Hadr aide memoire final 2012


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Hadr aide memoire final 2012

  1. 1. Foreword The Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) Aide-Memoire has been written as a result of New Zealand Defence Force (NZDF) support provided to three significant domestic disaster events in 2011, Operations PIKE, CHRISTCHURCH QUAKE and RENA. Although these were three very different types of disasters, there were many similarities in the processes employed by NZDF in supporting the Lead Agency. This Aide-Memoire is an attempt to capture best practices through observations and lessons learned emerging from the three events each of which had their own command and control, logistics and personnel challenges. The intended audience for this Aide-Memoire include:  Headquarters Joint Forces NZ (HQ JFNZ) – planners and operations personnel.  Multi-agencies with whom NZDF may interact when supporting significant disaster and emergency events. The intent is to test NZDF Concept Plans (CONPLANS) against observations and checklists now contained within this document and to share our experiences with Other Government Agencies (OGAs). It will also provide a tool to assist education and training within the NZDF. This is not a doctrinal publication but is provided for your guidance. When using this Aide-Memoire the reader should consult the referenced publications in the acknowledgement section, which are closely linked with and complement this document. Every attempt has been made to demilitarise the language and so cater for a wider audience. This Aide-Memoire is a one-off document and will not be amended, however if future events and lessons learned are identified an updated document maybe produced. A.D. GAWN, MBE Major General Commander Joint Forces Headquarters Joint Forces New Zealand Trentham Upper Hutt NEW ZEALAND August 2012 1 2– HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  2. 2. Authorisation PrefaceHQ JFNZ is responsible for publishing operational publications and maintaining a The NZDF is capable of providing a range of capabilities and assistance to the Newhierarchy of such publications. Users wishing to quote New Zealand operational Zealand community during times of significant emergencies and disaster be they 1publications as reference material in other work should confirm with the HQ JFNZ natural, man-made, national or local state emergencies.sponsor whether the particular publication and amendment state remains extant. In all but exceptional circumstances, the military will deploy in support of an appointedThis document security classification is: UNCLASSIFIED Lead Agency (LA) – NZ Police (NZPOL) for the Pike River Mine disaster; Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management (MCDEM) for the Christchurch earthquakes; and Maritime New Zealand (MNZ) for the MV RENA grounding; areComments on factual accuracy or proposals for amendment should be directed to: recent examples.J8 Branch The scale and duration of any military response is predicated on steady state militaryHeadquarters Joint Forces New Zealand operations and resource availability at the time of the emergency event.2 Seddul Bahr RoadTrentham Whilst the appointed LA has primary responsibility for coordinating an All-of-Upper Hutt Government (AOG) response, the NZDF may be called upon to assist until such timeNEW ZEALAND as the situation has been stabilised sufficiently for the civil authorities to resume their 2 responsibilities and the military withdrawn as soon as possible.Telephone: 04 529 6800Email: HQJFNZ.J8.LESSONS@NZDF.MIL.NZ The intent of this Aide-Memoire is to provide commanders and planners with a tool to assist them in planning a military response to a significant domestic emergency and disaster event. OGAs may also find it a useful tool to assist their understanding of how the military operates. The Aide-Memoire is generic in nature to allow flexibility in application to a range of future emergency situations, but detailed enough to provide a solid framework for developing consensus between the military and other supporting government and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) on HADR operational concepts. It contains a broad assembly of general information on important topics including doctrine, processes, key terms, and checklists. It also incorporates lessons learned and observations made following disaster relief operations including Operations PIKE, CHRISTCHURCH QUAKE and RENA. L.J. WOON, MVO Wing Commander J8 Headquarters Joint Forces New Zealand Trentham Upper Hutt NEW ZEALAND August 2012 1 NZJSP No 102, 10 Aug 11, pg 1-102-7, para 6. 2 NZ DDP-D, NZ Military Doctrine, Feb 04, para 8.4. 3 4 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  3. 