population and 5 in 10 in IDP population
    • Physical assaults since quake : 1.2 per cent (n: 23) of general population and 15 per cent (n: 150) of IDP population
    • Sexual assaults since quake : 2 per cent (n: 35) of general population and 22 per cent of IDPs (n: 220)
  • 31.  
  • 32. HNP should be primary security provider? Percentage who: Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree General Population 44.96 30.27 17.31 5.45 2.00 IDP Camp Population 39.78 29.91 19.24 7.98 3.09 Crime Victims & their Household Members 35.16 28.71 1.29 11.29 22.90
  • 33. The armed forces of Haiti should be re-established? Percentage who: Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree nor Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree General Population 0.67 0.72 1.33 32.61 64.67 IDP Camp Population 0 0.10 1.59 8.96 89.35 Crime Victims & their Household Members 0.32 0.32 3.21 33.01 63.14
  • 34.  
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37.  
  • 38. Service I used this Other adult used this Child used this Police (HNP) services – interacted with HNP 0 <1 1.2 Private security company services 1.1 1.9 1.1 Received free prepared meals <1 <1 6.2 Received free food (unprepared) 2.3 2.1 3.3 Participated in a cash or food for work program 0 <1 N/A Received free household items 1.1 <1 1.9 Received free untreated water 63.5 63.8 63.9 Received free treated water 21.8 24.7 32.4 Residential care for my child (eg.: orphanage) 2.1 2.8 1.4 Free toilets provided by an NGO/International Organization 69.3 69.3 72.2 Received assistance rebuilding my home <1 <1 N/A Attended classes led by a community organization 7.4 9.2 19.4 Received free vocational training 1.2 2.6 3.4 Attended adult literacy class <1 1.1 N/A Participated in microcredit program <1 <1 N/A Community sports program 2.0 2.6 5.2 Religious education/enrichment 8.3 8.9 19.7 Arts/Music program <1 <1 2.7 Participated in organized community service (volunteering) 4.9 4.7 1.4 Youth development (eg, Kiwo) <1 1.0 16.9 Child sponsorship program (eg, Compassion, World Vision) <1 <1 1.1 Used neighborhood meeting space/community center 30.9 29.7 32.2 Used neighborhood park/plaza/play area 78.9 76.4 91.2 Used public lights to study/read at night 31.2 30.9 20.1 Government-run medical services <1 <1 1.1 Medical services from NGO/IO 1.1 1.3 6.4 Participated in a women’s group 9.1 11.2 N/A Disability or physical rehabilitation services for injury <1 <1 <1
  • 39. Technical observations
    • Critical role of evidence
    • Surveys are rapid and cost-effective
    • Importance of well-trained local teams
    • Value of longitudinal and geo-tagged datasets
  • 40. Substantive observations
    • Stabilization activities have generated some positive returns
    • Focus on preventing and reducing violence in IDP camps
    • Strengthen investments in HNP with focus on enhancing community relations