3. Introductory Notes AcknowledgementsThis Aide-Memoire is divided into six sections. HQ JFNZ acknowledges its intellectual debt in preparing this publication to a number of publications, including:Section 1 is generic in nature and provides an overview of HADR operations and atypical military concept for managing a military response. It serves to assist a. nd JDP 3-52 – Disaster Relief Operations, 2 Edition, Ministry of Defence, London,understanding of NZDF actions that make up the ‘diligent support’ provided to OGAs United Kingdom;mandated as LA for domestic disaster and emergency events. b. ADDP 3.13 – Information Operations, dated Nov 06, Australian DefenceSection 2 describes a number of niche capabilities that may be available to support Headquarters, Canberra, Australia;HADR responses.Section 3 lists a number of factors military HADR planners will consider when c. ADDP 3.11 – Civil-Military Cooperation, dated Aug 04, Australian Defencepreparing military task elements and units to respond to a domestic disaster or Headquarters, Canberra, Australia;emergency event. d. ADDP4.0 – Defence Logistics, dated Apr 03, Australian Defence Headquarters,Section 4 contains a series of generic functional area checklists. These are designed Canberra, Australia;to provide initial focus and prompts for those involved in planning HADR operations. Italso includes some observations and lessons learned from NZDF experience and e. ABCA Coalition Operations Handbook, Ed 5, dated 1 Aug 10;support provided to three significant domestic disaster events – Operations PIKE,CHRISTCHURCH QUAKE, and RENA. f. ABCA Coalition Health Interoperability Handbook, Ed 2, 15 July 2009;Section 5 describes the MCDEM structure and how the NZDF interfaces with it whenrequired to support an emergency or disaster event. The processes described therein g. ABCA Coalition Logistics Handbook, Ed 3, dated Mar 11;are similar to those NZDF would follow with other LAs. h. NZDF Joint Doctrine Note 3/10 – Guidelines for the Conduct of StabilisationSection 6 is a glossary including abbreviations and common terms used by the Operations (JDN 3/10), Jul 11;humanitarian aid community. i. NZDDP-D Foundations of New Zealand Military Doctrine (Second Ed), Nov 08; j. DFO 91(1), NZJSP No 102 ‘Plan AWHINA’ 10 Aug 11; k. Handbook No, 11-07 – Disaster Response Staff Officer’s Handbook - Observations, Insights, and Lessons, dated Dec 10, Centre For Army Lessons Learned (CALL), Fort Leavenworth, USA; l. Multinational Force Standing Operating Procedures, Vol 1, Ver 2.6, Humanitarian Assistance Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Extract dated Oct 10; m. Multinational Force Standing Operating Procedures Ver 2.7 dated Jul 11; n. Civil-Military Guidelines & Reference For Complex Emergencies, dated 2008, UN Office For The Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, New York; and o. Strengthening Australia’s Conflict and Disaster Management Overseas, dated 2010, Asia Pacific Civil-Military Centre of Excellence. 5 6 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  4. 4. Special mention and acknowledgement is made of the ABCA series of publications asthey have provided a significant source of reference material in the production of this TABLE OF CONTENTSAide-Memoire. Foreword 2 Authorisation 3HADR Duty and Desk Officer Contact Details Preface 4In the event of NZDF providing a response to a domestic disaster or emergency, alloperational inquiries and communications should be directed to the Joint Command Introductory Notes 5Centre (JCC) 24 hour Duty Watchkeeper. Acknowledgements 6Tel: 04-529-6333DTelN: 345-6333 HADR Duty and Desk Officer Contact Details 7Free: 0800-475-369Email: HQJFNZ.JWC@nzdf.mil.nz Table of Contents 8 List of Illustrations 12 Section 1: Generic Military Operations Concept 13 Initiation of a Military Response 14 Military Intent and Endstate 16 General Outline 16 Phased Military Response 17 Military Capabilities and Response Timeframes 20 Supporting Concepts 20 Command and Control 26 Concluding Comments 27 Section 2: NZDF Capabilities 28 NZDF Designated Elements for Emergency Tasks 28 7 8 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  5. 5. Inherent and Niche Capabilities 29 Communication Links Matrix 54Approval Levels and Command Arrangements 29 Section 4: Checklists, Observations and Lessons Learned 55Section 3: Factors influencing Planning 38 Generic HADR Planning Checklist 56Terminology 38 Civil-Military Cooperation Considerations 67Command and Support Arrangements with Other Agencies 39 Information Sharing With Other Agencies 72Collaborative Planning 39 Command and Control Reconnaissance and Disaster Needs Assessment 74Disaster Needs Assessment 41 Military Liaison Officer Assignment/Allocation 90Joint Reconnaissance Team 42 Military Liaison Officer 95Liaison Officers 42 Force Protection 102Civil-Military Coordination Centre 43 Personnel Support Services 103Information Management 44 Health Services Support 110Media/Public Information Systems 45 Initial Health Assessment 112Situational Awareness 46 Rapid Needs Assessment 113Common Operating Picture 48 Logistic Support and Services 116Task Transition and Transfer 48 Funding Issues 120Performance Measurements and Evaluation 50 Legal Support Checklist for Legal Advisers 121Rapid Response 51 Summary of Relevant Statutory Provisions 123Funding and Cost Capture 52 Media/Public Information 128Legal Issues 52 Disaster Victim Identification and Mortuary Operations 133Limitations on Health Staff 52 Security Cordon Operations 137Communications Networks 53 Task Transition and Transfer 140 9 10 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  6. 6. Section 5: National Civil Defence Structure 143 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSOutline Structure 143 Figures PageLevels of Response 143 Doctrinal Command and Coordination 1 15 ArrangementsLevels of Emergency 143 Typical Military Response to a Significant 2 17 Domestic Disaster or EmergencyKey Stakeholders 144 3 Standby Capability 20Coordinated Incident Management System 144 4 Op Christchurch Quake - Rapid Response 23Legal Authority 145 Locations of Military Commanders andDoctrinal Command Arrangements for NZDF 145 5 26 HeadquartersSection 6: Glossary, Acronyms and Abbreviations 155 Op Christchurch Quake – Deployment of 6 28 Specialist Military CapabilityGlossary of Terms 155 NZDF Designated Response Capabilities and 7 30List of Acronyms and Abbreviations 164 Broad Tasks 8 NZDF Niche Capabilities and Broad Tasks 32 9 Op Rena - Media Interaction 132 Schematic Layout of a Disaster Victim 10 136 Identification and Mortuary Facility 11 MCDEM - Outline Civil Defence Organisation 146 12 MCDEM - Levels of Emergency Response 147 13 MCDEM – Levels of Emergency 150 14 Coordinated Incident Management System 153 11 12 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  7. 7. INITIATION OF A MILITARY RESPONSE 1.1 In the event of a NZ domestic disaster or emergency of national significance, a Government Agency will be appointed through the Domestic and External Security Group (DESG) as LA to coordinate AOG emergency and disaster response. Recent examples of this include: NZPOL – Pike River Mine disaster; MCDEM – Christchurch earthquakes; and Maritime New Zealand (MNZ) – MV RENA grounding and oil spill. 1.2 Requests for NZDF support may be made through the Officials CommitteePREAMBLE for Domestic and External Security Coordination (ODESC) of which the Chief of Defence Force and Secretary of Defence are members, or direct from OGAs to NZDF.1. This Section provides a generic Concept of Operations (CONOPS) for a military response to a Government request to support a domestic disaster 3 1.3 Typically, the military may be required to undertake some emergency aid event in New Zealand. This CONOPS is not about the NZDF taking a lead tasks and reconstruction work that helps restore basic facilities as well as role, but rather it outlines NZDF actions that collectively make up ‘diligent assist NZPOL with public security, all of which is focused on creating the support’ provided to OGAs mandated as the LA for domestic disasters and necessary secure and stable environment that permits civil authorities to emergencies. 4 resume responsibility, without the need of continued military presence.2. It identifies the broad method by which the military would respond, identifies 1.4 LAs may coordinate the multi-agency/ AOG disaster relief operation through the indicative command and control structures, and the typical tasks and the National Crises Management Centre (NCMC), or from its own Incident forces which may be contributed. Coordination Centre.3. This section serves to assist understanding of military planning for such 1.5 Doctrinal Command Arrangements. Military units deployed in support of operations, and in doing so contributes to interagency understanding, disaster relief operations will usually do so as part of a wider national AOG coordination and effectiveness. contribution; however, the deployed military elements are tasked by the military and remain under military command. The doctrinal command 5 arrangements are illustrated in Figure 1.4. This CONOPS does not limit, preclude or negate the requirement for OGAs or NGOs to maintain their own disaster response plans or to lead in accordance with NZ Government mandate.3 4 This is provided primarily for the benefit of non-military agencies with whom the NZDDP-D New Zealand Military Doctrine, Feb 04, para 8.3. 5military may interface when engaged in HADR. NZDDP-00.1 Command and Control in the NZDF, Oct 08, page 5-20. 13 14 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  8. 8. TEs/TUs with the LA area controller. LOs are appointed at each level to facilitate coordination. MILITARY INTENT AND ENDSTATE 8 1.6 Intent. The military intent is for the NZDF to be prepared to provide appropriate operational and logistical support to the Government authorities during any type of local or national disaster or emergency, 104while maintaining operational outputs and missions. 9 1.7 End State. NZDF having successfully responded to the emergency and redeployed to home locations for reconstitution, ready to provide support to future contingencies. GENERAL OUTLINE 1.8 Disaster and emergency management is often described as a process 10 comprising four essential activities/phases : Reduction (mitigation), Readiness, Response, and Recovery. In times of disaster, natural or man- made, the Government may turn to the military for help in the Response and Recovery phases, as the military has capabilities including trained and disciplined personnel, who can be deployed rapidly. 1.9 Upon activation of the military, COMJFNZ would conduct a reconnaissance of the disaster area to assess the disaster situation; identify the military capabilities required (to minimise further suffering, loss of life, destruction of1.5.1 COMJFNZ will appoint a Joint Task Force Commander (JTFC) and likely property and/or degradation to the environment; and provision of disaster assign task elements (TEs) or task units (TUs) under Operational Control 6 relief); appoint a JTFC; assemble a military force; and deploy it into the (OPCON) to the JTFC. However, some strategically important assets will disaster area/area of operations (AO) as soon as possible. This period is always be held centrally (e.g. fixed wing aircraft, major maritime elements, characterised by a range of con-current planning, activation and execution and certain specialised land capabilities). taking place, some of which may be necessary to occur before a detailed reconnaissance has been completed. A flexible approach recognising that1.5.2 The JTFC will exercise OPCON by directing assigned TEs/TUs to all emergency and disaster events are different, and pose their own set of accomplish specific tasks. The supported LA may lodge requests for challenges, is key. assistance directly to the JTFC. 11 1.10 Once the immediate emergency is over, conditions for recovery have been1.5.3 On occasions a JTFC may allocate military TEs/TUs in direct support of set, and assigned tasks either completed or transferred to OGAs and/or OGAs/NGOs for specific tasks, and if so, the assigned TEs/TUs remain NGOs, the military would be withdrawn - withdrawal of the military at the under military control; the supported agency has no authority to direct the earliest mutually agreed opportunity would be a goal of military planners. military TEs/TUs. 7 NZDF typically has about 350 personnel deployed internationally on some 11 missions in 11 countries. The raising, training, sustainment and1.5.4 COMJFNZ coordinates deployment of military resources in conjunction with reconstitution of deploying and returning forces is a full programme, this is the LA. At the tactical level the JTFC coordinates the assignment of military 8 JSP 102, AWHINA, Issue 3, dated 10 Aug 11, para 9. 9 HQ JFNZ/3120/1 dated 3 Sep 04, para 9.6 10 See Glossary. As defined by MCDEM.7 11 DFO 91(1), NZJSP No 102 ‘Plan AWHINA’ 10 Aug 11, pg 1-102-7, para 36. Recovery in this context is Recovery as defined by MCDEM. 15 16 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  9. 9. why military planners actively seek to return military units to core business Deployment of Military HADR. as soon as the domestic HADR priorities of Government are deemed Response satisfied for the military’s part in any particular local event.  Deploy main body – provide more comprehensive1.11 Planning Factors. Some factors that influence military planners are listed in capabilities as part of AOG Section 3. HADR response  Civil-Military Coordination Centre established.PHASED MILITARY RESPONSE Phase 3  Sustain military contribution1.12 Typically a military response would be conducted in phases. The alignment 12 to the disaster relief of key military actions with the four disaster management phases is Sustain operation. described in Figure 2 below.  3rd party logistics in supportFigure 2: Typical Military Response to a Significant Domestic Disaster or of NZDF.Emergency  Augment the disaster HADR supply Lines of 13Disaster Phases Military Phases Key Military Actions Communication (LOC).Reduction Nil  Assist with scenario and Recovery Phase 4  Hand over/hand back HADR response development to task – civil authorities Redeployment resume responsibility. identify potential limitations in AOG infrastructure and resources that can be  Withdraw military back to rectified thereby reducing base camps – reconstitute. risk. 1.13 Military Phase 1: Reconnaissance/Activation/Mobilization. TheReadiness Nil  Participate in contingency principal activity (or main effort) is to gain an early accurate appreciation of planning and exercises with the disaster. As a general rule, the military would seek to conduct this as a OGA. collaborative effort with the LA and use information gained to inform decision making. However, circumstances at the time may lead to military  Formulate military HADR activation and mobilization being initiated based on best available response plan. information and a more complete reconnaissance and assessment being carried out some days later (as was the case with Christchurch QuakeResponse Phase 1  LOs deployed. 2011). The reconnaissance may be divided into two stages: Reconnaissance/  Reconnaissance and 1.13.1 Immediate Reconnaissance. This involves the rapid Activation / Disaster Needs Assessment deployment of specialist personnel to quickly gain a picture of the Mobilization (DNA). situation and conduct a DNA to identify those areas in most immediate need. This will most likely be conducted immediately  Mobilize/Constitute a force. following the disaster and may require military air assets. Phase 2  Deploy immediate response 1.13.2 Detailed Reconnaissance. Although the military may not team – provide immediate specifically conduct the detailed reconnaissance, it may assist with transporting the required OGA/NGO expertise into the AO.12 This reconnaissance may be conducted some hours or days after As defined by MCDEM. the disaster and is a more detailed assessment of the disaster13 As defined by MCDEM. 17 18 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  10. 10. relief requirement - it may include an assessment on key public MILITARY CAPABILITIES AND RESPONSE TIMEFRAMES infrastructure such as water, sanitation, energy, communications, transportation and critical facilities such as hospitals, ports, 1.17 14 Standby Capabilities . Military assets that may be deployed in support of airfields and fuel storage facilities. emergency tasks, their Degree of Notice (DON), and broad tasks are described in Section 2.1.14 Military Phase 2: Deployment of Military Response. The size and scope of capabilities to be deployed will flow from the reconnaissance and DNA. 1.18 Limitations. The availability of these capabilities is predicated on steady Given time imperatives it is likely that military aircraft if available, and state operations and NZDF commitments to other Government directed providing suitable airfields remain operational, will be used to deploy outputs at the time of the emergency. immediate response groups and heavy lift may be conducted with sealift assets. Key tasks include: 1.14.1 The provision of appropriate military support to minimise loss of life or injury, and to provide for the welfare of the affected populace. 1.14.2 Close liaison with the LA to ensure unity of effort, coordinated response, and civil-military cooperation.1.15 Military Phase 3: Sustainment. Key features include: 1.15.1 The provision of support to sustain the military contribution (and when directed, OGAs) deployed in Phase 2. 1.15.2 The duration of the military commitment will be influenced by the extent to which local authorities and community support systems have been disrupted, and will be decided by Government. 1.15.3 As soon as local authorities and community support systems have been sufficiently restored, the military would commence transfer of responsibility in preparation for Phase 4. 1.15.4 If this phase is a protracted one, military staff rotations will occur in order to rest personnel and deploy in fresh people to ensure SUPPORTING CONCEPTS continuous engagement in the disaster relief operation. 1.19 Typical Features. The greatest challenge to military planners is to achieve1.16 Military Phase 4: Redeployment. This phase involves: rapid projection into the disaster area and balance that with an evolving mix of steady state requirements, surge demands, and political credibility 1.16.1 The withdrawal and redeployment of the military back to home considerations. In doing so the military would adapt existing support plans to locations for reconstitution and reassignment to military meet the specific requirements of the emergency and disaster event of the operations. day. This approach recognises that each crisis presents its own demanding sets of shifting priorities and objectives and any crisis management 15 1.16.2 The Government may decide that some niche military capabilities organisation must be designed to meet various essential criteria. Typically, remain in the disaster area for an extended period in the event military support plans to a HADR operation would display the following OGA and NGO systems require extended military capability characteristics: presence to ensure delivery of essential services. 14 NZDF 2010/2011 Output Plan Year Ending 30 Jun 11, Appendix 1 to Schedule 3. 15 NZDDP-D New Zealand Military Doctrine, Feb 04, para 8.28. 19 20 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  11. 11. 16 1.19.1 Self-Sufficient Military . Consistent with an intention not to 1.20.1 Intelligence and Information Management. Intelligence support impose any further burden on an already stressed domestic and a central focal point/organisation through which information is scene, COMJFNZ would ensure a military response is self- collected, analysed, coordinated and disseminated both internally sufficient in terms of transport, communications, health support, and externally, is essential to achieving unity of effort, accommodation, and rationing. coordination, and efficiency. 1.19.2 Brick Principle Support. The military response will be based  Intelligence. Up to date multi-sourced information is used to around agile task organised units (bricks) which can be added to, build a coherent verified ‘intelligence picture’. This is essential withdrawn, and reassigned, dependant upon the scope and level to timely and appropriate decision-making. of response required.  Information Sharing. Information sharing with OGAs and NGOs the military interact with is critical to ensure unity of 1.19.3 Disaster Needs Assessment (DNA) Driven. The military support purpose and a coordinated approach. plans will be shaped by the DNA.  Common Operational Picture (COP). Such information would inform a COP that is essential to timely, correct, 1.19.4 Civil-Military Collaborative Approach. The military would seek effective decision making. to synchronise its plans with those of other supporting agencies to  More Information. See Section 3 and 4. achieve early, timely and smooth transition of civil responsibilities back to proper authorities. Establishing a Civil-Military 1.20.2 Logistics. Whilst the military concept for logistics support is 17 Coordination (CIMIC) Centre to provide the interface between likely to vary according to the phase of the operation, it would 18 the civil and military elements, would be critical to achieving this. address these broad areas: The military could assist the LA in establishing this if it were not established by the LA. As a minimum the military would seek to  Initial Rapid Response. This is the best estimation of need attach LOs with the supported LA. arising from the rapid disaster needs assessment, response, a mix of immediate and anticipated HA requirements, and that 1.19.5 Transition and Transfer. While the immediate goal is to save necessary to support deployed and anticipated follow-on lives and mitigate human suffering, the ultimate military goal in military forces. Key here is not to impose any further burden HADR operations is creating conditions that permit the early on an already stressed domestic scene and/or provide resumption of responsibility by civil authorities, and early material that is not timely or synchronised with the deployment 19 withdrawal of the military. of AOG responders.  Steady State Requirements. After the initial phase, logistics 1.19.6 Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). Existing MOUs support at least for the military would become more steady between NZDF, OGAs and NGOs would guide the general state – logistics plans would be adjusted accordingly. approach to inter-agency cooperation. Therein are contained,  Surge Demands. This is driven by the pattern of operations amongst other topics, broad agreement regarding funding. and can create the greatest logistical problems because it is the least easy to predict particularly if capacity to move stores1.20 Typical Functional Support Plans. Support plans that cater for standard and personnel over LOC are limited. Participation in military operations requirements and capable of being tailored to support an information sharing initiatives would be key to mitigating these 20 AOG contribution to a HADR operation, include: problems.  Sustainment. This relates to the sustainment of own military16 forces and any agencies NZDF is directed to support (eg NZJSP No 102, 10 Aug 011, page 1-102-B-1, Note 2. Standby Forces are to be overseas military deployed in support of a NZ domesticself-sufficient in all aspects for at least 72 hours.17 disaster) until successful transfer and resumption of See Glossary.18 responsibilities by civil authorities, and withdrawal of the ADDP 3.11 Civil-Military Cooperation, 24 Aug 04, para 3.15.19 military force. During this phase the military may establish ADDP 3.11 Civil-Military Cooperation, 24 Aug 04, para 3.18.20 some ‘Third Party contracted logistics services’ to augment its The main departments that the NZDF has a working relationship with, and in most sustainment requirements and capacity. The military does notcases shares common outcomes, are included in the NZDF 2011-2014 Statement of engage 3PL on behalf of the LA or any other agency.Intent Year Ending 30 Jun12, page 36.  More Information. See Section 3 and 4. 21 22 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  12. 12.  Optimisation. The military HSS contribution would generally be collocated wherever possible to make optimum use of available MoH infrastructure.  Communication. HSS communication and information requirements to support planning, control of health support, casualty prevention, treatment and evacuation, patient tracking, etc is significant. Inter-agency communications connectivity barriers will slow integration.  More Information. See Section 3 and 4. 1.21.5 Personnel Services Support. HADR operations are usually people intensive and require co-ordinated planning and support for personnel involved. The military personnel service support could include chaplaincy services, psychological services, and welfare support. These would be provided for the deployed military personnel and where directed, for some supported agencies.  Inter-agency Consultation. The military would seek to identify and make contact with OGAs and NGOs in order to co-ordinate or integrate the military personnel support plans – this function may initially be carried out by LOs.  Rotation. If the operation is a protracted one, staff rotation1.21.3 Freight and Personnel Movement. Typically in a disaster relief and replacement plans incorporating personnel selection and situation, military air, sea, and road transport assets, or a assignment would be required. combination of, may be required.  More Information. See Section 4.  Movement Control. NZDF has personnel trained in the 1.21.6 Communications Networks. HADR community agencies have planning, processing, and tracking the movement of personnel two broad communication customer groups – one is internal and/or freight through a number of transport nodes along the agency customers and the other is the external parties with whom LOC. they interface. Communications with external agencies continues  Agency Support. As civil air, sea, road, and/or rail transport to be problematic for the HADR community because a single services may be interrupted as a result of the disaster, the national radio network as not yet been widely integrated. The requirement to move agency relief responses, including the broad approach taken by the military will revolve around: evacuation of personnel, by military transport assets is very likely.  Military - Internal. Internal military communication  More Information. See Section 3 and 4. requirements will be met using standard military communication platforms, including secure and non-secure1.21.4 Health Support Services (HSS). A military HSS plan would networks. address two broad group requirements – that of the deployed  Military - Interagency. Interagency communication link-up military force, and if requested, the augmentation of disaster HSS. will primarily be addressed by using mobile phone, land-line, They may not necessarily be stand-alone distinct group internet, sat-phone and hand-held radio networks where capabilities. Key points to note: available. Whilst not ideal this reflects the reality, and is a challenge to multi-agency coordination. The deployment of  Augmentation. Whilst the Ministry of Health (MoH) and/or LOs can mitigate this limitation. District Health Boards (DHBs) have responsibility to  Communications Matrix. A matrix detailing the broad coordinate and implement the health response plan, the communication links the military will seek to establish is military has a number of HSS capabilities that can augment provided in Section 4. It serves to indicate what the military an AOG health response plan. will first seek to establish with its internal agencies and 23 24 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  13. 13. dependant upon equipment compatibility, the military linkages successfully with the public, and when they may, or may not, with the wider HADR community. use force or detain persons.  More Information. See Section 3 and 4. 1.21.7 Finance. Funding for AOG responses is guided by a combination of pre-existing arrangements or MOU and agreements reached at COMMAND AND CONTROL the time of the emergency and disaster. 1.22 Locations of Military Commanders and Headquarters.  Cost Capture. As a routine, NZDF will engage cost capture mechanisms to complement subsequent cost apportionment decisions made by Government. Figure 5: Locations of Military Commanders and Headquarters  More Information. See Section 3 and 4. 1.21.8 Media. The importance of coordinating media activities with that Commander HQ Location/Contact Details/Notes of the LA cannot be overstressed. Chief of HQ NZDF Defence House, Wellington or in the ODESC(E)  Public Expectation. The public expect to receive regular up Defence (if convened) in the Beehive sub-basement. to date information about a civil emergency or disaster Force situation. This includes coverage of what the military is doing. To that end the military would produce in collaboration Commander HQ JFNZ 2 Seddul Bahr Road, Trentham. Liaison with the LA, a military media plan. Joint Forces established with LA Controller and/or NCMC (if  Credibility. If information released to the public conflicts with NZ activated). that released by the LA, the result may be a loss of credibility for all involved and a negation of positive accomplishments. 24 Hour Duty Watch Keeper, contact  Use The Media. It is important to utilise the potential of the details: media to pass on key messages and target specific audiences to assist the HADR response. A proactive and Tel DDI: 04-529-6333 transparent approach to communication is critical to ensure DTelN: 345-6333 public confidence in the LA response.  More Information. See Section 3 and 4. Free: 0800-475-369 1.21.9 Legal. The legal issues in HADR operations essentially fall into Email: HQJFNZ.JWC@nzdf.mil.nz three broad areas: Joint Task HQ JTF Deployed forward in the disaster area. Liaison  Legitimacy. The general legal basis for the involvement of Force established with LA disaster area controller. the military is provided under sections 9(1)(a) and (b) of the Defence Act which authorises the use of the NZDF in NZ or elsewhere to perform any public service, or provide Commander Contact Details: Will be advised when this 21 assistance to the civil power in time of emergency. The organisation is activated. specific legal basis will arise from the legislation empowering the LA which provides the scope and detail of the authority to act. CONCLUDING COMMENTS  Legal Compliance. Members of the Armed Forces at all levels must understand the relevant law and authority by 1.23 The NZDF, like OGAs and NGOs, maintains its own disaster response plans which they are acting, in order to ensure that they act lawfully. for different domestic emergency and disaster scenarios.  Rules of Conduct (ROC). A ROC card will be issued to provide guidance to NZDF personnel in how to deal 1.24 The NZDF will rarely, if ever, be called on to lead a NZ based HADR operation. However, with experiences in such planning and leadership abroad, the NZDF has significant capabilities that may be available to support the LA.21 NZJSP No 102, 10 Aug 11, page 1-102-7, para 23. 25 26 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  14. 14. 1.25 Section One of this Aide-Memoire provides an indicative generic operational concept for such support and an indication of the categories of routine considerations made in such contingencies. It also serves to assist understanding of military planning for such operations, and in doing so contributes to interagency coordination and mission success. NZDF DESIGNATED ELEMENTS FOR EMERGENCY TASKS 2.1 Capabilities. The military has the capacity to deliver a range of services in support of a disaster event response effort while conducting the training levels to maintain Directed Levels Of Capability (DLOC) for military operational deployment. Acknowledging all emergencies will vary in nature, severity, geographical space, and corresponding response, the main NZDF 22 elements that may be deployed and broad tasks that can be achieved with these capabilities, are described in Figure 7 at the end of this Section. 2.2 Limitations. Availability will be determined by NZDF commitments to other Government directed outputs at the time e.g. Output 16 Operationally Deployed Forces. In the event an emergency is severe, Government will decide whether to redirect NZDF assets and resources away from those outputs, to support the emergency. 22 NZDF 2010/2011 Output Plan Year Ending 30 Jun 11, Appendix 1 to Schedule 3. 27 28 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  15. 15. 28 emergency will revert to centralised command, for assignment byThe employment of military water production equipment is one example of specialist COMJFNZ.military equipment being assigned to assist a domestic disaster operation.INHERENT AND NICHE CAPABILITIES Figure 7: NZDF Designated Response Capabilities and Broad Tasks2.3 Inherent Capabilities. NZDF elements are self supporting in terms of NZDF Elements/Capability – leadership, organisational structure, deployability, sustainability, and Service With Degree of Notice (DON) Tasks personnel trained state, this enables flexibility of employment. These are by- 29 23 where applicable products of being a disciplined Defence Force per se.2.4 Niche Capabilities. The military also possesses capabilities not specifically SAR, medical assistance, itemised in NZDF Statements of Intent or Output Plans. These ‘niche One, frigate at 8 hours DON (or casualty evacuation, bulk capabilities’ are listed in Figure 8. alternative vessel). transport of urgent relief stores and aid.APPROVAL LEVELS AND COMMAND ARRANGEMENTS2.5 Approval levels for the provision of these military assets/services range from One, inshore patrol vessel (IPV) SAR, medical assistance, Cabinet/Ministerial level for significant events to local military commanders at 8 hours DON. casualty evacuation. 24 for minor local support tasks. Generally, tasks will be approved on the direction of the Chief of Defence (CDF), a Single Service Chief through their Harbour/waterway clearance respective Component Commanders, or Commander Joint Force NZ Navy One, diving team at 6 hours DON. Underwater search (COMJFNZ). 25 2.5.1 Regional Emergency . Local and regional emergency events are managed by LA regional Controllers. For example, in a civil Cordon and search/evacuation One, 25-person Civil Defence defence emergency, local military commanders have the authority tasks, roving un-armed patrols. Response Group. to assist local MCDEM Controllers and employ their respective Self-sufficient for 72 hours. 25-person NZDF Response Groups for local region 26 emergencies. On-shore personnel for fire 27 Augment NZ Fire Services 2.5.2 National/ Major Emergency . In the event a disaster or fighting, as available. emergency demands a more significant response it may be elevated to one of national importance where the response may Operational liaison, On call – HQ elements in North be co-ordinated through the NCMC or from the LAs own national Army reconnaissance, planning and South Island, 48 hours DON. coordination centre. In this case NZDF regionally based elements assistance and/or any other assets that may be assigned to the Four, 25-person Response Groups (Waiouru, Linton, As for Navy. Trentham, Burnham).23 NZDF Statement of Intent 2011-2014, Year Ending 30 Jun 12, page 11.24 NZDF 2010/2011 Output Plan Year Ending 30 Jun 11, Appendix 1 to Schedule 3,para 2.25 An emergency in this case in an area or region that involves only one CDEM groupor equivalent OGA, flood along Waikato River. 28 DFO 91(1), NZJSP No 102 ‘Plan AWHINA’ 10 Aug 11, para 15.c.26 DFO 91(1), NZJSP No 102 ‘Plan AWHINA’ 10 Aug 11, para 15.a. 29 NZDF 2011/2012 Output Plan Year Ending 30 Jun 12, Appendix 2 to Schedule 3,27 An emergency that spans multiple regions or multiple CDEM groups or is of national para 4.proportions, e.g. volcanic eruption in the Rotorua area. 29 30 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  16. 16. As per 25-person groups, over Two, 100-person National multiple sites, and can deploy for Figure 8: NZDF Niche Capabilities and Broad Tasks Response Groups. 30 days. Niche Capability Tasks Reserves for sustaining 100- One, 500-person Reserve. person National Response Groups. Liaison Officers  Establish and maintain liaison with LAs. EOD Teams in North and South Render military/non-military Island at 12 hours DON. ordinance safe.  Assist LA with planning and coordinating interface with the military. In-camp personnel for fire fighting, as available. As for Navy.  Self sufficient in transport, communications, logistic support, rationing and Medical/casualty evacuation, accommodation. One, Iroquois helicopter at 2 SAR, reconnaissance, fire- hours DON. fighting, VIP airlift. One, Orion (or Hercules if Orion is Reconnaissance, surveillance, not available) at 2 hours DON. imagery, communications, SAR.Air Medical evacuation, freight and Engineers – Urban Search And Rescue  Thermal imagery.Force One, Hercules at 14 hours DON. personnel movement, VIP airlift. (USAR)  Breathing apparatus. Operational liaison,  Hydraulic equipment. On call – HQ elements. reconnaissance, planning assistance.  High and low pressure air lifting bags. Operational liaison, One, 25-person Response Group reconnaissance, planning  Rope rescue equipment. at each Air Base. assistance.  Positive pressure ventilation equipment.  Flood lighting.  Personnel trained to USAR CAT1R level. Engineers – General  Securing/removal of ‘hazards to people’, road clearance, sewage system repair,  Support council rapid assessment needs. 31 32 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  17. 17. Engineers – Chemical & Biological  Chemical protection suits and Logistics - Mortuary  NZDF has a very limited decontamination showers. temporary mortuary facility capability.  Augments a NZPOL led operation.Engineers - Fire  Fire appliance.  Identification and fire Logistics – Emergency Accommodation  Tented accommodation for up to 100 personnel.  risk mitigation.  Primarily for use by NZDF  Augment local fire services. personnel deployed on disaster relief operations but mayEngineers - Water Production  Plants capable of producing potentially be available for use by limited amounts of potable water other supporting agencies (e.g. from both salt water and NZPOL, USAR, specialist contaminated fresh water international aid agencies, etc). sources.  Road tankers for water distribution. Logistics – Movement Operators /Air  Personnel trained to assist with  EHOs to assess safety of water Movements processing evacuated personnel supplies. via transport nodes.  Augment OGAs for evacuation of affected population to/from otherLogistics - Mobile Shower & Laundry  Shower unit for decontamination NZ destinations. of USAR pers.  Support personnel and freight terminal operations.Logistics - Mobile Kitchen  Mobile catering facilities.  Helicopter under slung load operations.Logistics - Repair  First line, unit grade repair capability including specialist equipment, for NZDF equipment.Logistics - Ground Transport  4x4 rough terrain capable vehicles for cargo and personnel movement.  Water tankers, fuel tankers. 33 34 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –