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  • 1. Foreword The Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) Aide-Memoire has been written as a result of New Zealand Defence Force (NZDF) support provided to three significant domestic disaster events in 2011, Operations PIKE, CHRISTCHURCH QUAKE and RENA. Although these were three very different types of disasters, there were many similarities in the processes employed by NZDF in supporting the Lead Agency. This Aide-Memoire is an attempt to capture best practices through observations and lessons learned emerging from the three events each of which had their own command and control, logistics and personnel challenges. The intended audience for this Aide-Memoire include:  Headquarters Joint Forces NZ (HQ JFNZ) – planners and operations personnel.  Multi-agencies with whom NZDF may interact when supporting significant disaster and emergency events. The intent is to test NZDF Concept Plans (CONPLANS) against observations and checklists now contained within this document and to share our experiences with Other Government Agencies (OGAs). It will also provide a tool to assist education and training within the NZDF. This is not a doctrinal publication but is provided for your guidance. When using this Aide-Memoire the reader should consult the referenced publications in the acknowledgement section, which are closely linked with and complement this document. Every attempt has been made to demilitarise the language and so cater for a wider audience. This Aide-Memoire is a one-off document and will not be amended, however if future events and lessons learned are identified an updated document maybe produced. A.D. GAWN, MBE Major General Commander Joint Forces Headquarters Joint Forces New Zealand Trentham Upper Hutt NEW ZEALAND August 2012 1 2– HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 2. Authorisation PrefaceHQ JFNZ is responsible for publishing operational publications and maintaining a The NZDF is capable of providing a range of capabilities and assistance to the Newhierarchy of such publications. Users wishing to quote New Zealand operational Zealand community during times of significant emergencies and disaster be they 1publications as reference material in other work should confirm with the HQ JFNZ natural, man-made, national or local state emergencies.sponsor whether the particular publication and amendment state remains extant. In all but exceptional circumstances, the military will deploy in support of an appointedThis document security classification is: UNCLASSIFIED Lead Agency (LA) – NZ Police (NZPOL) for the Pike River Mine disaster; Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management (MCDEM) for the Christchurch earthquakes; and Maritime New Zealand (MNZ) for the MV RENA grounding; areComments on factual accuracy or proposals for amendment should be directed to: recent examples.J8 Branch The scale and duration of any military response is predicated on steady state militaryHeadquarters Joint Forces New Zealand operations and resource availability at the time of the emergency event.2 Seddul Bahr RoadTrentham Whilst the appointed LA has primary responsibility for coordinating an All-of-Upper Hutt Government (AOG) response, the NZDF may be called upon to assist until such timeNEW ZEALAND as the situation has been stabilised sufficiently for the civil authorities to resume their 2 responsibilities and the military withdrawn as soon as possible.Telephone: 04 529 6800Email: HQJFNZ.J8.LESSONS@NZDF.MIL.NZ The intent of this Aide-Memoire is to provide commanders and planners with a tool to assist them in planning a military response to a significant domestic emergency and disaster event. OGAs may also find it a useful tool to assist their understanding of how the military operates. The Aide-Memoire is generic in nature to allow flexibility in application to a range of future emergency situations, but detailed enough to provide a solid framework for developing consensus between the military and other supporting government and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) on HADR operational concepts. It contains a broad assembly of general information on important topics including doctrine, processes, key terms, and checklists. It also incorporates lessons learned and observations made following disaster relief operations including Operations PIKE, CHRISTCHURCH QUAKE and RENA. L.J. WOON, MVO Wing Commander J8 Headquarters Joint Forces New Zealand Trentham Upper Hutt NEW ZEALAND August 2012 1 NZJSP No 102, 10 Aug 11, pg 1-102-7, para 6. 2 NZ DDP-D, NZ Military Doctrine, Feb 04, para 8.4. 3 4 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 3. Introductory Notes AcknowledgementsThis Aide-Memoire is divided into six sections. HQ JFNZ acknowledges its intellectual debt in preparing this publication to a number of publications, including:Section 1 is generic in nature and provides an overview of HADR operations and atypical military concept for managing a military response. It serves to assist a. nd JDP 3-52 – Disaster Relief Operations, 2 Edition, Ministry of Defence, London,understanding of NZDF actions that make up the ‘diligent support’ provided to OGAs United Kingdom;mandated as LA for domestic disaster and emergency events. b. ADDP 3.13 – Information Operations, dated Nov 06, Australian DefenceSection 2 describes a number of niche capabilities that may be available to support Headquarters, Canberra, Australia;HADR responses.Section 3 lists a number of factors military HADR planners will consider when c. ADDP 3.11 – Civil-Military Cooperation, dated Aug 04, Australian Defencepreparing military task elements and units to respond to a domestic disaster or Headquarters, Canberra, Australia;emergency event. d. ADDP4.0 – Defence Logistics, dated Apr 03, Australian Defence Headquarters,Section 4 contains a series of generic functional area checklists. These are designed Canberra, Australia;to provide initial focus and prompts for those involved in planning HADR operations. Italso includes some observations and lessons learned from NZDF experience and e. ABCA Coalition Operations Handbook, Ed 5, dated 1 Aug 10;support provided to three significant domestic disaster events – Operations PIKE,CHRISTCHURCH QUAKE, and RENA. f. ABCA Coalition Health Interoperability Handbook, Ed 2, 15 July 2009;Section 5 describes the MCDEM structure and how the NZDF interfaces with it whenrequired to support an emergency or disaster event. The processes described therein g. ABCA Coalition Logistics Handbook, Ed 3, dated Mar 11;are similar to those NZDF would follow with other LAs. h. NZDF Joint Doctrine Note 3/10 – Guidelines for the Conduct of StabilisationSection 6 is a glossary including abbreviations and common terms used by the Operations (JDN 3/10), Jul 11;humanitarian aid community. i. NZDDP-D Foundations of New Zealand Military Doctrine (Second Ed), Nov 08; j. DFO 91(1), NZJSP No 102 ‘Plan AWHINA’ 10 Aug 11; k. Handbook No, 11-07 – Disaster Response Staff Officer’s Handbook - Observations, Insights, and Lessons, dated Dec 10, Centre For Army Lessons Learned (CALL), Fort Leavenworth, USA; l. Multinational Force Standing Operating Procedures, Vol 1, Ver 2.6, Humanitarian Assistance Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Extract dated Oct 10; m. Multinational Force Standing Operating Procedures Ver 2.7 dated Jul 11; n. Civil-Military Guidelines & Reference For Complex Emergencies, dated 2008, UN Office For The Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, New York; and o. Strengthening Australia’s Conflict and Disaster Management Overseas, dated 2010, Asia Pacific Civil-Military Centre of Excellence. 5 6 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 4. Special mention and acknowledgement is made of the ABCA series of publications asthey have provided a significant source of reference material in the production of this TABLE OF CONTENTSAide-Memoire. Foreword 2 Authorisation 3HADR Duty and Desk Officer Contact Details Preface 4In the event of NZDF providing a response to a domestic disaster or emergency, alloperational inquiries and communications should be directed to the Joint Command Introductory Notes 5Centre (JCC) 24 hour Duty Watchkeeper. Acknowledgements 6Tel: 04-529-6333DTelN: 345-6333 HADR Duty and Desk Officer Contact Details 7Free: 0800-475-369Email: Table of Contents 8 List of Illustrations 12 Section 1: Generic Military Operations Concept 13 Initiation of a Military Response 14 Military Intent and Endstate 16 General Outline 16 Phased Military Response 17 Military Capabilities and Response Timeframes 20 Supporting Concepts 20 Command and Control 26 Concluding Comments 27 Section 2: NZDF Capabilities 28 NZDF Designated Elements for Emergency Tasks 28 7 8 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 5. Inherent and Niche Capabilities 29 Communication Links Matrix 54Approval Levels and Command Arrangements 29 Section 4: Checklists, Observations and Lessons Learned 55Section 3: Factors influencing Planning 38 Generic HADR Planning Checklist 56Terminology 38 Civil-Military Cooperation Considerations 67Command and Support Arrangements with Other Agencies 39 Information Sharing With Other Agencies 72Collaborative Planning 39 Command and Control Reconnaissance and Disaster Needs Assessment 74Disaster Needs Assessment 41 Military Liaison Officer Assignment/Allocation 90Joint Reconnaissance Team 42 Military Liaison Officer 95Liaison Officers 42 Force Protection 102Civil-Military Coordination Centre 43 Personnel Support Services 103Information Management 44 Health Services Support 110Media/Public Information Systems 45 Initial Health Assessment 112Situational Awareness 46 Rapid Needs Assessment 113Common Operating Picture 48 Logistic Support and Services 116Task Transition and Transfer 48 Funding Issues 120Performance Measurements and Evaluation 50 Legal Support Checklist for Legal Advisers 121Rapid Response 51 Summary of Relevant Statutory Provisions 123Funding and Cost Capture 52 Media/Public Information 128Legal Issues 52 Disaster Victim Identification and Mortuary Operations 133Limitations on Health Staff 52 Security Cordon Operations 137Communications Networks 53 Task Transition and Transfer 140 9 10 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 6. Section 5: National Civil Defence Structure 143 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSOutline Structure 143 Figures PageLevels of Response 143 Doctrinal Command and Coordination 1 15 ArrangementsLevels of Emergency 143 Typical Military Response to a Significant 2 17 Domestic Disaster or EmergencyKey Stakeholders 144 3 Standby Capability 20Coordinated Incident Management System 144 4 Op Christchurch Quake - Rapid Response 23Legal Authority 145 Locations of Military Commanders andDoctrinal Command Arrangements for NZDF 145 5 26 HeadquartersSection 6: Glossary, Acronyms and Abbreviations 155 Op Christchurch Quake – Deployment of 6 28 Specialist Military CapabilityGlossary of Terms 155 NZDF Designated Response Capabilities and 7 30List of Acronyms and Abbreviations 164 Broad Tasks 8 NZDF Niche Capabilities and Broad Tasks 32 9 Op Rena - Media Interaction 132 Schematic Layout of a Disaster Victim 10 136 Identification and Mortuary Facility 11 MCDEM - Outline Civil Defence Organisation 146 12 MCDEM - Levels of Emergency Response 147 13 MCDEM – Levels of Emergency 150 14 Coordinated Incident Management System 153 11 12 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 7. INITIATION OF A MILITARY RESPONSE 1.1 In the event of a NZ domestic disaster or emergency of national significance, a Government Agency will be appointed through the Domestic and External Security Group (DESG) as LA to coordinate AOG emergency and disaster response. Recent examples of this include: NZPOL – Pike River Mine disaster; MCDEM – Christchurch earthquakes; and Maritime New Zealand (MNZ) – MV RENA grounding and oil spill. 1.2 Requests for NZDF support may be made through the Officials CommitteePREAMBLE for Domestic and External Security Coordination (ODESC) of which the Chief of Defence Force and Secretary of Defence are members, or direct from OGAs to NZDF.1. This Section provides a generic Concept of Operations (CONOPS) for a military response to a Government request to support a domestic disaster 3 1.3 Typically, the military may be required to undertake some emergency aid event in New Zealand. This CONOPS is not about the NZDF taking a lead tasks and reconstruction work that helps restore basic facilities as well as role, but rather it outlines NZDF actions that collectively make up ‘diligent assist NZPOL with public security, all of which is focused on creating the support’ provided to OGAs mandated as the LA for domestic disasters and necessary secure and stable environment that permits civil authorities to emergencies. 4 resume responsibility, without the need of continued military presence.2. It identifies the broad method by which the military would respond, identifies 1.4 LAs may coordinate the multi-agency/ AOG disaster relief operation through the indicative command and control structures, and the typical tasks and the National Crises Management Centre (NCMC), or from its own Incident forces which may be contributed. Coordination Centre.3. This section serves to assist understanding of military planning for such 1.5 Doctrinal Command Arrangements. Military units deployed in support of operations, and in doing so contributes to interagency understanding, disaster relief operations will usually do so as part of a wider national AOG coordination and effectiveness. contribution; however, the deployed military elements are tasked by the military and remain under military command. The doctrinal command 5 arrangements are illustrated in Figure 1.4. This CONOPS does not limit, preclude or negate the requirement for OGAs or NGOs to maintain their own disaster response plans or to lead in accordance with NZ Government mandate.3 4 This is provided primarily for the benefit of non-military agencies with whom the NZDDP-D New Zealand Military Doctrine, Feb 04, para 8.3. 5military may interface when engaged in HADR. NZDDP-00.1 Command and Control in the NZDF, Oct 08, page 5-20. 13 14 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 8. TEs/TUs with the LA area controller. LOs are appointed at each level to facilitate coordination. MILITARY INTENT AND ENDSTATE 8 1.6 Intent. The military intent is for the NZDF to be prepared to provide appropriate operational and logistical support to the Government authorities during any type of local or national disaster or emergency, 104while maintaining operational outputs and missions. 9 1.7 End State. NZDF having successfully responded to the emergency and redeployed to home locations for reconstitution, ready to provide support to future contingencies. GENERAL OUTLINE 1.8 Disaster and emergency management is often described as a process 10 comprising four essential activities/phases : Reduction (mitigation), Readiness, Response, and Recovery. In times of disaster, natural or man- made, the Government may turn to the military for help in the Response and Recovery phases, as the military has capabilities including trained and disciplined personnel, who can be deployed rapidly. 1.9 Upon activation of the military, COMJFNZ would conduct a reconnaissance of the disaster area to assess the disaster situation; identify the military capabilities required (to minimise further suffering, loss of life, destruction of1.5.1 COMJFNZ will appoint a Joint Task Force Commander (JTFC) and likely property and/or degradation to the environment; and provision of disaster assign task elements (TEs) or task units (TUs) under Operational Control 6 relief); appoint a JTFC; assemble a military force; and deploy it into the (OPCON) to the JTFC. However, some strategically important assets will disaster area/area of operations (AO) as soon as possible. This period is always be held centrally (e.g. fixed wing aircraft, major maritime elements, characterised by a range of con-current planning, activation and execution and certain specialised land capabilities). taking place, some of which may be necessary to occur before a detailed reconnaissance has been completed. A flexible approach recognising that1.5.2 The JTFC will exercise OPCON by directing assigned TEs/TUs to all emergency and disaster events are different, and pose their own set of accomplish specific tasks. The supported LA may lodge requests for challenges, is key. assistance directly to the JTFC. 11 1.10 Once the immediate emergency is over, conditions for recovery have been1.5.3 On occasions a JTFC may allocate military TEs/TUs in direct support of set, and assigned tasks either completed or transferred to OGAs and/or OGAs/NGOs for specific tasks, and if so, the assigned TEs/TUs remain NGOs, the military would be withdrawn - withdrawal of the military at the under military control; the supported agency has no authority to direct the earliest mutually agreed opportunity would be a goal of military planners. military TEs/TUs. 7 NZDF typically has about 350 personnel deployed internationally on some 11 missions in 11 countries. The raising, training, sustainment and1.5.4 COMJFNZ coordinates deployment of military resources in conjunction with reconstitution of deploying and returning forces is a full programme, this is the LA. At the tactical level the JTFC coordinates the assignment of military 8 JSP 102, AWHINA, Issue 3, dated 10 Aug 11, para 9. 9 HQ JFNZ/3120/1 dated 3 Sep 04, para 9.6 10 See Glossary. As defined by MCDEM.7 11 DFO 91(1), NZJSP No 102 ‘Plan AWHINA’ 10 Aug 11, pg 1-102-7, para 36. Recovery in this context is Recovery as defined by MCDEM. 15 16 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 9. why military planners actively seek to return military units to core business Deployment of Military HADR. as soon as the domestic HADR priorities of Government are deemed Response satisfied for the military’s part in any particular local event.  Deploy main body – provide more comprehensive1.11 Planning Factors. Some factors that influence military planners are listed in capabilities as part of AOG Section 3. HADR response  Civil-Military Coordination Centre established.PHASED MILITARY RESPONSE Phase 3  Sustain military contribution1.12 Typically a military response would be conducted in phases. The alignment 12 to the disaster relief of key military actions with the four disaster management phases is Sustain operation. described in Figure 2 below.  3rd party logistics in supportFigure 2: Typical Military Response to a Significant Domestic Disaster or of NZDF.Emergency  Augment the disaster HADR supply Lines of 13Disaster Phases Military Phases Key Military Actions Communication (LOC).Reduction Nil  Assist with scenario and Recovery Phase 4  Hand over/hand back HADR response development to task – civil authorities Redeployment resume responsibility. identify potential limitations in AOG infrastructure and resources that can be  Withdraw military back to rectified thereby reducing base camps – reconstitute. risk. 1.13 Military Phase 1: Reconnaissance/Activation/Mobilization. TheReadiness Nil  Participate in contingency principal activity (or main effort) is to gain an early accurate appreciation of planning and exercises with the disaster. As a general rule, the military would seek to conduct this as a OGA. collaborative effort with the LA and use information gained to inform decision making. However, circumstances at the time may lead to military  Formulate military HADR activation and mobilization being initiated based on best available response plan. information and a more complete reconnaissance and assessment being carried out some days later (as was the case with Christchurch QuakeResponse Phase 1  LOs deployed. 2011). The reconnaissance may be divided into two stages: Reconnaissance/  Reconnaissance and 1.13.1 Immediate Reconnaissance. This involves the rapid Activation / Disaster Needs Assessment deployment of specialist personnel to quickly gain a picture of the Mobilization (DNA). situation and conduct a DNA to identify those areas in most immediate need. This will most likely be conducted immediately  Mobilize/Constitute a force. following the disaster and may require military air assets. Phase 2  Deploy immediate response 1.13.2 Detailed Reconnaissance. Although the military may not team – provide immediate specifically conduct the detailed reconnaissance, it may assist with transporting the required OGA/NGO expertise into the AO.12 This reconnaissance may be conducted some hours or days after As defined by MCDEM. the disaster and is a more detailed assessment of the disaster13 As defined by MCDEM. 17 18 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 10. relief requirement - it may include an assessment on key public MILITARY CAPABILITIES AND RESPONSE TIMEFRAMES infrastructure such as water, sanitation, energy, communications, transportation and critical facilities such as hospitals, ports, 1.17 14 Standby Capabilities . Military assets that may be deployed in support of airfields and fuel storage facilities. emergency tasks, their Degree of Notice (DON), and broad tasks are described in Section 2.1.14 Military Phase 2: Deployment of Military Response. The size and scope of capabilities to be deployed will flow from the reconnaissance and DNA. 1.18 Limitations. The availability of these capabilities is predicated on steady Given time imperatives it is likely that military aircraft if available, and state operations and NZDF commitments to other Government directed providing suitable airfields remain operational, will be used to deploy outputs at the time of the emergency. immediate response groups and heavy lift may be conducted with sealift assets. Key tasks include: 1.14.1 The provision of appropriate military support to minimise loss of life or injury, and to provide for the welfare of the affected populace. 1.14.2 Close liaison with the LA to ensure unity of effort, coordinated response, and civil-military cooperation.1.15 Military Phase 3: Sustainment. Key features include: 1.15.1 The provision of support to sustain the military contribution (and when directed, OGAs) deployed in Phase 2. 1.15.2 The duration of the military commitment will be influenced by the extent to which local authorities and community support systems have been disrupted, and will be decided by Government. 1.15.3 As soon as local authorities and community support systems have been sufficiently restored, the military would commence transfer of responsibility in preparation for Phase 4. 1.15.4 If this phase is a protracted one, military staff rotations will occur in order to rest personnel and deploy in fresh people to ensure SUPPORTING CONCEPTS continuous engagement in the disaster relief operation. 1.19 Typical Features. The greatest challenge to military planners is to achieve1.16 Military Phase 4: Redeployment. This phase involves: rapid projection into the disaster area and balance that with an evolving mix of steady state requirements, surge demands, and political credibility 1.16.1 The withdrawal and redeployment of the military back to home considerations. In doing so the military would adapt existing support plans to locations for reconstitution and reassignment to military meet the specific requirements of the emergency and disaster event of the operations. day. This approach recognises that each crisis presents its own demanding sets of shifting priorities and objectives and any crisis management 15 1.16.2 The Government may decide that some niche military capabilities organisation must be designed to meet various essential criteria. Typically, remain in the disaster area for an extended period in the event military support plans to a HADR operation would display the following OGA and NGO systems require extended military capability characteristics: presence to ensure delivery of essential services. 14 NZDF 2010/2011 Output Plan Year Ending 30 Jun 11, Appendix 1 to Schedule 3. 15 NZDDP-D New Zealand Military Doctrine, Feb 04, para 8.28. 19 20 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 11. 16 1.19.1 Self-Sufficient Military . Consistent with an intention not to 1.20.1 Intelligence and Information Management. Intelligence support impose any further burden on an already stressed domestic and a central focal point/organisation through which information is scene, COMJFNZ would ensure a military response is self- collected, analysed, coordinated and disseminated both internally sufficient in terms of transport, communications, health support, and externally, is essential to achieving unity of effort, accommodation, and rationing. coordination, and efficiency. 1.19.2 Brick Principle Support. The military response will be based  Intelligence. Up to date multi-sourced information is used to around agile task organised units (bricks) which can be added to, build a coherent verified ‘intelligence picture’. This is essential withdrawn, and reassigned, dependant upon the scope and level to timely and appropriate decision-making. of response required.  Information Sharing. Information sharing with OGAs and NGOs the military interact with is critical to ensure unity of 1.19.3 Disaster Needs Assessment (DNA) Driven. The military support purpose and a coordinated approach. plans will be shaped by the DNA.  Common Operational Picture (COP). Such information would inform a COP that is essential to timely, correct, 1.19.4 Civil-Military Collaborative Approach. The military would seek effective decision making. to synchronise its plans with those of other supporting agencies to  More Information. See Section 3 and 4. achieve early, timely and smooth transition of civil responsibilities back to proper authorities. Establishing a Civil-Military 1.20.2 Logistics. Whilst the military concept for logistics support is 17 Coordination (CIMIC) Centre to provide the interface between likely to vary according to the phase of the operation, it would 18 the civil and military elements, would be critical to achieving this. address these broad areas: The military could assist the LA in establishing this if it were not established by the LA. As a minimum the military would seek to  Initial Rapid Response. This is the best estimation of need attach LOs with the supported LA. arising from the rapid disaster needs assessment, response, a mix of immediate and anticipated HA requirements, and that 1.19.5 Transition and Transfer. While the immediate goal is to save necessary to support deployed and anticipated follow-on lives and mitigate human suffering, the ultimate military goal in military forces. Key here is not to impose any further burden HADR operations is creating conditions that permit the early on an already stressed domestic scene and/or provide resumption of responsibility by civil authorities, and early material that is not timely or synchronised with the deployment 19 withdrawal of the military. of AOG responders.  Steady State Requirements. After the initial phase, logistics 1.19.6 Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). Existing MOUs support at least for the military would become more steady between NZDF, OGAs and NGOs would guide the general state – logistics plans would be adjusted accordingly. approach to inter-agency cooperation. Therein are contained,  Surge Demands. This is driven by the pattern of operations amongst other topics, broad agreement regarding funding. and can create the greatest logistical problems because it is the least easy to predict particularly if capacity to move stores1.20 Typical Functional Support Plans. Support plans that cater for standard and personnel over LOC are limited. Participation in military operations requirements and capable of being tailored to support an information sharing initiatives would be key to mitigating these 20 AOG contribution to a HADR operation, include: problems.  Sustainment. This relates to the sustainment of own military16 forces and any agencies NZDF is directed to support (eg NZJSP No 102, 10 Aug 011, page 1-102-B-1, Note 2. Standby Forces are to be overseas military deployed in support of a NZ domesticself-sufficient in all aspects for at least 72 hours.17 disaster) until successful transfer and resumption of See Glossary.18 responsibilities by civil authorities, and withdrawal of the ADDP 3.11 Civil-Military Cooperation, 24 Aug 04, para 3.15.19 military force. During this phase the military may establish ADDP 3.11 Civil-Military Cooperation, 24 Aug 04, para 3.18.20 some ‘Third Party contracted logistics services’ to augment its The main departments that the NZDF has a working relationship with, and in most sustainment requirements and capacity. The military does notcases shares common outcomes, are included in the NZDF 2011-2014 Statement of engage 3PL on behalf of the LA or any other agency.Intent Year Ending 30 Jun12, page 36.  More Information. See Section 3 and 4. 21 22 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 12.  Optimisation. The military HSS contribution would generally be collocated wherever possible to make optimum use of available MoH infrastructure.  Communication. HSS communication and information requirements to support planning, control of health support, casualty prevention, treatment and evacuation, patient tracking, etc is significant. Inter-agency communications connectivity barriers will slow integration.  More Information. See Section 3 and 4. 1.21.5 Personnel Services Support. HADR operations are usually people intensive and require co-ordinated planning and support for personnel involved. The military personnel service support could include chaplaincy services, psychological services, and welfare support. These would be provided for the deployed military personnel and where directed, for some supported agencies.  Inter-agency Consultation. The military would seek to identify and make contact with OGAs and NGOs in order to co-ordinate or integrate the military personnel support plans – this function may initially be carried out by LOs.  Rotation. If the operation is a protracted one, staff rotation1.21.3 Freight and Personnel Movement. Typically in a disaster relief and replacement plans incorporating personnel selection and situation, military air, sea, and road transport assets, or a assignment would be required. combination of, may be required.  More Information. See Section 4.  Movement Control. NZDF has personnel trained in the 1.21.6 Communications Networks. HADR community agencies have planning, processing, and tracking the movement of personnel two broad communication customer groups – one is internal and/or freight through a number of transport nodes along the agency customers and the other is the external parties with whom LOC. they interface. Communications with external agencies continues  Agency Support. As civil air, sea, road, and/or rail transport to be problematic for the HADR community because a single services may be interrupted as a result of the disaster, the national radio network as not yet been widely integrated. The requirement to move agency relief responses, including the broad approach taken by the military will revolve around: evacuation of personnel, by military transport assets is very likely.  Military - Internal. Internal military communication  More Information. See Section 3 and 4. requirements will be met using standard military communication platforms, including secure and non-secure1.21.4 Health Support Services (HSS). A military HSS plan would networks. address two broad group requirements – that of the deployed  Military - Interagency. Interagency communication link-up military force, and if requested, the augmentation of disaster HSS. will primarily be addressed by using mobile phone, land-line, They may not necessarily be stand-alone distinct group internet, sat-phone and hand-held radio networks where capabilities. Key points to note: available. Whilst not ideal this reflects the reality, and is a challenge to multi-agency coordination. The deployment of  Augmentation. Whilst the Ministry of Health (MoH) and/or LOs can mitigate this limitation. District Health Boards (DHBs) have responsibility to  Communications Matrix. A matrix detailing the broad coordinate and implement the health response plan, the communication links the military will seek to establish is military has a number of HSS capabilities that can augment provided in Section 4. It serves to indicate what the military an AOG health response plan. will first seek to establish with its internal agencies and 23 24 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 13. dependant upon equipment compatibility, the military linkages successfully with the public, and when they may, or may not, with the wider HADR community. use force or detain persons.  More Information. See Section 3 and 4. 1.21.7 Finance. Funding for AOG responses is guided by a combination of pre-existing arrangements or MOU and agreements reached at COMMAND AND CONTROL the time of the emergency and disaster. 1.22 Locations of Military Commanders and Headquarters.  Cost Capture. As a routine, NZDF will engage cost capture mechanisms to complement subsequent cost apportionment decisions made by Government. Figure 5: Locations of Military Commanders and Headquarters  More Information. See Section 3 and 4. 1.21.8 Media. The importance of coordinating media activities with that Commander HQ Location/Contact Details/Notes of the LA cannot be overstressed. Chief of HQ NZDF Defence House, Wellington or in the ODESC(E)  Public Expectation. The public expect to receive regular up Defence (if convened) in the Beehive sub-basement. to date information about a civil emergency or disaster Force situation. This includes coverage of what the military is doing. To that end the military would produce in collaboration Commander HQ JFNZ 2 Seddul Bahr Road, Trentham. Liaison with the LA, a military media plan. Joint Forces established with LA Controller and/or NCMC (if  Credibility. If information released to the public conflicts with NZ activated). that released by the LA, the result may be a loss of credibility for all involved and a negation of positive accomplishments. 24 Hour Duty Watch Keeper, contact  Use The Media. It is important to utilise the potential of the details: media to pass on key messages and target specific audiences to assist the HADR response. A proactive and Tel DDI: 04-529-6333 transparent approach to communication is critical to ensure DTelN: 345-6333 public confidence in the LA response.  More Information. See Section 3 and 4. Free: 0800-475-369 1.21.9 Legal. The legal issues in HADR operations essentially fall into Email: three broad areas: Joint Task HQ JTF Deployed forward in the disaster area. Liaison  Legitimacy. The general legal basis for the involvement of Force established with LA disaster area controller. the military is provided under sections 9(1)(a) and (b) of the Defence Act which authorises the use of the NZDF in NZ or elsewhere to perform any public service, or provide Commander Contact Details: Will be advised when this 21 assistance to the civil power in time of emergency. The organisation is activated. specific legal basis will arise from the legislation empowering the LA which provides the scope and detail of the authority to act. CONCLUDING COMMENTS  Legal Compliance. Members of the Armed Forces at all levels must understand the relevant law and authority by 1.23 The NZDF, like OGAs and NGOs, maintains its own disaster response plans which they are acting, in order to ensure that they act lawfully. for different domestic emergency and disaster scenarios.  Rules of Conduct (ROC). A ROC card will be issued to provide guidance to NZDF personnel in how to deal 1.24 The NZDF will rarely, if ever, be called on to lead a NZ based HADR operation. However, with experiences in such planning and leadership abroad, the NZDF has significant capabilities that may be available to support the LA.21 NZJSP No 102, 10 Aug 11, page 1-102-7, para 23. 25 26 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 14. 1.25 Section One of this Aide-Memoire provides an indicative generic operational concept for such support and an indication of the categories of routine considerations made in such contingencies. It also serves to assist understanding of military planning for such operations, and in doing so contributes to interagency coordination and mission success. NZDF DESIGNATED ELEMENTS FOR EMERGENCY TASKS 2.1 Capabilities. The military has the capacity to deliver a range of services in support of a disaster event response effort while conducting the training levels to maintain Directed Levels Of Capability (DLOC) for military operational deployment. Acknowledging all emergencies will vary in nature, severity, geographical space, and corresponding response, the main NZDF 22 elements that may be deployed and broad tasks that can be achieved with these capabilities, are described in Figure 7 at the end of this Section. 2.2 Limitations. Availability will be determined by NZDF commitments to other Government directed outputs at the time e.g. Output 16 Operationally Deployed Forces. In the event an emergency is severe, Government will decide whether to redirect NZDF assets and resources away from those outputs, to support the emergency. 22 NZDF 2010/2011 Output Plan Year Ending 30 Jun 11, Appendix 1 to Schedule 3. 27 28 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 15. 28 emergency will revert to centralised command, for assignment byThe employment of military water production equipment is one example of specialist COMJFNZ.military equipment being assigned to assist a domestic disaster operation.INHERENT AND NICHE CAPABILITIES Figure 7: NZDF Designated Response Capabilities and Broad Tasks2.3 Inherent Capabilities. NZDF elements are self supporting in terms of NZDF Elements/Capability – leadership, organisational structure, deployability, sustainability, and Service With Degree of Notice (DON) Tasks personnel trained state, this enables flexibility of employment. These are by- 29 23 where applicable products of being a disciplined Defence Force per se.2.4 Niche Capabilities. The military also possesses capabilities not specifically SAR, medical assistance, itemised in NZDF Statements of Intent or Output Plans. These ‘niche One, frigate at 8 hours DON (or casualty evacuation, bulk capabilities’ are listed in Figure 8. alternative vessel). transport of urgent relief stores and aid.APPROVAL LEVELS AND COMMAND ARRANGEMENTS2.5 Approval levels for the provision of these military assets/services range from One, inshore patrol vessel (IPV) SAR, medical assistance, Cabinet/Ministerial level for significant events to local military commanders at 8 hours DON. casualty evacuation. 24 for minor local support tasks. Generally, tasks will be approved on the direction of the Chief of Defence (CDF), a Single Service Chief through their Harbour/waterway clearance respective Component Commanders, or Commander Joint Force NZ Navy One, diving team at 6 hours DON. Underwater search (COMJFNZ). 25 2.5.1 Regional Emergency . Local and regional emergency events are managed by LA regional Controllers. For example, in a civil Cordon and search/evacuation One, 25-person Civil Defence defence emergency, local military commanders have the authority tasks, roving un-armed patrols. Response Group. to assist local MCDEM Controllers and employ their respective Self-sufficient for 72 hours. 25-person NZDF Response Groups for local region 26 emergencies. On-shore personnel for fire 27 Augment NZ Fire Services 2.5.2 National/ Major Emergency . In the event a disaster or fighting, as available. emergency demands a more significant response it may be elevated to one of national importance where the response may Operational liaison, On call – HQ elements in North be co-ordinated through the NCMC or from the LAs own national Army reconnaissance, planning and South Island, 48 hours DON. coordination centre. In this case NZDF regionally based elements assistance and/or any other assets that may be assigned to the Four, 25-person Response Groups (Waiouru, Linton, As for Navy. Trentham, Burnham).23 NZDF Statement of Intent 2011-2014, Year Ending 30 Jun 12, page 11.24 NZDF 2010/2011 Output Plan Year Ending 30 Jun 11, Appendix 1 to Schedule 3,para 2.25 An emergency in this case in an area or region that involves only one CDEM groupor equivalent OGA, flood along Waikato River. 28 DFO 91(1), NZJSP No 102 ‘Plan AWHINA’ 10 Aug 11, para 15.c.26 DFO 91(1), NZJSP No 102 ‘Plan AWHINA’ 10 Aug 11, para 15.a. 29 NZDF 2011/2012 Output Plan Year Ending 30 Jun 12, Appendix 2 to Schedule 3,27 An emergency that spans multiple regions or multiple CDEM groups or is of national para 4.proportions, e.g. volcanic eruption in the Rotorua area. 29 30 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 16. As per 25-person groups, over Two, 100-person National multiple sites, and can deploy for Figure 8: NZDF Niche Capabilities and Broad Tasks Response Groups. 30 days. Niche Capability Tasks Reserves for sustaining 100- One, 500-person Reserve. person National Response Groups. Liaison Officers  Establish and maintain liaison with LAs. EOD Teams in North and South Render military/non-military Island at 12 hours DON. ordinance safe.  Assist LA with planning and coordinating interface with the military. In-camp personnel for fire fighting, as available. As for Navy.  Self sufficient in transport, communications, logistic support, rationing and Medical/casualty evacuation, accommodation. One, Iroquois helicopter at 2 SAR, reconnaissance, fire- hours DON. fighting, VIP airlift. One, Orion (or Hercules if Orion is Reconnaissance, surveillance, not available) at 2 hours DON. imagery, communications, SAR.Air Medical evacuation, freight and Engineers – Urban Search And Rescue  Thermal imagery.Force One, Hercules at 14 hours DON. personnel movement, VIP airlift. (USAR)  Breathing apparatus. Operational liaison,  Hydraulic equipment. On call – HQ elements. reconnaissance, planning assistance.  High and low pressure air lifting bags. Operational liaison, One, 25-person Response Group reconnaissance, planning  Rope rescue equipment. at each Air Base. assistance.  Positive pressure ventilation equipment.  Flood lighting.  Personnel trained to USAR CAT1R level. Engineers – General  Securing/removal of ‘hazards to people’, road clearance, sewage system repair,  Support council rapid assessment needs. 31 32 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 17. Engineers – Chemical & Biological  Chemical protection suits and Logistics - Mortuary  NZDF has a very limited decontamination showers. temporary mortuary facility capability.  Augments a NZPOL led operation.Engineers - Fire  Fire appliance.  Identification and fire Logistics – Emergency Accommodation  Tented accommodation for up to 100 personnel.  risk mitigation.  Primarily for use by NZDF  Augment local fire services. personnel deployed on disaster relief operations but mayEngineers - Water Production  Plants capable of producing potentially be available for use by limited amounts of potable water other supporting agencies (e.g. from both salt water and NZPOL, USAR, specialist contaminated fresh water international aid agencies, etc). sources.  Road tankers for water distribution. Logistics – Movement Operators /Air  Personnel trained to assist with  EHOs to assess safety of water Movements processing evacuated personnel supplies. via transport nodes.  Augment OGAs for evacuation of affected population to/from otherLogistics - Mobile Shower & Laundry  Shower unit for decontamination NZ destinations. of USAR pers.  Support personnel and freight terminal operations.Logistics - Mobile Kitchen  Mobile catering facilities.  Helicopter under slung load operations.Logistics - Repair  First line, unit grade repair capability including specialist equipment, for NZDF equipment.Logistics - Ground Transport  4x4 rough terrain capable vehicles for cargo and personnel movement.  Water tankers, fuel tankers. 33 34 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 18. Navy Platforms  HMNZS Canterbury – sealift HSS - Health Liaison  Individual(s) embedded in MoH, freight, vehicles, catering, DHBs, Emergency Operations communications suite, helo Centre’s (EOCs) and / or operations. emergency services to maintain situational awareness, provide  HMNZS Endeavour – bulk fuel advice on the availability of NZDF supplier. health capabilities, manage  Other vessels – maritime patrols, expectations and monitor task maritime security operations. conduct and completion. HSS – Disaster Victim Identification  NZDF has a limited DVI (DVI) capability comprising experienced dental specialists capable of conducting forensicRNZAF Boeing 757/C130/ King Air  Personnel and freight dental examinations in order to movements, AME casualty identify deceased persons. evacuation.  Augment NZPOL led DVI  VIP airlift. services.RNZAF P3 Orion  Surveillance, reconnaissance, HSS – Casualty Management  A range of treatment options exclusive zone monitoring. such as medics, nurses and doctors, resuscitation, surgical support, diagnostic support, post-RNZAF Helicopters  VIP lift, medical evacuation, SAR, operative care (high and medium reconnaissance, fire-fighting, VIP dependency), low dependency lift, etc. care. It also includes a variety of evacuation options including surface (ship or ambulance) andHSS - Health Reconnaissance  Multi-disciplinary team(s) air (rotary wing and/or fixed wing) consisting of a health operations with specialised evacuation planner, clinician, and force teams. Patient care at Air points health protection specialist(s) of departure for evacuation capable of identifying health flights. threats/risks, conduct Disaster Needs Assessment (DNA),  Augment Ministry of Health/St analyse health capability gaps John. and needs, and advise on the range of health effects NZDF HSS could provide. 35 36 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 19. HSS - Health Protection  Can undertake environmental analysis, including water and air testing.  Augment MoH, DHBs.Personnel Services - Psychologists  NZDF psychologists are capable of conducting critical incident stress management and PREAMBLE providing advice on ways to manage and cope with the 3.1 The factors to be considered when planning HADR operations are psychological impacts of numerous and situation dependent. However, there are a number of factors disasters. that tend to be common to all and these are outlined below. This is not an exhaustive list and planners may need to expand on this on a case by case  Focus is on deployed NZDF basis. personnel and some supported agencies when directed. Serial Activity Consideration 1 Terminology The language of disasters and incidents is different from everydayPersonnel Services – Chaplaincy  NZDF chaplains are able to military terminology and it is importantServices provide spiritual support to both that the military understand the NZDF personnel engaged in language used by the civilian HADR HADR tasks and disaster victims. community it interacts with. 30  Augment disaster area Consistency and correct use of terms chaplaincy services. will reduce confusion and avoid misunderstandings. A list of common terms used by theNZDF Personnel  Disciplined personnel able to humanitarian aid community is conduct a variety of tasks included in the glossary. including cordons, clean up tasks, reassurance patrols, by day and night regardless of weather or terrain.  Sustaining for up to 72 hours. 30 Handbook No.11-07, Disaster Response Staff Officer’s Handbook, Dec 10, Centre o Army Lessons Learned (CALL), US Army Combined Arms Centre, Fort Leavenworth, KS, Dec 10, page 3. 37 38 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 20. its ‘support role’ - such friction points2 Command and Support Remain Under Military Control. can slow interagency communication. Arrangements With Other NZDF elements deployed on HADR Agencies operations do so in a supporting role, Appreciate Different Positions and but remain under military control, Culture. Understand the different 31 direction, and command. roles, function, culture and legitimacy, of each agency, and how some Unambiguous. Military lines of supporting NGOs may prefer to remain command need to be unambiguous if autonomous and so not establish they are to be clearly understood and formal liaison links with the military. 35 the correct span of command and 32 control exercised. Crisis Action Planning. Crisis action planning is usually based on HADR Support Arrangements With Other responders having an existing 33 Agencies . Military Task Elements deliberate plan (in the case of NZDF it (TEs) will usually be tasked ‘in direct is CONPLAN AWHINA) which they support’ of the supported agency. The can develop more appropriate to the supporting military commander crisis, at the time. The military is well responds by giving priority of effort and positioned to do this and is unique in controlling the military forces under his that it has doctrine, Defence Force command, in collaboration with the Orders, and standard operating supported agency, to deliver the procedure that guide and conduct 34 required effect. operations. Other agencies may not No Authority to Task. Regardless of have such well-defined processes, the NZDF support arrangement the guidelines, or as much planning supported agencies have no authority experience as their military to task and/or reassign military forces. counterparts, and may do things 36 differently. A possible method of building trust and developing good3 Collaborative Planning Anticipate Hesitancy. By virtue of its working relationships with HADR sheer size, array of capabilities, ease responders is to assist with with which it can manoeuvre large and contingency planning of possible small units in short time, and presence scenarios. This provides a forum of personnel trained who are expected where key stakeholders can provide to take the initiative, the military input and insight on how each intends presence can be intimidating for some to assist. This planning can lead to organisations not used to working with developing a good collaborative it. Allow time for mutual understanding working relation which is essential to and familiarity to mature. ensuring an effective response. Supporting Role. The military should Invite Collaboration. Seek dialogue be mindful it is not perceived as a between the supporting (military) and dominating presence or overstepping the supported (humanitarian community) agencies to determine ways how best to achieve unity of31 DFO 91(1), NZJSP No 102 ‘Plan AWHINA’ 10 Aug 11, pg 1-102-7, para 36.32 35 J8 Opeval – Op CHRISTCHURCH QUAKE, para 64. Handbook No.11-07, Disaster Response Staff Officer’s Handbook, Dec 10, Centre33 nd NZDF Joint Doctrine, NZDDP-001.C2 In The NZDF (2 Ed) Draft, Chap 3, para 83- for Army Lessons Learned (CALL), US Army Combined Arms Centre, Fort91. Leavenworth, KS, Dec 10, page 141.34 nd 36 NZDF Joint Doctrine, NZDDP-001.C2 In The NZDF (2 Ed) Draft, Chap 5, para 33. NZDDP-5.0 Joint Operations Planning, Jun 11, page 32. 39 40 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 21. effort, best effects, and efficient Team (JRT) of command, logistics, health support, delivery of support. Seek to establish engineers and communications reciprocal liaison and co-ordination personnel. point’s at all relevant levels with the primary task of fostering cooperation. Reconnaissance Checklist. See Section 4. Publish End State. Publish the military end state (in so much as it 6 Liaison Officers Early Appointment. This is essential exists and is developed) including to developing and maintaining effective scope and duration of the military Despite the speed with information flow and co-ordination with operation/aid, to all participants which LOs need to be the HADR community. LOs have no (supported and other supporting deployed, they still require authority to task NZDF assets – they agencies) so there are no careful consideration coordinate task requests and facilitate unreasonable expectations, commensurate with the information flow. misunderstandings, or possibility of context and scale of the mission creep. This is important to set operation and tasks to be Lines of Communication. LOs require the conditions for the military to undertaken, as they need clear lines of communication at all disengage and transition to civil to exhibit the necessary levels, to guarantee timely and regular 37 38 authorities as quickly as possible. authority and confidence. exchange of information. Placement for HADR Operations. The4 Disaster Needs Informs Planning. A robust and number of military LOs required to Assessment documented detailed DNA co- support a HADR operation will vary ordinated by the LA, is required. The dependent upon the severity of the On occasion the type of DNA should inform the planning aid or assistance provided emergency or disaster. Possible process by identifying: agencies with whom LOs may be may be inappropriate because it has been  post-disaster vulnerabilities exchanged is shown in Section 4. rushed into the affected during the response and Lead Agency. HQ JFNZ maintains a area (often at the behest recovery phases, LO, 24/7, who is on call to deploy at of politicians or senior short notice either to the NCMC or LA. commanders) without  capacity and capability gaps for HQ JFNZ Standard Operating consideration for the local and/or regional response, Procedure (SOP) 331 details the needs of the affected  effects that need to be delivered procedures to be followed by this LO. population – it can rapidly and therefore the assistance exceed the actual Checklist. A generic military LO requirements, and requirements, placing an Checklist is in Section 4. It includes the increased and  priorities for delivery of HADR. broad steps to establishing, co- unnecessary burden on ordinating, conducting, and managing remaining infrastructure DNA Checklist. See Section 4. liaison activities. and logistics resources. 37 J8 Opeval Op CHRISTCHURCH QUAKE, para 73. 385 Joint Reconnaissance To assist with the DNA process, the ‘Civil- Military Relationship in Complex Emergencies’, Inter-Agency Standing military should deploy a JRT consisting Committee Working Group (IASC-WG), 2004, page 11, para 32. 41 42 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 22. 7 Civil-Military Purpose. The purpose of CIMIC is to 8 Information Management Promote Information Sharing The Coordination Centre establish and maintain full cooperation (IM) two way flow of information sharing 39 (CIMIC Centre) between the military, civilian between NZDF, OGAs and NGOs is population, civil authorities and HADR IM entails the capture, essential to achieving trust, unity of When incidents cross responders it interfaces with, in order management and effort and strengthening multi-agency disciplinary or jurisdictional to support the accomplishment of the provision of relevant engagement – it should be a feature of boundaries, or involve commander’s mission. CIMIC allows information to the right normal operational rhythm for as much complex incident interaction with all parts of the civil person/party (OGA, NGO, as security constraints permit. management scenarios, a dimension to address issues that are and/or the civilian Pathways include briefings, tele- multi-agency coordination critical to the success of military HADR populace) at the right time conferences, LOs, access to Joint entity, such as a CIMIC operations. A CIMIC Centre provides in a form that can improve Incident Logging and Event System Centre, may be used to an effective avenue through which to SA and decision making. (JILES) especially for forward mobile facilitate incident develop and exercise centralised Good IM can promote the elements, operations orders and management and coordination that promotes unity of development of favourable directives, and press releases. 40 coordination. effort between participants responding HADR outcomes. 41 Information Sharing Decision. The to a HADR operation. HADR operations should decision to share military information manage information as remains with the force commander; Staffing. The CIMIC Centre should ‘Unclassified’ to the however, within an emergency and contain representatives of the LA, LOs greatest extent possible to disaster relief context, the potential for and staff from; Life Line utilities (e.g. enable effective sharing. information sharing is not only ports, airports, electricity, hospitals, gas, fire services), local government, extensive, but also necessary if unity military, OGAs and NGOs. of effort and effective integration between military, LA and other disaster Main Effort. Coordination and unity of responding agencies is to be achieved. effort is the major outcome of CIMIC – Managing Information Flows. The the tasking and assignment of management of in/out information response agencies to the disaster flows should be managed as a relief effort should flow from decisions capability function as part of the overall reached in this Centre. operation. Timely, quality, up, down, Accessible. The JTFC will seek and lateral information flow is crucial to involvement and participation from the quality decision making across the aforementioned agencies and so the HADR community. The CIMIC Centre CIMIC Centre would be located is the logical gateway through which to outside of restricted military compound manage this. to enable ease of access. Information to Share. The two-way flow of information is very important to CIMIC Checklist. See Section 4. maintaining currency of needs assessments and keeping check on ‘bright-ideas’ that occasionally flow down following VIP field visits. Information sharing may include: security information relevant to the39 security of civilians; CDEM and ADDP 3.11 Civil-Military Cooperation, 24 Aug 04, page 3-21. humanitarian agency locations; the40 Handbook No.11-07, Disaster Response Staff Officer’s Handbook, Dec 10, Centre coordinates of staff and facilities; LAfor Army Lessons Learned (CALL), US Army Combined Arms Centre, Fort and humanitarian activities; plans andLeavenworth, KS, Dec 10, page 35. intentions, traffic routes and timings, to41 ABCA Coalition Operations Handbook, Ed 4, 14 Apr 08, page 12-1. 43 44 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 23. avoid conflicting activities; status of the loaded to the web, etc); and LOC; population movements; perception-enhancing events (such as information on relief activities being ‘getting the right stuff to the right place, undertaken by all agencies; in short time; working in collaboration information on areas considered with other non-military agencies; sensitive (e.g., for cultural reasons), working under arduous conditions, hazardous (e.g. presence of etc). asbestos), or dangerous (e.g. unstable buildings). Promulgate Media Plan. The media plan, complete with sanctioned Information Sharing Checklist. See responses and key messages, must Section 4. be promulgated through all levels down to the soldier, sailor, and air men and women, in easily understood language. This ensures that media relations at all levels are appropriately9 Media/Public Information Media LOs. Whilst the military have focused. Systems limited ability to control the final media 43 product , the appointment of Media Effects Based Thinking. These refer to processes, LOs at all levels would ensure timely Consideration must be given to how procedures, and systems responses to public media demand, information can be used to support the for communicating timely and reinforcement of sanctioned effects needed to ensure success. and accurate information to responses and key messages. (e.g. the use of imagery from military the public during crisis or night vision capability reassurance emergency situations. The Coordinate With LA. The importance patrols improve public confidence in military Public Relations of coordinating media activities with property and individual security as well Officer (PRO) is a key staff that of the LA cannot be overstressed. as dissuading potential opportunist member supporting the If information released to public criminals. incident command structure conflicts with that released by the LA, and is responsible for the result may be a loss of credibility Media/Public Information Checklist. handling all media and for all involved and a negation of See Section 4. public inquiries, and positive accomplishments. production of the military 10 Situational Awareness Anticipate Temporary Loss of SA. media plan. 42 Media Plan. The public expect to receive regular up to date information (SA) The first few hours of any disaster or about a civil emergency or disaster emergency situation will result in a loss SA is essentially a of SA for all organizations as situation - this includes coverage of condition where TEs or what the military is doing. The military immediate individual response is one TUs achieve a common of concern for family, relatives, homes, media plan, developed by the Defence understanding of both the Communications Group (DCG) Team pets, and other personal matters. In a operational context and major emergency the strategic and would include measures to deal with the prevailing situation and perception-threatening events (such as operational level headquarters may imperatives. This orient faster than local organisations, accidents and injuries, equipment information contributes to failure, confrontations with displaced but gaining quality tactical level the development and information as soon as possible is persons, controversial imagery up- maintenance of a Common vital. Operational Picture which42 is essential to achieving a LOs. Early deployment of Handbook No.11-07, Disaster Response Staff Officer’s Handbook, Dec 10, Centre co-ordinated, effective, appropriately qualified andfor Army Lessons Learned (CALL), US Army Combined Arms Centre, Fort cost efficient, HADR experienced LOs to national,Leavenworth, KS, Dec 10, page 35. response. regional/disaster area civil defence,43 ADDP 3.13 Information Operations, Nov 06, para 3.20. 45 46 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 24. police, Ministry of Health and/or district Information Sharing Checklist. See health boards, and lifeline agencies, is Section 4. essential and the most effective means to developing and sharing information 11 Common Operational End Use/Benefits. The COP – which that contributes to improved SA. Picture (COP) includes friendly, threat, and Disaster Impacts on Quality SA. environmental elements – helps A COP is an operational commanders make timely, accurate Expect SA to be degraded immediately picture tailored to the following and during the initial and decisions about sequencing and users requirements, based direction of operations, allocation of early stages of a disaster - telephone on common data and line and even cellular phone voice resources and forces where they are information collected and needed or required most. connectivity is likely to be broken; cell shared with and by more networks text coverage may well be all than one organisation - the Tailor Use. Each level of operations that is functional and the primary higher the quality of can create a COP appropriate to their means of communications in the first information the more needs and tailor information collection few hours after the event. Personnel accurate the COP. and sharing to suit. should be encouraged to minimise non-essential use of communications. Information Sharing Checklist. See Section 4. Disaster Impacts on Own Personnel. Staff caught in the disaster zone will be primarily concerned for welfare of family, relatives, home, pets 12 Task Transition and Early Transition Sends Positive and other personal matters; that will Transfer 44 Signals. Early withdrawal of military impact their capacity to contribute forces sends positive signals that the initially to SA. The greater the severity While the immediate goal is supported community has recovered of a disaster or emergency event, the to save lives and mitigate and civil authorities have resumed full greater the potential for temporary loss human suffering, the control - life is returning to normal. of SA at all levels. ultimate goal for the military is creating conditions that Stimulate Resumption of Plug-in Other Information Inputs. permit the Responsibility. Plug-in as they come on line (e.g. transfer/resumption of aerial photography, media/news feeds, responsibility by civil  Local Authority video conference link-ups, etc). agencies/authorities as Structures/Systems. These soon as possible, and should be used as soon as they Assist HADR Community. Assist the are restored, in order to preclude supported and other supporting withdraw, as soon as possible. other agencies becoming reliant agencies SA by communicating the upon the military and making it military role and action plan, difficult to redeploy for other expectations in terms of task transition, tasks. This also stimulates local and eventual withdrawal, as early as ownership for recovery. possible and update as this is developed.  Conflict With Local Businesses. The military would Task Transition Impacts on SA. seek to avoid undertaking tasks Transitions to civil authorities can result in reduced SA and contribute to 44 delays in decision making, impacting NZDF Joint Doctrine Note 3/10 – Guidelines for the Conduct of Stabilisation on NZDF. Operations (JDN 3/10), Jul 11, Chap 1, Sect 4. 47 48– HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 25. and services that can be  Set Backs. Transitions may not performed by local businesses - always work. The transition their early take up is a necessary strategy should consider the component to community potential to re-assume a ‘Hold’ recovery. posture if, after trial, the desired conditions are not sustained. Perception Management. Communicating the military role and  Task Transition and Transfer expectations in terms of task transition, Checklist. See Section 4. in the early stages of the operation will alleviate misunderstanding or inflated 13 Performance Framework. There is a need for a expectations of the military response. Measurements and performance management framework The early creation of a working group 45 Evaluation that provides a consistent approach to (WG) comprising the LA (also chairs the the way service performance and WG), local city/district council and the As the emphasis on quality is managed, monitored, military (as the temporary service managing for results reviewed and reported at all levels. providers), will mitigate this. Adopting increases, the demand for this approach would do much to rigorous and evidence- Measurements. There needs to be minimize risk of the military being based evaluations is rising appropriate measurements that accused of undertaking tasks that - stakeholders want to recognise the important differences could/should be undertaken by local know how the organization between task accomplishment and civilian service providers – the LA/ local ‘measures up’; whether effects attainment. authority should therefore front any funds are being spent claims of the military ‘staying too long’. appropriately, resources  Performance Measurement. committed fairly, and Confirm if we have “done things Conditions. There will be debate desired effects have been right.” whether transitions should be time or achieved. conditions based. In practice it is likely to be an amalgam of both.  Effects Measurement. Answers the question, “Are we doing the Risks. Possible risks involved in right thing?”. transitions include: Continuous. Performance and effects  Misalignment of Authority and measurement are continuous. Responsibility. For example Together they support an overall where security operations in an assessment and also assist the area are passed to a civilian commander and staff to refine planning agency but still reliant upon to ensure objective accomplishment – military capability should be they combine to drive decisions on the avoided. way services are delivered, to whom, and when.  Progressive Loss of SA. As the hand over of more responsibility Lessons Learnt Capture. This is one continues there is a risk of losing method of ensuring mistakes are not SA – this can be ameliorated by repeated and that responders are increasing mentors and liaison learning throughout their response. The staff, however that is likely to value of this is that it captures a coincide with a desire to reduce willingness to improve performance, military footprint rather than increase it in any way. 45 NZDF Joint Doctrine Note 3/10 – Guidelines for the Conduct of Stabilisation Operations, Jul 11, Chap 2. 49 50– HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 26. minimise waste of resources and a and/or a JTF HQ activated. dedication to responsible fiscal expenditure. Checklists. To understand the factors that affect this subject area, readers should also see functional area14 Rapid Response Troops to Task Assessment. The checklists in Section 4. successful rapid projection of A military contribution will capabilities to respond to the be most critical in the immediate disaster situation is 15 Funding and Cost Sources of funding. The processes immediate aftermath of a predicated upon the availability of Capture for timely expenditure must be 47 disaster, to assist with the NZDF resources. Operational resolved early in the planning phase. prevention of further concurrency factors and implications of suffering, loss of life, Identify a Special Purpose Code sustaining concurrent overseas (SPC). The SPC needs to be destruction of property operational missions and the disaster and/or degradation to the assigned to the HADR event. response effort will be assessed during environment; rapidity of crisis planning. Funding Checklist. See Section 4. response will be paramount for those planning the Self-Sustaining. The disaster area military contribution. infrastructure and/or services may be 16 Legal Issues Rules of Conduct (ROC). A ROC limited or non-existent due to loss or card will be issued to provide guidance failure; the initial military response to NZDF personnel as to when they must be capable of may, or may not, use force or detain supporting/sustaining itself for 72 persons, and how to deal successfully hours . 46 with the public. J09-1, HQ JFNZ maintains the ROC card. Intuitive Commander. When the need for speed of decisions is urgent, Statutory Provisions. A summary of commanders may initially adopt an relevant statutory provisions is ‘intuitive approach’ to their decision included with the Legal Support making – one based on their Checklist. knowledge, experience, judgment, Legal Support Checklist. See intelligence and boldness - rather than Section 4. observe time consuming analytical processes that focus on the development and comparison of 17 Limitations on Health Limitation. Whilst emergency health 48 multiple courses of action. Staff care may be provided by NZDF staff, in general, NZDF medics or Nursing Speed of Response. The need to Officers are not to provide non- save lives and mitigate human emergency health care to civilians (i.e. suffering may require the immediate immediate actions to save life), unless it insertion of self-sufficient response is in exceptional circumstances. groups and a mobile, step-up/fly-away HQ to effect necessary control and Authority. NZDF medics or Nursing coordination with other agencies. That Officers may be authorized to do so (in grouping would also form the base line accordance with the DTMP’s) by a for the follow-on elements, and may be registered medical practitioner either stood-up before the main military through direct supervision or a written support effort has been fully scoped 47 NZDF Joint Doctrine Note 3/10 – Guidelines for the Conduct of Stabilisation Operations, Jul 11, para 61.46 48 NZJSP No 102, 10 Aug 11, page 1-102-B-1, Note 2. See HQ JFNZ J1 SOP 10-75. 51 52 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 27. indemnity order, and such treatment is subject to informed consent (in writing COMMUNICATION LINKS MATRIX MD1195) on each occasion. Serial HQ Link Mode Secure Health Services Support (HSS) Checklist. See Section 4. 1 JFNZ to HQ NZDF. Voice Y18 Communications Military - Internal. The military will Data/Imagery Y Networks have requirement for secure and non- secure networks. Moving Imagery N Military - Interagency. Interagency 2 JFNZ to other govt depts it Voice N link-up will primarily be addressed by would interface with e.g. NZPOL, Min of Data/Imagery N using mobile phone, sat-phone, land- line, internet, and hand-held radio Health, Min CD, Moving Imagery N network where available. Whilst not Maritime NZ, etc. ideal this reflects the limitations 3 JFNZ to assigned TEs/TUs, Voice Y imposed by a lack of a national radio e.g. Navy – HQ JFNZ network and varying levels of resource to ships; JTF HQ to Data/Imagery Y availability within the HADR community. RNZAF aircraft). Moving Imagery Y Communication Matrix. A matrix detailing the broad communication links 4 JFNZ to HQ JFNZ LOs Voice N is indicated below. It is assumed that assigned to other govt ‘unclassified’ communication would depts. Data/Imagery N exist between all agencies. This matrix Moving Imagery N serves to indicate what the military will next seek to establish in terms of 5 JFNZ to deployed JTF HQ. Voice Y secure communication with its internal agencies and dependant upon Data/Imagery Y equipment compatibility, the wider Moving Imagery Y HADR community. 6 JFNZ to assigned TEs/TUs, Voice Y e.g. JTF HQ - ship/shore parties; Data/Imagery Y JTF HQ - RNZAF Moving Imagery N aircraft, gnd units; JTF HQ - Army units. 7 JFNZ to other govt depts it Voice N would interface with e.g. NZPOL, District Data/Imagery N Health Board, Moving Imagery NA Council, etc. 8 JFNZ to JTF HQ LOs Voice N assigned to other agencies. Data/Imagery N Moving Imagery NA 53 54 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 28. GENERIC HADR PLANNING CHECKLIST Situation: Check Question/Consideration Supplementary What is the nature of the emergency/disaster?LIST OF CHECKLISTS: What information about the  On what is it based Generic HADR Planning Checklist emergency/disaster is (substantive or anecdotal)? Civil-Military Cooperation Considerations available? Information Sharing With Other Agencies  What information gaps are Command And Control there? Reconnaissance and Disaster Needs Assessment  Are the intelligence Military Liaison Officer Assignment/Allocation capabilities acting in support of Military Liaison Officers disaster response: Force Protection Personnel Support Services  Structured to process Health Services Support the information that is Logistic Support and Services collected including Funding Issues fusion of multiple Legal Advisers sources of information? Media/Public Information  Able to exploit Disaster Victim Identification and Mortuary Operations information in order to Security Cordon Operations build reports and Task Transition and Transfer products to support the disaster responsePREAMBLE planning process?4.1 This Section contains a series of generic functional area checklists. They are not in themselves a complete list as every disaster and emergency event is different and will have its own set of specific assistance and relief Are the stricken area  What is the state of civilian requirements. These checklists serve to provide focus and prompts for response mechanisms administration, infrastructure? those involved in planning HADR operations. coping with the impact of the emergency/disaster?  To what extent are the stricken4.2 Observations and lessons learned through NZDF support of Operations area civil authorities coping? PIKE, CHRISTCHURCH QUAKE, and RENA have also been included with the checklists in an attempt to provide further substance to the checklists.  What are the apparent capability/capacity gaps? 55 56 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 29. supplementaryWho will be the Lead Agency  What is the LA response? reconnaissance?(LA)?  To what degree have LA  What are the Critical contingency plans been Information Requirements implemented? (CIRs)?  Has an atmosphere of  Will it conduct a DNA? Are cooperation and trust been the questions in the DNA established at the highest appropriate? levels and is that reflected down through successive levels? Is there any point Should a Warning Order  Which military where this has not been well (WNGO) be issued? base/camp/formation is best established? resourced/positioned/ experienced to provide the  When will the LA hold its JTF HQ? situation, scoping, and coordination briefing?  Does the WNGO include lodger unit’s resident on the nominated base/camp, DCG,Is a Disaster Needs  By whom? Is the information NZDF Reserve units?Assessment (DNA) being complete?conducted?  Does its Action Information  Has the military been invited to Group (AIG) permit the widestSee DNA Report participate in a LA led DNA? and fastest reach andForm/Checklist promulgation of the ‘warning’,  What access does the military have to that DNA? minimising need for further onward transmission by  Should the military conduct its intermediary HQs? Note the own mission focused DNA? implication this has for timely development of SA.What is the military’s role in  What military capabilities aresupporting this response? required? Mission  Are there any NZDF assets in the immediate vicinity? If so, Check Question/Consideration Supplementary what are they capable of? What is the military mission?  What effects are the militaryShould military LOs be  Who? Where? When? Why? required to achieve?deployed?See LO Checklist  What military capabilities are required to accomplish theSee LO Assignment Checklist mission?  Are there any NZDF assets inHas a Joint Reconnaissance  Is its composition appropriate, the immediate vicinity?Team been stood-up? balanced with right mix of staff /functional representatives?  What is the missionSee Reconnaissance Checklist accomplishment, transition and  Does there need to be a 57 58 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 30. termination strategy? Disaster Response  Is the desired end-state sustainable by the stricken Check Question/Consideration Supplementary region and remaining OGA and NGOs contributing to the relief effort? What are the LAs aims?  What other agencies are responding?  What is the end state? Does it define mission success and the  What is their capability and military role to attain it? level of response?  Has the end state and exit  What coordination strategy been articulated as mechanisms and hierarchy part of the commander’s are in place? intent?  What centres/operations  Does the end state identify the rooms and meetings conditions under which the schedules have been military operation can be established? terminated?  Are there any identifiable  Are the conditions tangible in capability gaps? military terms?  What is the impact of the disaster on neighbouring regions, NZ?  What are the LAs response priorities? What other nation’s military  To what extent will other assets are being nation’s capabilities deployed/deploying? compliment or duplicate an NZDF response?  What are the real estate and support requirements for these assets?  Who will provide base support services in the stricken area for them? What is the NZDF response?  Can the stricken area support the NZDF response group?  Is there an existing military base in the vicinity of the disaster area? 59 60– HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 31.  Is a forward operating base required? Command, Control, and Coordination  Are the land/air/sea LOC Check Question/Consideration Supplementary open?  Are the airports/ports What are the command, control, functional? and coordination arrangements? See Command and ControlTime and Space ChecklistCheck Question/Consideration Supplementary What inter-agency coordination  What are the coordination is required? mechanisms, hierarchy What are the necessary and responsibilities? timelines to meet emergency See Civil-Military Cooperation response requirements? Checklist  What are the liaison requirements – with lead See Information Sharing Checklist agency, OGAs, and NGOs?  Who is setting relief priorities?  Who is tasking responding assets to meet the set priorities?  How can NZDF assets be integrated into the overall effort?  How are contributing agencies communicating?  Are there any MOU’s between the military and other supporting agencies? 61 62 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 32. Supporting Functional Groups / Considerations What are the task transition  What are the requirements for and transfer considerations? transition?Check Question/Consideration Supplementary See Task Transition and  How will transition be controlled Transfer Checklist and managed? What are the Health Services Support (HSS) issues? What are the funding issues?  What is the probable cost of the See HSS Checklist operation in money (direct, See Funding Issues Checklist indirect, cost-recoverable), resources? What are the Personnel  Is there a visitor’s coordination Support issues? policy?  What are the reconstitution cost implications? See Personnel Support  What are the visitor approval and Checklist management arrangements? What niche military  How can these be incorporated  Who will approve visitors to NZDF capabilities may be required? with OGAs or designated as facilities and sites in the disaster responsible for tasks? zone? See Section 2  Is this best managed by an ‘out- of-area’ organisation in order to What are the media/public  Have coherent press lines been release JTF HQ staff to focus on information issues? agreed? other tasks? See Media/Public Information  Has the military media plan been Checklist developed? What are the legal issues?  Is there provision for adequate, informed legal advice to  Has it been promulgated See Legal Support Checklist commanders? throughout all levels of the  What waivers if any are needed to organisation and do personnel convey non-military personnel in understand the sanctioned key military vehicles, aircraft and messages? ships?  Has a PRO been deployed to  What are the implications for support the JTF? NZDF if there is injury or death to a civilian when conveyed by such means? What are the Logistic Support  Does the military force have firm and Services issues? bases from which to launch its military assistance operations? See Support and Services Logistic Checklist  Are they sufficient (eg number, location, size, facilities, secure)? 63 64 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 33. What are the communication  To what extent are the military What are the Force protection  What needs to be protected andrequirements to support the communications platforms issues? to what level?operation? interactive? (e.g. secure/non- secure; data, imagery, voice, etc). See Force Protection Checklist  What are the potential health risks to the deploying forces?  Consider the full span of the military organisation from soldier  What medical support is at a checkpoint/aircraft on recon necessary for own forces? mission, sub-unit,  What requirement is there for unit/ship/squadron, formation/HQ immunizations (potentially time JFNZ. critical)?  To what extent is military  Are there any risks from communications unexploded ordnance, gas leaks, platforms/equipment compatible infrastructure failures, etc? with the LA, OGAs and NGOs?  Is there a need for ‘own-force’  Consider the full span of the rapid evacuation plan? military organisation from soldier at a checkpoint/aircraft on recon  Does the military force lack any mission, sub-unit, critical capabilities? unit/ship/squadron, formation/HQ JFNZ; and their ability to Output 16/Other Tasks  What impact will current support communicate with civil actors or prolonged support of the HADR stakeholders at their respective operation have on sustainment of levels of response. current Output 16 missions and  How will any communications critical enabling DLOC activities? gaps within the military and  Are there any NZDF assets that between civil actors at their may need to be withdrawn at respective levels of response, be some stage during the HADR mitigated? operation for re-assignment to  Where are the communication higher priority Government tasks? compatibility bottle-necks and  What is the NZDF capacity to what are are the implications for support another con-current inter-agency communication and HADR task? Are there any other coordination? activities that were planned to occur now in need of postponement? 65 66 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 34. Early Mission Termination  What are the courses of action, Operational Considerations options, implications, etc in the event NZDF support to the HADR Check Activity mission has to be terminated earlier due to an Output of 16, or another domestic or overseas What international organisations, OGAs, NGOs, and other donors will be HADR operation? operating in the disaster area? Has a LA been determined? 49 CIVIL – MILITARY COOPERATION CONSIDERATIONS Will a CIMIC Centre need to be established? Where and when? Strategic Considerations Have CIMIC planners been included in the reconnaissance and planning Check Activity teams? What is the intended military end-state? What are the courses of action in the event the mission is terminated earlier, or develops into a much extended and prolonged operation? What are the measures of effectiveness (MOE)? Do all responding/supporting agencies have a similar understanding of Will the MOE determine the ‘exit strategy’? CIMIC? If not what are the differences in approach? How can NZDF best integrate with the LA? Is there an AOG approach? What OGAs will contribute to the strategic partnership? What CIMIC support can other responding/supporting agencies provide and what cannot be provided? What is their approach to CIMIC? Is CIMIC synchronised with other lines of operation in the mission plan? Are there external agencies that should be included in initial planning? Later planning? Which OGA, NGO and other supporting agencies will be operating in the disaster area? What CIMIC structures and liaison are needed at the strategic level to support the operational plan? What CIMIC structures and liaison are needed at the strategic and operational level to support the tactical commander? What CIMIC structures and liaison are needed at the strategic and operational level to support the tactical commander? Tactical Considerations What military assets will be assigned to CIMIC? Check Activity What level of support will be offered through humanitarian assistance? Is it funded? How much? Are there additional sources of revenue? Have CIMIC planners and other agency personnel been included in the assessment team for the operation?49 ADDP 3.11 Civil-Military Cooperation, 24 Aug 04, page 4A-1. 67 68 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 35. What is the CIMIC transition plan? What agencies have been identifiedto conduct what tasks? Is the plan documented? Observations and Lessons Learned Serial Observations Lessons LearnedIs there a coalition synchronisation plan that articulates a commonoperational effect across boundaries (such as military, social, political, 1 CIMIC : Mutual Understanding. Opportunities that promotecultural, economic boundaries)? Have measures been established to common understanding ofsynchronise the CIMIC activities with the operation plans? There is a general lack of supporting and LAs in a HADR awareness amongst NZDF context must be explored andWhat are the required civil and military resources to achieve the personnel of what OGAs, NGOs developed if unity of effort andoperational objectives? and local enterprises can do in efficiency of mission support of disaster and accomplishment is to be achieved. emergency events. Attendance at recognised CIMICWhat key civil actors will be operating in the disaster area? What are Correspondingly, there appears to workshops and CIMS courses suchtheir perspective end-states, culture, objectives and methods? How will be a general lack of as those conducted by MCDEMthey affect the military operation? understanding amongst those should be a priority for HADR organisations about the NZDF planners and key LOs as theyWhat CIMIC structures and liaison are needed at the strategic and HADR role, its capabilities, and facilitate interagencyoperational level to support the tactical commander? how they are assigned and understanding and collaborative tasked. information exchange.What will be the impact on the local economy if NZDF engages locallyemployed civilians (LECs)? Can be positive, negative, or neutral. 2 CIMIC : Need Early A CIMIC Coordination Centre mustIs the local civil administration sound? If not what resources are needed Coordination. be established at the earliest – thisto make it so? should be a function of the LA and In the period immediately staffed with personnel from OGAs, following the disaster or NGOs and NZDF. These staffWhat are the requirements for restoring or providing essential services in emergency event, a flood of members must understand whatthe short, medium and long term? What short-term tasks may become requests for support and their organisations assetmilitary tasks that the military will need to plan for - such as urgent assistance can arise, some capabilities are and their capacityprovision of shelter, water, sanitation and power? generated by people caught in the to deliver HADR responses - this disaster zone, others from visiting will ensure the most efficient and politicians, and some from parties effective assignment of HADRWhat JTF support is needed to restore or assist civilian law and order in with vested interests. Unless this responders.the disaster area? situation is managed centrally, prioritised, and assets assigned in The CIMIC Coordination Centre a coordinated manner, the risk of should not be established by theHas a CIMIC estimate/disaster needs assessment been completed? misdirected response effort military on behalf of the LA. increases. Military forces may be withdrawn at short notice for other higher priority government tasks or re-deployedHave CIMIC centres, liaison points, been established at appropriate to home locations having met itslevels to coordinate CIMIC? assigned HADR tasks. In the event that occurs, the military will find it 69 70 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 36. difficult to extract. INFORMATION SHARING WITH OTHER AGENCIES CHECKLIST The earliest possible liaison with OGAs and NGOs will assist NZDF Check Activity ascertain the capability requirements to support the HADR operation and facilitate LA What kind of information should/could be shared, with whom and when? requisitioning of those capabilities Who will decide what can be shared? (effects). This worked well for Op RENA. Should information that is shared with one military group be shared with all other military groups? How should we ensure that no side is favoured over another while being mindful of sensitivities involved in information?3 Communications: Post As difficult as this may be, all use Who will decide this? Disaster. of non-essential communications equipment should be minimised Achieving sustainable and reliable When and how should we verify information provided by the military and especially immediately after a communications across the indeed other agencies? disaster or emergency. disaster area between the military and supported agencies can be Contingency plans that take How can information that may be important for humanitarian purposes be problematic. account of this should be produced differentiated from information that is militarily sensitive? Who will and practiced. determine this? Cellular and landline networks are often not available immediately after a disaster or emergency – What is classed as critical information and for whom? land lines and optic cables can be cut and the cellular network What is classed as sensitive information and to whom? temporarily overloaded. What are the arrangements for the disposal of documents (e.g. planning drafts, day-to-day paper waste, USB and similar memory devices)?4 Communications: Inter-Agency. HADR operations should manage information as ‘Unclassified’ to the Currently Government is greatest extent possible to enable Is the communications bandwidth sufficient to permit streaming of data establishing a Whole of effective sharing. from organic sensors to the appropriate strategic, operational, and tactical Government Radio Network with level users of that data? the intent of achieving wider Whilst NZDF completes its communications connectivity transition to more comprehensive Is it timely? between government departments inter-service (and inter-agency - this initiative is still in its infancy connectivity where possible), this and can be expected to take some functional area is likely to remain How will a COP be established and what information is required from years to complete. problematic for some time. LA/OGAs/NGOs? Meanwhile there is an array of Rather than focus on current How will the LA/OGAs/NGOs be incorporated into the military battle communications systems in use equipments held, military HADR rhythm? by the HADR community – land- planners should describe the line, cellular, radio, internet, capabilities they wish to have and satellite telephone with varying leave Communications and To what extent is military, LA, OGAs and NGOs communications, degrees of secure, non-secure, Information Systems (CIS) compatible? How will this impact task transition and transfer operations? and digital streaming capabilities. planners to configure a communications network to suit. What are the means by which information will be shared? Is there a schedule for this? How will this be coordinated? 71 72 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 37. What is the communication plan between HQ JFNZ, the JTF HQ, anddeployed maritime, air, and land elements? To what extent are the COMMAND AND CONTROL CHECKLISTdeployed maritime, air, and land elements able to cross communicateand to what extent (e.g. secure, non-secure, voice, data, moving imagery,etc)? Check ActivityExamples of shared collaborative information include: Has a Disaster Needs Assessment (DNA) been conducted? See DNA Checklist. Locations and tasks being undertaken by NZDF FEs, OGAs, and NGOs, including points of contact. Have the command relationships been defined and agreed for the Broad scheme of manoeuvre. following: Intentions/proposed courses of action/likely future HADR tasks.  Feasibility of achieving unity of command or unity of effort? Disaster intelligence data/damage surveys, needs assessment.  Clarity of relationships and understanding on the part of military FEs and supported agencies? Commander’s Critical Information Requirements. ROC updates. What key OGAs, NGOs, civil and international agencies will be operating Logistical data. in the disaster area? How will they affect military operations? Casualty reports/evacuation. Have command and control arrangements been made that would permit/facilitate coordination with OGAs and NGOs? Weather reports/updates. Hazard reports/updates. Has an atmosphere of cooperation and trust been established at the highest levels and is that reflected down through successive levels? Is VIP visits. there any point where this has not been well established? Military aircraft and ship movements (i.e. those assigned to provide administrative and logistics support). What military TE/TU capabilities are required to accomplish the mission? Geospatial data. How will military alliance partners’ contribution be integrated with the NZ military command structure, operations, CIS, personnel and logistic support and administration systems? Are the military command, control, CIS, and logistic support systems robust enough to respond to increased levels of intensity (e.g. if there was a further disaster)? Should NZDF surge a ‘Tac HQ’ to the LA main/crisis HQ to facilitate effective coordination and liaison? Does the military have a clear mandate and terms of reference (TOR) for the operation that specifies all conditions and parameters for the operation, to include limits of the mission, operational parameters, and specified authorities to conduct operations? 73 74 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 38. Have all agencies involved in the operation been briefed at each level 2 C2: Inconsistencies. Use joint terms – avoid use of single (operational, tactical, district) for unity of effort between supporting and service language. supported agencies? Whilst the production of 50 OPORDs/ FRAGO’s are Include a Task Organisation effective, some inconsistencies (TASKORG) Annex at the time a Do all levels of the chain of military command understand the military- and ambiguities arise when HADR OPORD is issued – this must civilian relationship? there is variations in the use of detail all the TEs and TUs assigned terminology, force assignment, to a JTF HQ, their status of Do all levels of the supported agency understand the military-civilian delegated levels of C2 and, command, and duration of relationship? changes to C2. assignment. This will ensure the deployed JTF HQ and HQ JFNZ staff How is the military role coordinated with the roles OGAs and NGOs at shares a clear and common the operational, tactical, and incident site? understanding of the status of forces at any time. How will differences of opinion regarding civil-military coordination be C2 delegations for each operation settled? Who decides? should be formally circulated within HQ JFNZ to ensure wide and current understanding of status of command What restrictions/constraints have been imposed on military matters for the HADR operation. commanders:  on the use of military assets for transportation of and/or 3 C2: Lodger Units. Planners should be aware of any support of OGAs, NGOs, civilians, etc. lodger units within a Joint Task Force Due to recent restructuring of Commanders (JTFC’s) area and  on the use of military assets for security of other governmental NZDF units and camps/bases, ensure they are formally addressed in organisations, non-governmental organisations, civilians, etc. a number of military units OPORD C2 arrangements and located within military region TASKORG for the HADR operation. and support base/camp, no longer come under theObservations and Lessons Learned command of the base/camp commander. This can be problematic if those same unitsSerial Observations Lessons Learned contribute to the wider HADR effort without the knowledge of1 Command and Control (C2) : Ensure any operations/ exercises the military commander Transition from Current occurring at the time NZDF units are appointed to coordinate the Operations to a HADR role. activated for a HADR operation, and military HADR response. no longer able to continue, are The planning and execution of formally cancelled under the name of HADR operations will always that particular operation or exercise, be done in haste especially if not under the name, or in the the event is a sudden and activation Operational Order unexpected one. Confusion (OPORD), for the HADR operation. can arise when military units activated for a HADR operation This will ensure a clear transition of are already engaged in other C2 arrangements from one military operations/exercises. operation/exercise to the next. 50 See Glossary. 75 76 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 39. reconnaissance is underway.4 C2: Lines of Command. Requests and reporting requirements should not be made direct to units Some inconsistencies and without informing intermediate Composition. Decide composition of reconnaissance team – influenced ambiguities in C2 commanders. Correct span of C2 by objectives and assets available. Invite multi-agency arrangements can arise if the must continue to be exercised, even inputs/participation if capacity of reconnaissance assets permit. command chain is not always for HADR operations. followed. Concurrent Activity. Anticipate possible preliminary operations options, with view to possibly activating them during the conduct of the reconnaissance – this to speed up response time to execution of HADR.5 Situational Awareness: Staff Planners must make allowance for Training. time required to process in-coming supplementing staff e.g. to gain Observations and Lessons Learned Supplementary staffs drawn in access clearances, familiarisation to an organisation to fill roster and training in the correct operation systems may have no previous of systems they will use. Serial Observations Lessons Learned or current knowledge of the supported organisations Avoid rapid turnover of attached staff 1 Situational Awareness (SA): Planners must identify appropriate operating systems. This can to mitigate retraining/loss of SA. Street Level Data Mapping. geospatial products – liaise with create a short term burden on NZDF Geospatial Intelligence existing staff and also hinder Some TEs (including crews) Organisation (GIO) – and embed the maintenance of SA. experienced considerable difficulty these with the deployed TEs/TUs. locating designated reference points such as helicopter landing The TEs/TUs and JTF HQ must pads, building sites, sports then be appropriately resourced grounds/parks, key services, etc (equipped and have trained staff)RECONNAISSANCE AND DISASTER NEEDS ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST due to not having deployed with if they are to be capable of appropriate street level mapping applying these GIO products (Op capabilities. The standard NZTM RENA).Check Some planning considerations include: 1:50,000 maps are inappropriate for this level of operations. Command Critical Information Requirements (CCIR). CCIR should be determined and central to the JRT task. They are situation dependant and specified by the Commander, and will initially flow from the mission analysis process. 2 SA: Information Capture. Minimise. All non-essential communication should be During the first few hours of an minimised to free up networks (Op Objectives. Define objectives for the reconnaissance mission. emergency a significant amount of CHCH QUAKE). Objectives stem from CCIR and serve to keep the reconnaissance team communications to, from and focused. within NZDF is by voice JILES. Insist on disciplined use of (telephone/mobile phones) - the Joint Incident Logging Events potential for limited information System (JILES) to ensure key Means. Determine assets available to conduct the reconnaissance (e.g. capture and tracking is very high information capture and timely fixed/rotary wing, maritime, wheeled). and can lead to varying levels of dissemination, thus improving and SA and thus affecting decision- maintaining up to date SA. Communications. Check communication equipment/platform making. Personnel should be assigned and availability and connectivity – secure or non-secure, voice, and dedicated to this. video/digital. Capacity for streaming from the AO into planning HQ. Look for ways to achieve immediate feedback to planning HQ whilst Mission Page. Insist on a Mission Page being created, maintained 77 78 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 40. and appropriately promulgated for use and access by the staff. C. Briefly describe the disaster: (attach additional sheets if necessary) Provide a brief narrative descriptive summary of the disaster. What were its characteristics (magnitude, wind speed, etc.)? How severe is the damage? WhatDISASTER NEEDS ASSESSMENT REPORT is the extent of disaster losses and what are the likely short-term and long-term needs. How many people are affected and how many regions, districts, or cities?Adapted from a format developed by the International Federation of the Red Cross This narrative should be no more than 2 to 4 paragraphs long. You are justand Red Crescent Societies. creating a quick picture of the disaster and the resulting losses and needs.PREPARED BY: LOCATION:Name of person preparing Indicate the date and district / region where thethe report. disaster occurred.YOUR ORGANISATION: REPORT DATE: FILE REFERENCE:Indicate the name of your Indicate the date thatOrganisation / branch. the report is being prepared.When preparing the form, provide the most complete & recent information available.Inaddition, note the source of the data or information. For example, "100 deathsreported by the mayors office." If the information is not known, write, "Notknown at this time."I. THE DISASTERA. Type of Disaster: (Circle one)Cyclone Earthquake Flood LandslideDrought Tsunami Volcanic EruptionChemical Explosion or Spill Other (specify)B. When did the disaster event occur? Indicate the date of occurrence of thedisaster event or "dates" if there were multiple events in succession (e.g.earthquake aftershocks). 79 80 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 41. D. Precise geographic areas and locations impacted (districts, regions, II. DISASTER IMPACTS/EFFECTStowns?)Describe the geographical range involved, including specific areas affected by A. How many people are affected and what percentage of the overallsecondary disasters (e.g. storm surge, landslides, flooding), name the affected population is this number? Indicate the number of people that have beendistricts, cities, towns, villages, etc affected, the source of this information, and then calculate what percentage of the overall population in this area is affected. If possible, also identify the gender, age and other demographic details of the population affected.  Deaths: Indicate how many deaths have been attributed to this disaster.  Injuries: Group/categorise if possible.  Displaced or Evacuated Persons: Also identify where they have gone.  Destroyed homes: Indicate how many homes and dwellings have been destroyed beyond repair.  Damaged homes: Indicate how many homes and dwellings have been partially damaged, but can still be repaired when materials become available. B. What is the physical damage to other property, buildings and infrastructure in the affected area? Indicate the amount of physical damage to business, government or private property buildings (except for homes). C. What is the physical and/or financial damage to crops and livestock? Indicate the amount and extent of physical and financial damage to crops and livestock. 81 82 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 42. D. What are the expected financial damages and costs to businesses in the III. LOCAL AUTHORITY RESPONSEaffected area? Indicate the amount of financial damages and costs thatbusinesses will incur resulting from this disaster. A. What resources and capacities do local civil authorities have for responding to this disaster and how might these resources be used? Indicate these below.E. What is the availability, condition of: roads, bridges, airports, ports,railways, water, gas, electricity, line/mobile/internet communicationsnetworks? If emergency relief supplies will need to be brought in, it is importantto indicate the condition of the transport networks/modes, and locations of existing LOCAL CAPACITY ORor potential ‘choke points’. SUGGESTIONS FOR USE RESOURCE E.g. CDEM Group Coordinate regional CDEM response B. What have local and regional councils done so far in response?F. What is the impact of weather and climate? On aviation and air movement,maritime operations, vehicular movement, relief agencies ability to establishthemselves; relief operations. C. To what extent are the civil authorities coping? 83 84 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 43. D. What impact has the disaster had in terms of law and order issues? C. What is needed immediately and who will supply it? Describe the unmetIndicate if additional security such as cordons, access control, preventing of needs in shelter, water, sanitation, food, household supplies (clothes, blankets,looting, etc will be required and general locations for these. cooking utensils, cooking fuel, etc.) and health (medical supplies, equipment, facilities). Quantify and qualify the targeted needs (for example, 110 adults and 200 children need food and water for at least the next 20 days.) Attach additional sheets as necessary. TO BE SUPPLIED BY:E. What capacity does the emergency/disaster stricken area have to support ITEM QTY REQ’D OGAs (specify) NGOs (specify) OTHERS (specify)a HADR response? Indicate what transport and storage facilities can be madeavailable for immediate use in transporting and storing emergency relief supplies.Consider the possibility of inbound relief operations overwhelming localinfrastructure capacity. V. LONGER-TERM NEEDSIV. IMMEDIATE NEEDS Provide the most complete / up-to-date answers as you A. What will be needed in the longer term (after the first month) and who willcan to these questions: supply it? One should anticipate serious problems or needs that may arise in the coming months resulting from the disaster and potential future events (winter orA. Has a detailed immediate needs assessment been carried out? Attach a rainy season approaching, etc.)copy if available or give a summary of the priority needs below. TO BE SUPPLIED BY: ITEM QTY REQ’D OGAs (specify) NGOs (specify) OTHERS (specify)B. Who carried out the immediate needs assessment? Indicate whoconducted the immediate needs assessment. 85 86 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 44. VI. LEAD AGENCY F. What specific effects / tasks does the Lead Agency request NZDF support? Note the requirement to analyse these tasks before committing resources. Liaison staffs are to manage expectations appropriately.A. Who will be the Lead Agency? Also provide point of contact details (mobile,telephone, email) at National, operational and tactical levels. G. Who will NZDF Task Elements report to and when will the reports be made? Indicate who will be providing situation and emergency operation progress reports and how frequently.B. Give a brief description of what the Lead Agency proposes to do. Indicatewhat the Lead Agency intends to do to respond to this disaster / emergency.Attach additional sheets as necessary. H. What Task Elements are required to facilitate NZDF effects / tasks for the operation and from where can they be obtained? Complete the matrix belowC. What is the proposed duration of the operation? Indicate how long the for each effect / task that is required. Attach additional sheets as necessary.Lead Agency expects to be implementing a disaster / emergency responseoperation. Effect / Task Identify possible TE requirements e.g. Deliver aid to C-130 and crews remote areas ParachutesD. Which other government agencies will support the HADR operation?Identify which OGAs will provide additional resources in support of HADR tasks. UH-1H Helo / Crews 4WD Trucks /Driver Supply TechniciansE. What resources will be required and who will provide it? Indicate whatmateriel and personnel support resources will be required to support theemergency relief operation. 87 88 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 45. VII. TIMELINES MILITARY LIAISON OFFICER ASSIGNMENT/ALLOCATIONWhat are some known, possible, and recommended key timelines that would This table indicates possible military LO assignment / allocation for a major nationalguide the development and deployment of a military HADR response? disaster event such as that applied to the Christchurch Quake. Normally the LO requirement would be significantly less in number and functional representation.  Standing Tasks. Serials 1 to 21 are standing arrangements.  Task/Disaster Dependant. Serials 22 to 42 are deployed if the emergency is a severe and protracted one.VIII. ADDITIONAL COMMENTS, REQUESTS, OR INFORMATION  Self Sufficient. All LOs to be self sufficient in all aspects for at least 72 51 hours.Add any important information not reflected in above sections of this form. Thismight include political context, history of disasters and response in the area, and Serial Receiving Quantity Rank Responsibilityother such contextualizing factors. Element to Fill 1 NCMC 1 LtCol(E)/Maj(E) HQ NZDF (SCI Branch). 2 NCMC 1 Maj(E) HQ JFNZ (Lead LO). 2 hours NTM. 3 NCMC – when 1 Maj(E) HQ JFNZ (DutyAdditional DNA tools: NZDF at LO), rostered. 8  The Disaster Preparedness Toolkit - see Enhanced Battle hours NTM. Rhythm (EBR)  The Sphere Project Handbook 2011 Edition - designed to facilitate planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of humanitarian 4 Northland 1 Offr/WO(E) HMNZS response – see PHILOMEL 5 Auckland 1 Offr/WO(E) 485 Wing RNZAF Auckland 6 Waikato 1 Offr/WO(E) 6 Hau Bn 7 Bay of Plenty 1 Offr/WO(E) 6 Hau Bn 51 DFO 91(1), NZJSP No 102 ‘Plan AWHINA’ 10 Aug 11, page 1-102-B-1, Note 2. 89 90 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 46. Serial Receiving Quantity Rank Responsibility Serial Receiving Quantity Rank Responsibility Element to Fill Element to Fill8 Gisborne 1 Offr/WO(E) 7 WnHB Bn 22 NCMC – when 1 Maj(E) HQ JFNZ (Log NZDF at EBR Advisor) if required for9 Hawke’s Bay 1 Offr/WO(E) 7 WnHB Bn major emergency only.10 Manawatu Offr/WO(E) 1 (NZ) Bde 23 NCMC – when 1 Maj(E) HQ JFNZ (HSS NZDF at EBR Advisor) if required for11 Wanganui 1 Offr/WO(E) 7 WnHB Bn major emergency only.12 Taranaki Offr/WO(E) 7 WnHB Bn 24 NCMC – when 1 WO(E) HQ JFNZ NZDF at EBR (Movements Advisor) if13 Wellington 1 Offr/WO(E) 1(NZ) Bde/TRSB required for major emergency only.14 Tasman 1 Offr/WO(E) 2 Cant Bn 25 Affected regions 1 LtCol(E)/Maj(E) Preferably Mayor affected regions15 Nelson 1 Offr/WO(E) OSW RNZAF military formation Woodbourne (Fmn).16 Marlborough 1 Offr/WO(E) OSW RNZAF 26 Affected regions 2 LtCol (E) Preferably Woodbourne CDEM Group affected regions military Fmn.17 Canterbury 1 Offr/WO(E) 1 (NZ) Bde 27 Affected regions 1 Maj(E) Preferably CDEM Group affected regions18 West Coast 1 Offr/WO(E) 1 (NZ) Bde military Fmn. 28 Affected regions 2 Sqn Ldr / Flt Lt HQ JFNZ19 Otago 1 Offr/WO(E) 4 O South Bn CDEM Group (Air LO) 29 Affected regions 1 Lt Cdr HQ JFNZ20 Southland 1 Offr/WO(E) 4 O South Bn CDEM Group (Maritime LO)21 Chatham Islands 1 Offr/WO(E) 1(NZ) Bde 30 Minister of 1 LtCol(E)/Maj(E) HQ NZDF Defence 91 92 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 47. Serial Receiving Quantity Rank Responsibility Observations and Lessons Learned Element to Fill Serial Observations Lessons Learned31 HQ JFNZ 1 Maj(E) HQ JFNZ 1 Liaison Officers: Participation in multi-agency32 JTF HQ 1 Maj(E) HQ JFNZ Allocation/Assignment. simulated scenario exercises is essential to developing mutual NZDF LO requirement to support a understanding and33 National Police 1 Maj(E) HQ JFNZ significant HADR operation can be organisational awareness. This HQ substantial, and escalate over the will assist HADR supporting course of the initial response, organisations identify34 Affected regions 2 Capt/Lt(E) Preferably depending on the magnitude, coordination points where LOs Central Police HQ affected regions geographical spread of the should be positioned as a military Fmn disaster, and the overall size of the priority, and those that may be LA and OGAs engaged in filled as staff become available.35 Ministry of Health 1 Lt Col J1 HSS or providing support to the (E0/Maj(E) affected regions disaster/emergency. military Fmn The challenge is where to position LOs within the LA, OGAs and36 Affected regions 1 Capt(E)/Maj(E) J1 HSS or NGOs, in order to achieve District Health affected regions maximum mutual benefit Board military Fmn37 Affected regions 1 Capt(E)/Maj(E) Affected regions 2 Situational Awareness: City Military LOs should also be City Council military Fmn or Council’s Resources. deployed to the city councils or JFHQ at the very least establish a City Council’s for large cities such regular pattern of as Christchurch have substantial communication and information38 Disaster Victim 1 Capt(E)/Maj(E) J1 HSS or capacity to gain SA, capacity far in exchange. Identification affected regions excess of that of a CDEM Group. military Fmn39 USAR 1 Capt(E)/Maj(E) J1 HSS or affected regions military Fmn40 St John 1 Capt(E)/Maj(E) Affected regions military Fmn or HQ JFNZ41 Major Lifeline 1 Capt(E)/Maj(E) Affected regions Service Sponsors military Fmn or HQ JFNZ42 Media 1 Capt(E)/Maj(E) DCG 93 94 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 48. MILITARY LIAISON OFFICER CHECKLIST Determine how information will be transmitted, and LO log records that maybe required for post activity reporting. Will the LO use the Joint Incident and Logging Event System (JILES) used by the Joint ControlSending Unit: Before LO departure the Sending Unit should: Centre (JCC) and is it supportable by the communication systems available to the LO?Check Activity Determine: Obtain necessary credentials for identification and appropriate security clearances to gain entry to supported agencies/gaining unit.  How should the liaison arrangements between the LA community and the military be conducted? Become familiar with potential issues, capabilities, employment  Which circumstances call for formal liaison arrangements? doctrine, and operational procedures of their own unit and as far as When is it better to maintain liaison on an ad-hoc basis? possible those of the unit/agency to which they are being sent.  What is the appropriate size and structure of the civil-military liaison component? Become familiar with command relationships of all major elements  When, if ever, should the liaison officers of humanitarian and participating in the operation. military agencies be co-located in the same facility?  C2 arrangements to ensure LOs provided by local military Ensure the LO clearly understand their mission and responsibilities, via formations are placed under OPCON of CTG 650. written guidance if necessary. Thoroughly brief the LO on: Try to make contact with the receiving unit to ensure all reception, and  The current situation of their parent unit embedding arrangements are as expected/anticipated.  The Commander’s intent, including CONOPS (unit locations, activities, CIMIC considerations, etc). Sending Unit: Upon arrival of LO the Receiving Unit should:  The current status, mission/tasks of the unit/agency to which they are being sent. Check Activity  Force protection requirements for current and potential worst-case scenarios anticipated for duration of operation, to Provide guidance and keep the LO informed of the status of necessary include personal protection equipment. administrative, logistical requirements and operations.Check Obtain specific request for information (RFI) from each branch. Ensure that communications with LOs is established and disseminated amongst the sending staff at all levels. Ensure arrangements for communications, computer systems and transportation will meet mission requirements (e.g. check Plan for rotation and deployment as required. communication connectivity between LO, supported agency/gaining unit and supporting agency/gaining unit). Will key LOs have satellites phones, RAS/DIXIS laptop, and ability to sustain power to both? 95 96 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 49. Liaison Officer: Before departure the LO should: Try to make contact with the receiving unit to ensure all reception, and embedding arrangements are as expected/anticipated.Check Activity Obtain full understanding of: Liaison Officer: After arrival at the Receiving Unit/Supported Agency, the LO should:  The Commander’s intent, including CONOPS (unit locations, activities, CIMIC considerations, etc). Check Activity  The current status, mission/tasks of the unit/agency to which they are being sent. Report to the supported commander or representative, state their mission, offer to exhibit any directives or credentials, offer assistance,  Force protection requirements for current and potential worst- and be prepared to brief them on your units situation. case scenarios anticipated for duration of operation, to include personal protection equipment. Establish communications with their parent unit and exchange updated information, as required. Obtain specific RFI from each branch. Establish baseline situational awareness of other organisations with Ensure arrangements for communications, computer systems and LOs conducting similar missions. transportation will meet mission requirements (e.g. check communication connectivity between LO, supported agency/gaining unit and supporting agency/gaining unit). Liaison Officer: During the liaison officer’s tour, the LO should: Ensure they understand how information will be transmitted, and what Check Activity LO log records maybe required for post activity reporting. Be informed of the situation of their own unit and appraise the Obtain necessary credentials for identification and appropriate security commander and staff of the unit to which they are attached. clearances to gain entry to supported agencies/gaining unit. Visit each staff section, provide information as required, and obtain all Become familiar with potential issues, capabilities, employment necessary information (note RFIs) to be transmitted to their unit. doctrine, and operational procedures of their own unit and as far as possible those of the unit/agency to which they are being sent. Report promptly to their own HQ if they are unable to accomplish their LO mission. Become familiar with command relationships of all major elements participating in the operation. Transmit promptly any request of the receiving/supported unit/agency. Ensure they clearly understand their mission and responsibilities, via written guidance if necessary. Transmit information required by higher HQ in each staff area. Obtain any necessary personal protection equipment (e.g. high visibility Attend coordination meetings held by receiving/supported unit/agency vests, hardhats, ear defenders, face masks, etc). (being mindful of some sensitivities that may arise when sensitive matters are being addressed), update the receiving unit/agency of LOs own units situation, and report back to their own HQ any matters Account for personal requirements (e.g. medical, rations, appropriate to maintaining good situational awareness. accommodation) 97 98 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 50. Keep an appropriate record of LO actions and reports. Liaison Officer: Upon return to their own Headquarters/Unit the LO should:Keep their unit and receiving (supported) unit/agency informed of theirlocation and status at all times. Check ActivityThe following are the responsibilities of the LO: Brief the commander/staff on all pertinent information received during their deployment (e.g. detailed information concerning the mission of  Monitor. LOs are to monitor operations of the sending unit the receiving unit, future operations and commander’s intent, key (their unit) and the receiving (supported) unit/agency and personalities, key points that improve their own units situational understand how each influences the other. LOs must know awareness, and matters that would improve the effectiveness of their the current and planned operations, understand pertinent staff units mission accomplishment, etc). issues, and understand their commander’s intent. The HQ JFNZ battle/operational rhythm in part drives the LOs daily schedule and allows them to maintain the current situation Conduct After Action Review (AAR) including lessons learned and any and better advise their commanders. proposals for improved liaison activities.  Coordinate. LOs help synchronise current operations and future planning between their sending and their receiving Observations and Lessons Learned units/agencies. They also achieve this by coordinating with other LOs and other organisations. Successful coordination requires a collaborative process that enhances Serial Observations Lessons Learned communication – there is a lot to be gained through displays of simple courtesies, respect, and handshaking accompanied 1 LOs: Communication Links. Military VHF communications is by a smile. severely limited and not realistic for Achieving sustainable and LOs.  Advice. The receiving unit will expect the LO to be an expert reliable communications across on their own units situation and capabilities. They must be the disaster area between LOs Key LOs should be issued with proactive in providing the supported staff with relevant and HQ’s can be problematic. satellite phones and the ability to information, and if they do not have it, getting it. sustain power to the set, as well as Cellular and landline networks NZDF laptop with Remote Access  Assist. LOs accomplish their mission without actively are often not available System (RAS) token to gain and becoming involved with their receiving units/agency’s staff immediately after a disaster or maintain communications, SA and procedures or actions. They provide assistance to their emergency – land lines and optic exercise coordination in the event receiving unit/agency by providing information and facilitating cables can be cut and the cellular cellular and power failures. coordination. Personal tasking of the LO usually remains the network temporarily overloaded. preserve of the sending unit and may even be covered in the command and control section of MOUs, inter-agency support 2 LOs: Resourced For Role. Equipment. A LO pack-up kit that agreements, military orders and directives. allows an LO to deploy at short A number of LOs were deployed notice without additional support with insufficient resources to should be developed. The pack-up perform their LO function. Some should also note cell phone were not resourced to remain coverage can be intermittent with their designated supported immediately after a disaster. agency even for a minimum of 72 hours. SOP/Aide-Memoire. The production of an SOP or LO Aide- Memoire would assist rapid orientation and effectiveness in role performance. 99 100 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 51. LO Released for Task. If LOs are to be effective they must be 9. Manage and Maintain – plan for 10. Report/Record – determine released from their normal rotation and modification of LO/LT information capture and recording base/unit duties so they can fully arrangements. policy. commit to the LO function. FORCE PROTECTION CHECKLISTBroad steps to establishing and managing the liaison process Check Activity1. Main Effort – for HADR operations 2. Early Deployment - LOs and/orthe main effort shifts from military-to- Liaison Team (LT) are key to the timely Has an overall risk assessment been conducted?military contacts to military-to-civilian and regular exchange of information.contacts. The aim of the LO/LT is to optimize interoperability through cooperation, What is the military force responsibility for providing force protection to collaboration, and mutual understanding non-military agencies such as such as OGAs, NGOs and contractors? in order to integrate the capabilities of all parties involved in the HADR Does the military force have sufficient assets and the right equipment operation. and scale of equipment to protect itself?3. Identify – military liaison 4. Co-ordinate – link with the What is the procedure to exchange threat and hazard warnings?coordination centres at all relevant supported agency and seek reciprocallevels, with supported agencies (e.g. liaison arrangements/agreement. Note Within the context of the emergency or disaster at the time, what are theMCDEM) and other key supporting some NGOs may prefer to remain legal, cultural or political requirements that impose force protectionagencies NZDF interfaces with (e.g. autonomous and so not establish formal constraints?NZPOL). liaison links with the military. Are there any national standards/caveats that may impose limitations of5. Select – appropriate rank and 6. Equip – the LO/LT with necessary how the military force conducts business?experienced LO/ LT and establish communication equipment, protectionclear lines of communication. measures, transport, logistic support appropriate for duration of attachment. How, when, and where might force protection requirements change Consider likely environmental and during the operation? occupational health and safety risks they may be exposed to. Does the military force have the ability/capability to assess the intent of individuals potentially imposing a threat? What arrangements can be put7. Brief and Update – ensure LO/LT 8. Deploy – LO/LT. in place to address this?are fully briefed on any prioragreements, capabilities of supported What needs to be protected and to what level (e.g. communicationsand supporting agency; supporting systems, stores areas, personnel health, reputation, etc)?agencies concept for operations, battlerhythm, Commanders Critical What are the potential health risks to the deploying forces? WhatInformation Requirements (CCIRs), medical support is necessary for own forces? What requirement is therelocalities of other LOs/LTs; supported for immunizations (potentially time critical)?agencies key personalities, workpractices, culture, etc. Are there any risks from unexploded ordnance, gas leaks, infrastructure failures, etc? 101 102 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 52. claims (e.g. personnel claiming to have been engaged on a hazardousPERSONNEL SUPPORT SERVICES CHECKLIST incident site (e.g. collapsed building containing asbestos). What is the extent of the systems connectivity (e.g. from incident site, to regional/shipPersonnel admin centre, to NZDF centralised administration centre)? Are the administration centres staffed and resourced for this task?Check Activity What is the rotation plan for the NZDF contingent and FEs? Is there a Has a DNA been completed? Does it assist in guiding personnel rotation and personnel replacement policy? selection; skill set requirements, personal protection requirements? How will HQ JFNZ accurately account for all personnel in the operational Has liaison been established with the LA and OGA to help shape the area? What is the strength management system/personnel tracking policy? NZDF concept for personnel support? Is it robust enough to address the requirements of the mission? Have requirements for special requirements – such as uniforms, Does the personnel information management plan account for the equipment, rationing, immunizations been addressed? summation of personnel status reports including authorised, assigned, and deployed strengths; critical personnel shortages; casualty accounting; and personnel requisitions? What NZDF welfare support is available to NZDF personnel? What morale, welfare and recreation policy exists? Are the postal/telephones/internet services adequate? Does the information management plan/data base give visibility of specialist trade skills held by Reserve Force personnel? Does it have up to date data and personal contact details? What is the leave and stand-down policy for the operation? Is there a need to stagger personnel rotation and replacement to maintain skills set and expertise in the area of operations?Rotation and Strength Management Where and when will personnel reception centres be established to control What is the minimum period all deploying personnel will need to be self and account for the flow of personnel into and out of the area of sufficient for? operations? Are Reserve Force personnel required? What are the periods of notice to Who will be responsible for the administration of all inbound and outbound report for duty? personnel? Has consideration been given to using the Reserve Force to assist NZDF to meet its civil defence obligations? What information is required to be captured for all inbound to operational area and outbound of operational area, personnel? Include information pertinent to Reserve Force personnel and letters of appreciation being sent Consider viewing Reserve Force commitment (even if from another region to employers. of NZ) from a more strategic perspective this would be, for key stakeholders, a measureable value of the Reserve Force and will be seen as a positive return on investment; this would contribute to winning employer support of their employees who are Reservists; this enhances Who will provide and staff this function? Does it have its own replacement wider public support not only of the Reserves but NZDF as a whole; they and rotation plan? bring skills that would add to/enhance the NZDF pool of skills needed to meet CDEM objectives. Should this aspect be managed in a way similar to a Force Extraction Team (FET) for other operational missions? Is there a need to have a inter AO and intra AO personnel tracking system to support administrative actions (e.g. pay and allowances); potential 103 104 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 53. What are the implications of deploying civilian staff in support of these Chaplaincy operations? Check Question/Consideration SupplementaryObservations and Lessons Learned Chaplaincy Support.  What is the chaplain support plan?Serial Observations Lessons Learned Psychology1 Personnel Tracking. This is not a unique NZDF, OGA, or NGO problem. Check Question/Consideration Supplementary Tracking personnel movements between transportation nodes Intermittent communication (eg departure airport and arrival connectivity and network reliability What is the nature of the  Type of event? airport) are generally transparent will pose problems for electronic emergency/disaster? and traceable. However, once tracking options.  Time? deployed into a disaster zone Good team leadership, SA, rapid  Location? the ability to track personnel movements in detail can be risk assessment, information difficult and has implications for dissemination, and the maintenance What information about the  Were any NZDF personnel involved administering potential future of appropriate activity logs, are emergency/disaster is in the event? claims of having been exposed mitigating measures that can be available? to certain hazards (e.g. applied.  How many? asbestos, chemical, The activity logs must be accounted  Where are they now? environmental, etc). for and archived in the event of future claims being made – this  What psychological support have must be addressed in planning. they received?  What psychological support do they require?2 Human Resource Support The level and type of support  What military psychology resources Centre (HRSC). available from the HRSC for HADR are available in the event location? operations must be clarified in Due to recent restructuring operation orders/directives.  How skilled are these resources in within NZDF and the the anticipated psychological establishment of the HRSC response? planners and unit commanders were unsure of what role the HRSC has in supporting HADR What is the military  Is the main focus NZDF personnel operations. This caused some psychologist’s role in or others? frustration, delays and supporting the NZDF response?  What military psychology capabilities misdirected administrative are required? requests. What is the psychological  Are NZDF personnel involved; response required? o In the event? o In the response? 105 106 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 54. o Who are the priority targets?  What effects are the psychology responses required to achieve? o What level of psychological support is required for NZDF  What support is required to personnel? accomplish this mission?  What is the psychologyShould a Psychology  What psychology response is accomplishment, transition andCONOPS be developed/ required? termination strategy?issued?  How is this to be delivered?  What ongoing follow up activities are  What C2 structure is required? required?  Who will oversee the response? What is the NZDF psychology  Are the physical needs of NZDF  How will the response be response? personnel being met first? monitored?  Who is the response to be provided  What support will be put in place for to? the psychologists?  Can the stricken area support responding NZDF psychologists?Who will lead the psychology  What military organisation has theresponse? lead on the response?  Who do the psychologists report to?  Who is the psychologist posted to that unit? What are the necessary  Is there an unusual requirement for timelines to meet psychology psychologists to be on the ground  Does this psychologist have the response requirements? prior to 48 hours post-event? necessary skills to lead the psychology response?  Who is the psychologist who is required immediately to co-ordinate  What additional psychology support and develop psychology responses. is required?  Is on-going training and screening required?Should military psychologists  Which psychologists should bebe deployed? deployed?  What resources exist? What resources need to be developed?  Where to? When? How many?  What is the rotation and sustainment Where will the psychology  Where will the psychology response plan for psychologists? response be provided? be managed from?  Will the responding psychologists beWhat is the psychology  What support is required to based in the event location?mission? accomplish this mission?  Will a response be required in  What is the psychology camps and bases distant from the accomplishment, transition and event location? termination strategy?  What ongoing follow up activities are What are the C2, and  Who is the Command element required? coordination arrangements? responsible for the psychology 107 108 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 55. response? HEALTH SERVICES SUPPORT CHECKLIST  Who is the co-ordinating psychologist outside the immediate General C2 chain of command? Check ActivityWhat internal coordination is  What are the coordinationrequired? mechanisms, hierarchy and responsibilities of the psychology What HSS capabilities are being requested (e.g. primary care, surgical response? specialist augmentation, HSS reconnaissance, aero medical evacuation, casualty evacuation, environmental health)?  What are the liaison requirements – with commanders and co-ordinating What HSS capabilities are required purely to meet force protection psychologists? requirements (e.g. clinical psychology)?  What are the reporting requirements? Is there a HSS representative on the reconnaissance and assessment team?  How will requests from other agencies for psychological support Has a HSS threat assessment been conducted? What are the Force be managed? protection implications? Are these included in the HSS assessment?Other Psychology  What are the courses of action in the What HSS do we need to deploy that will be additional to thoseConsiderations. event the mission is terminated requested, because they are necessary for Force Protection tasks? earlier, or develops into a much extended and prolonged operation? Has a coordinated health services plan been established?  What is the end state? How will follow up be completed and reported Where are our medical/health services capabilities located? upon?  Has the end state and exit strategy What resources are needed to deploy them into the disaster AO? How been articulated? long will it take?  What is the military psychology capacity to support business as Can they integrate/augment OGA and NGO health service delivery? usual, and another disaster event in another part of NZ? Has a health risk analysis for our people been conducted to determine likely health threats (e.g. asbestos, chemical spill exposure, etc)?  What is the impact of this and continued support to Output 16? Is the HSS FE resourced for the tasks? What is the equipment, vehicle  Are there any psychology activities sanitising/cleaning arrangements? Is there appropriate transport to move that were planned to occur now in children, elderly, infirmed, etc? What about waste and blood disposal etc? need of postponement? What LO links will be established, and with what OGA and NGO? Is it sustainable? Are the LOs the appropriate personnel? Are transport assets (air, road, sea) configured to permit rapid, safe, evacuation of civilians with needs for varying levels of medical support? 109 110 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 56. Should we have different inter AO movement pipelines (e.g. one configured for high dependency evacuees, and another for self- supporting/low dependency evacuees)? INITIAL HEALTH ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST Check ActivityHealth Protection Determine the access that humanitarian agencies have to the disasterCheck Activity affected population. Are our personnel qualified IAW NZ environmental health certification Determine the total size of the disaster-affected population (age, sex requirements? Note personnel qualified to undertake/perform breakdown, elderly, disabled, etc). environmental health services for NZDF overseas maybe required to meet more stringent criteria when performing the same functions in NZ. Determine the average household size. Has a hazardous material assessment been completed (e.g. food Identify existing risks to health (e.g. potential pandemic diseases). hygiene, heat stress, water quality, hazardous materials)? Determine climatic conditions; identify geographic features; ascertain What are the threats? Has an assessment of current environmental local disease epidemiology; assess access to affected population. conditions – such as water and soil contamination – epidemiological surveys, and diseases risk been completed and has that data been shared with OGAs and NGOs? Assess local, regional and national food supplies (quantity, quality, and types), distribution systems, coordination and services of existing organisations, logistics of food transport and storage, feeding From a technical and qualifications standard perspective, is there a point programmes and access to local supplies. at which military environmental health personnel are subordinate to their civilian counterparts? For example can military environmental health personnel certify military engineer water winning, purification and Assess existing shelters and availability of local materials for shelter, distribution? access, building sites, topography and drainage, blankets, etc. Is the military force environmental health personnel correctly qualified? Is Identify and assess water sources, quantity, quality, transport and there a different level of qualification/criteria required of military storage. environmental health personnel when engaged in CD emergency or disaster operations compared to stability operations in less developed Determine the capacity of the MoH / DHBs to respond to the health countries? needs of the affected population. What are the implications for mortuary operations? Identify and assess local health services including: access to facilities, health personnel, interpreters, types of facilities/structures, water, refrigeration, generators at facilities, drug and vaccine supplies. Determine the status of national health facilities, including the total number by type of care provided, physical status and access. Assess the quantity, availability and sustainability of transport, fuel, food, and storage of food, vaccines, blood products and other medical consumable supplies. 111 112 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 57. Determine the status and reliability of existing health information Health care needs. There should be approximately one small clinic per systems. 10,000 - 35,000 people and there should be one referral hospital facility with surgical capacity for every 250,000-500,000 people. Mortality and morbidity should be monitored using generally accepted internationalRAPID NEEDS ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST standards and methods (e.g. Sphere minimum standards).Check Activity Fuel needs. Access of people to firewood, coal or other fuel is often overlooked in needs assessments. There is no general rule for calculating the needs, since climate, traditions and quality of fuel vary Number of affected people requiring assistance. This figure will considerably. Assessments should specify what type of fuel is determine all other estimates and calculations, and therefore needs to appropriate, where to get it, how to transport and distribute it and an be established as precisely as possible. estimate of the need. Water needs. Ideally each person should be provided with 15 litres of potable water per day to cover drinking, cooking and personal hygiene Observations and Lessons Learned needs. For hospitals the target is 100 litres per person per day for patients and staff. There should be one water point per 250 people and the maximum distance from any shelter to the nearest water point Serial Observations Lessons Learned should be 500 metres. Each family should have two water collecting vessels of 10-20 litres, plus water storage vessels of 20 litres. 1 Health: Qualifications. NZDF DMTP qualified medics and NOs can treat civilians within the NZDF medics or Nursing Officers constraints of their individual Shelter needs. If using tents, calculate one tent for 4-6 people—ideally (NOs) are not to provide non- of the same family. Decide whether you need summer or winter tents. protocols, if authorised to do so by emergency health care to a registered medical practitioner Do they have to be waterproofed or coated? Can locally made civilians, even if they are Defence emergency shelters be used instead? Is an extra roof for protection either through direct supervision Medical Treatment Protocol or a written indemnity order, and against heat or rain needed? Should a canvas floor be included? Are (DMTP) qualified, unless it is a plastic sheets needed for roofing? If using public buildings, calculate 3.5 such treatment is subject to life-saving situation. Until that had informed consent (in writing m2 of floor space for every person. Is shelter heating planned? If yes, been addressed, NZDF medics with kerosene or diesel stoves? MD1195) on each occasion. See and NOs were of limited ‘medical HQ JFNZ J1 SOP 10-75. services value’ to the public in Nutritional needs. A food ration ideally should provide a minimum of general and the supported. The Director Defence Health is 2,100 Kilocalories per person per day. The survival energy level for an able authorise this. adult is a minimum of 1,000 kilocalories per day. For supplementary feedings add what is needed to reach the total of 2,100 kilocalories per This authorisation must be sought day, as well as special food to treat severely malnourished individuals. as soon as possible when military Monitor malnutrition using international standards (e.g. Sphere minimum medics and NOs are identified and standards) and methods such as weight-for-height, etc. mobilized for HADR responses. Sanitation needs. Maximum of 20 people per toilet. Use of toilets is arranged by household and/or segregated by sex. Toilets should be no more than 50 metres from dwellings or no more than a one minute walk. Toilets should be at least 30 metres away from any groundwater sources and the bottom of the latrine should be at least 1.5 metres above the water table. Containers or a system must exist for disposing of solid waste. One 100-litre refuse container should be available per 10 families where domestic refuse is not buried on site. Identify the need and methods for vector control (flies, rats, etc). 113 114 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 58. ensured TEs/TUs were able to2 Health: Integration With Integration with civilian emergency engage in their HADR tasks with OGAs/NGOs. processes and organisations would minimal delay. Some LAs may be more rapid and effective if not have a well prepared HTA Integration can be slow at the NZDF medical staff undertake outset as personnel orientate and capability as NZDF and may training with civilian Accident and leverage from NZDF. become familiar with Emergency departments and St organisations they interface with, John. be it as augmenters or as the 5 Use of Civilian Infrastructure. Maximum use should be made of next link in the chain of medical civilian medical infrastructure support. During Op RENA civilian medical where possible. This will reduce the infrastructure was not impacted military footprint in the disaster like that during Op CHCH zone, avoid unnecessary expense,3 Health: Health Protection. During the planning stage J1 QUAKE. In cases like this civilian Health must seek this designation and release operational capability NZDF Environmental Health infrastructure and services should for deployment on other tasks. from MoH for NZDF environmental be encouraged in order to Specialists (EH Specs) are not and occupational specialists who normally designated as Health release military operational are expected to operate in a civilian capability for deployment on Protection Officers (HPO)/EHO capacity. for the purposes of civilian other tasks. legislation. During a disaster or emergency it has become accepted practice for the MoH to designate LOGISTIC SUPPORT AND SERVICES CHECKLIST appropriately qualified NZDF personnel as HPO for the Planning duration of the emergency when operating in a civilian environment. Check Activity Case and point was the Op Has a disaster needs assessment been completed? Does it assist in CHCH QUAKE where NZDF EH guiding personnel selection; skill set requirements, personal protection Specs engaged in water testing requirements? and sanitary issues (sewage and solid waste disposal) had to first get MoH designation as HPO Has liaison been established with the LA and OGA to help shape the before they could legally continue NZDF concept for logistic support? employment in this role. What military logistic capabilities are required?4 Health Threat Assessment HTA must be completed at the (HTA). earliest opportunity, preferably Are they sufficient to meet the task? before TEs/TUs are deployed. Early deployment of a qualified HTA team meant the JTF HQ got HTA information should be shared What facilities, structures, services are available in the AO? What of timely advice and was able to with OGAs/NGOs. these will require preparation? How long will that take? Can these be ensure the TEs/TUs received supplemented with either ‘floating’ or a tented camp? What resources appropriate briefings, information are required to improve these? and personal protection equipment (PPE) before Will a logistic services representative be included in the AO deployed to the disaster zone. reconnaissance? This worked well (Op RENA) and 115 116 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 59. What are the logistic information requirements? Is the military cost capture in sufficient detail to support cost recovery? Who are the likely OGA and NGO with whom the military may establish What are the logistic and associated funding issues during transition and liaison links? transfer from military to civilian organisations? What is the capacity within the AO to provide services being sought from What are the procurement / funding policies for disaster relief the military? operations? What capacity is there within the AO to be contracted by the military (for NZDF support) if required? Transportation/Movement Control What is the logistic requirement to support a deployed force and what Check Activity capacity will be available to support a civil defence request? For how long? Is there any surge capacity? What are the movement control processes at the ‘losing end’ and ‘gaining end’, nodes? What are the disposal arrangements for general military waste? Austere times may follow a disaster and what is considered normal routine waste What will be the modes of transport used by the military? in other times, may not be viewed the same by a disaffected public. What modes of transport will be available to resupply the force? What is the capacity of each? Are there any time/duration, platform typeCommand and Control limitations?Check Activity Is logistics over the shore available and is it necessary? What liaison links have been established? What sea ports, airports, roads, rail routes and terminals are available? Will any of these be congested by a departing populace or unavailable What information sharing capabilities does the military logistic due to damage sustained in the disaster? organisation have? To what extent will the deployed FE have visibility of the NZDF inventory What capacity is there for commercial air transport and sealift support? and stock holdings? How will military transportation services be tasked in support of OGAs To what extent will the military logistic organisation have visibility of and NGOs? asset and stores movement through its supply chain and all transport nodes? Are there appropriate and sufficient transport assets to support the force and also undertake directed civil defence tasks (e.g. elderly peopleFunding evacuation, infants, pregnant mothers, bed ridden cases, animals, deceased persons, etc).Check Activity What methods and documentation are required to record all expenditure? 117 118 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 60. Animal Welfare FUNDING ISSUES CHECKLISTCheck Activity Check Activity What role does the military have regarding animal welfare? (None, but it What are the likely DLOC activities that might be affected or cancelled is included here so that it is raised early in the planning process). due to the operation? What are the budget implications? What are the financial delegations?Observations and Lessons Learned What funding facilities are available (e.g. credit, cash, vendor account,Serial Observations Lessons Learned implementing agreements, others)?1 Use of Military Infrastructure. HADR response support can be By what means are goods and services paid? long duration and remain in A considerable portion of operation long after the NZDF has Burnham Military Camp (BMC) What are the cost capture and apportioning arrangements for the withdrawn from the disaster relief operation? was used to support not only the operation. military response to Op CHCH QUAKE, but also that of OGAs Military planners must take into Are the cost capture and apportioning arrangements well understood by (e.g. NZPOL), VIPs, overseas account an on-going need for daily cost centre managers? military contingents (e.g. SAF, access to any HADR facilities ADF) and specialist capabilities established within the boundaries Are there any special reporting arrangements/requirements? such as the DVI, temporary of military camps/bases and the mortuary, etc. need for on-going access by operators and associated OGAs Will the cost capture system be deployable/operational in the disaster and NGOs. affected area? During Christchurch Quake this Military planners need to be included the use of the Camp What limitations are being imposed on the deployed JTF HQ? mindful of the impact increased Cinema, Simulation Centre, civilianisation and third party barrack accommodation and logistics arrangements may have What methods and documentation are required to record all tents. on the continued availability of expenditure? base/camp infrastructure Is the military cost capture in sufficient detail to support cost recovery? What are the logistic and associated funding issues during transition and transfer from military to civilian organisations? What move arrangements, if any, and cost implications are in place or needed? What are the reconstitution costs? 119 120 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 61. LEGAL ADVISERS CHECKLIST It may become necessary to employ civilian staff members on HADR operations. Be prepared to advise on any issues that may arise with this course of action.Check Activity What environment hazards will personnel be exposed to when deployed Identify the principle legislation of the LA. Do they have their own on the disaster relief operation? Identify ways in which these hazards specialist legal advisers? can be removed or minimised. Identify a system and record exposure to hazards (such as toxic fumes, asbestos) for reference in the ongoing How will the necessary legal support to the deployed JTFC/HQ best be medical management of personnel. provided - HQ NZDF, HQ JFNZ or embedded Legal Advisor? Allegations from the public may arise relating to misconduct by military Establish a legal chain of command/responsibility, and a Chief Legal personnel in respect to law enforcement issues, dishonesty, looting or Advisor, as necessary. other matters. Is an arrangement with NZPOL necessary to correctly capture and manage allegations? How can incorrect perceptions and expectations by OGAs and the public regarding the nature and purpose of the military mission be prevented? Law Enforcement Are there any real estate leasing/use requirements? Check Activity Is there a claims regime in place with the LA to provide for claims against NZDF arising from inadvertent damage, incidental to What is the legal basis under which the military force will provide operations? assistance in a law enforcement role? Identify the requested/mandated logistic assistance to non-military Identify the powers of arrest, search etc that are most likely to be organisations and any necessary cost recovery or liability issues that relevant to personnel present in the affected area. could arise. Be prepared to advise on the likely requests, and legal basis by which What are the implications of NZDF hosting any allied military elements assistance can be provided. deployed to NZ to assist with a HADR operation? Is the standard Rules of Conduct (ROC) sufficient for the specific What, if any limitations are there hiring locally employed civilians operation? Prepare necessary amendments for approval based on the (LECs)? exigencies of the current operation. Military vehicles, aircraft, and ships will be used to transport civilian Prepare and schedule training of personnel on the ROC card, and evacuees, OGAs, NGOs, contractors, and LECs. Identify any specific factors (use of force, powers of entry, arrest etc) relevant to the requests issues that require addressing for transporting non-military personnel. for assistance and likely duties. The loan or lease of military equipment to civilians or OGAs may be requested. What steps will need to be taken to protect NZDF interests if this is to be accommodated? What legal support, if any is required to be provided to the NZDF deceased victim identification and mortuary task elements? 121 122 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 62. Armed Forces. Observations and Lessons Learned 3. Defence Act (DA) section 5 (e) provides that one of the reasons for which Armed Forces are raised in New Zealand is the provision of assistance to the Serial Observations Lessons Learned civil power in times of emergency. DA s 5 (f) provides that the Armed Forces are also raised for the provision of any public service. DA s 9(1) provides that 1 Rules of Conduct (ROC). More comprehensive ROC training the Armed Forces may be used to: needs to occur to ensure all deployed A ROC Card was developed in personnel understand their  perform any public service; or consultation with HQ JFNZ and rights/responsibilities.  provide assistance to the civil power in time of emergency. issued to the deployed FE. The NZDF received no extra powers ROC can be drafted in advance of 4. No specific legal authority is required for the provision of assistance to the for Op CHCH QUAKE - the disaster events and would only need Police except in respect of that category of public service relating to industrial powers available for use by amending to reflect the specific disputes as set out in DA s 9(2) or in respect of that class of emergency NZDF personnel were exactly disaster response requirements. This requiring policing powers set out in DA s 9(3) and s 9(4). Because of the the same powers that are will ensure military personnel can constitutional sensitivity, however, it is usual to advise the Minister of Defence, available to all members of the deploy at short notice with ROC Minister of Police and Prime Minister when significant assistance to the Police public. especially in the initial period after the is contemplated even though there is no legal requirement to do so. disaster when looting and disorder The key issue was the lack of occur. PROVIDING ASSISTANCE TO THE POLICE understanding and training in the use of this type of ROC, and how it translates at the 5. Policing Act 2008 s 51 provides that a Police employee in the lawful execution tactical level not only for the of his or her duty may, if it is reasonably necessary in the circumstances, ask military but also OGA such as a person who is 18 years old or older to help the Police employee apprehend Police. This led to some minor or secure a person and or convey a person in the employee’s charge to a issues around interoperability Police station or other place. A person who fails to give help commits an which were resolved generally offence. through a pragmatic approach. 6. Crimes Act s 317 provides that where any constable is authorised by the Crimes Act or by any other enactment to arrest any person without warrant,SUMMARY OF RELEVANT STATUTORY PROVISIONS that constable, and all persons whom he calls to his assistance, may enter on any premises, by force if necessary, to arrest that person if the constable has found that person committing any offence punishable by imprisonment and is1. The following is a summary of statutory provisions that are relevant to freshly pursuing that person; or has good cause to suspect that that person operations in support of law enforcement and public order and is not a has committed any such offence on those premises. substitute for legal advice. Each scenario in which members of the Armed Forces are acting in such a role will be unique, and the advice of a legal 7. Furthermore any constable, and all persons whom he calls to his assistance, adviser will need to be obtained in order for members of the Armed Forces may enter on any premises, by force if necessary, to prevent the commission deploying in such roles to be appropriately trained and briefed on the use of of any offence that would be likely to cause immediate and serious injury to powers available, as is likely to be applicable in the situation. any person or property, if the constable believes, on reasonable and probable grounds, that any such offence is about to be committed.POWERS AVAILABLE TO MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES 8. Crimes Act s 34(1) provides that every one called upon by a constable to2. There is a long-standing constitutional convention, which has its roots in the assist in the arrest of any person believed or suspected to have committed Magna Carta and the Bill of Rights (UK)1688, requiring caution in using any offence is justified in assisting unless he knows that there is no members of the Armed Forces in a law enforcement role in respect of NZ reasonable ground for the belief or suspicion. “Justified”, in relation to any citizens. Law enforcement is principally the responsibility of NZPOL – not the person, means not guilty of an offence and not liable to any civil proceeding. 123 124 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 63. use such force as is reasonably necessary to prevent the commission of9. A constable has broad powers to call upon members of the Armed Forces to an offence which would be likely to cause immediate and serious injury to assist in the arrest of a person who has committed serious offences or to the person or property of any one – including suicide. (Crimes Act s 41). prevent further offences. Members of the Armed Forces have equally broad legal protection while doing so. In such circumstances, however, it is the  Suppression of a Riot - A member of the Armed Forces is justified in constable who holds the requisite authority, and the member of the Armed following orders unless manifestly unlawful. He or she may use such force Forces is only empowered to act in assistance to that constable and in as is necessary to suppress a riot if the force is not disproportionate to the accordance with the constable’s requests. danger to be apprehended from the continuance of the riot. (Crimes Act s 43, s 45 and s 47).HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES EMERGENCY  To Prevent a Breach of the Peace - A Service member is justified in interfering to prevent continuance or renewal of a breach of the peace. He10. If a constable, acting as an enforcement officer, has reasonable grounds to or she may use no more force than is reasonably proportionate to the believe that there is actual or imminent danger to human health or safety on danger apprehended. A Service member may detain any person he or she premises arising from the presence of explosives, and that the emergency finds committing breach of peace or who is handed over by a person who powers under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 has witnessed a breach of the peace. (Crimes Act s 42). (HSNO) should be exercised to deal with that danger, he or she may declare a hazardous substances emergency.  Arrest - A member of the Armed Forces is justified in arresting any person whom he or she finds by day committing a Crimes Act offence punishable by more than three years imprisonment. This includes all serious offences11. Once such an emergency is declared under HSNO s137 the constable may: likely to be associated with a terrorist threat or incident such as occurred in  Enter the premises without warrant, using reasonable force if necessary. Napier. At night-time a member may arrest any person whom he or she finds committing any crime, or whom he or she finds in circumstances  Search for and seize the explosives. affording reasonable and probable grounds for believing that the person is committing a crime. The proviso to Crimes Act s.39 provides that a person  Enforce a cordon around the premises. is not justified in using force “intended to cause death or grievous bodily  Destroy any thing to prevent or limit the extent of the emergency. harm” in these circumstances.  Request any person to take any action to prevent or limit the extent of  Necessity - The courts have also recognised a common law justification of the emergency. necessity by which a person may enter the land or building of another in circumstances which would otherwise amount to a trespass if he or she believes in good faith and upon grounds which are objectively reasonable12. If a request under s 137 is directed to members of the Armed Forces (eg 1st that it is necessary to do so in order (1) to preserve human life, or (2) to NZ Explosive Ordnance Squadron), no other statutory authorisation is needed prevent serious physical harm arising to the person of another, or (3) to to act, because they are not exercising a Police power in complying with the render assistance to another after that other has suffered serious physical request under HSNO. harm. 52OTHER POWERS AVAILABLE TO MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES 14. Furthermore it is an offence under DA s 83 for a person to obstruct a member of the armed forces in the performance of his or her duties.13. When not exercising the powers available to the Police, or assisting at the request of the Police, members of the Armed Forces have the same powers, protections and liabilities as members of the public. Those powers are not insubstantial. They include:  Self-Defence and Defence of Another - A member of the Armed Forces may use such force as, in the circumstances as that Service member believes them to be, it is reasonable to use in the defence of himself or another person. (Crimes Act s 48).  Prevention of Certain Offences - A member of the Armed Forces may 52 Dehn v Attorney-General [1988] 2 NZLR 564, 580; R v Fraser [2005] 2 NZLR 109, 118. 125 126 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 64. WARRANTED/DELEGATED POWERS MEDIA/PUBLIC INFORMATION CHECKLIST15. Legislation such as the Local Government Act of 1974 and the Maritime Check Activity Transport Act 1994 enable the appointment of enforcement officers to hold a wide range of powers. The specific powers to be exercised will be stipulated Has a DCG Media LO been appointed? in the instrument of appointment, and should be referred to a legal advisor on receipt. Who is the LA point of contact for media matters? Who is the official spokesperson for NZDF? Has a coordinated media plan been established?  Are there any overarching public information (PI) goals in the media plan?  Has a military PI coordination office been established? Where, when, and by whom?  Have military spokespersons/media LOs been appointed at the various levels e.g. strategic, operational, and tactical?  Does the media plan state the military procedures for the release of information concerning the military force and what military information is releasable to the media?  What is the media policy/plan regarding military personnel using social media e.g. Facebook whilst deployed on operations?  How can we ensure, or gain credibility for a humanitarian operation (that uses military assets) when the operation is under the control of another agency?  How do we intend to manage this without detracting from the mission, adding to our own logistical requirements, increasing expenditure, or creating an extra training overhead?  How will public appearances with TV, and radio be coordinated to ensure military gain credibility for its part in the operation, whilst also being mindful of sensitivities and fostering continued good working relationships with lead and other supporting agencies?  What are the official responses to media questions, and is there a schedule to review and update them?  Will media representatives be embedded with the military?  Who will approve NZDF media releases? 127 128 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 65.  How will the PI plan results be measured? Media coverage is likely to fall into the following phases. Note that the terminology used below for the phases are not standard butIs there a crisis management plan to handle controversial issues with conceptualises what the media focus is likely to be in the first two weekspotential negative impact on the military? of a HADR operation.  What actions or procedures will be adopted? Phase 1: (Days 1-7): Initial Impact, Disaster Scope, Emotive Phase:  Have potential negative media impact issues been identified and media responses prepared. For example public reaction to Initial disaster reports/stories on the ground, shock and emotive stories, LAV’s moving within urban areas, swivelling turrets as vehicle initial aid relief arriving in country. Other stories included the homeless, optics are being brought to bear; patrol orders of dress, foot deaths, initial aid provision including water, sanitation, body recovery, patrol formations, checkpoint construction; military actions environmental health etc. From an NZDF perspective, how fast did we perceived as over bearing, intimidating, or aggressive; waste respond, who did we deploy initially, what other agencies are we working disposal arrangements, note austere times may follow a with, aerial imagery, video interviews etc? disaster and what is consider normal routine waste in other times, may not be viewed the same by a disaffected public, etc? Phase 2: (Days 8 – 14): Rebuild, Recovery and Blame Phase:  How can incorrect perceptions and conclusions regarding the Media normally exhaust the Phase 1 stories and start to look for different nature and purpose of the military mission be prevented? angles. Rebuild, recovery and blame assignment for why things were or weren’t being done. Are there any potentially negative NZDF stories  When and how should we verify information? during Phase 1 that could come to light during Phase 2?  What negative impacts might a sizeable military contingent Phase 3: (Day 15 plus): Long Term Rebuild and Recovery Phase: have on entering a devastated area? What measures are being The long term effort to rebuild the country. What is the NZDF exit implemented to mitigate that? strategy? How long will NZDF assets remain in support?Should we use social media as a tool to support our media campaign?Will civilian PR staff be deployed or will it only be uniformed PR staff? Media Team Tasks. Tasks to be performed by the Media Team include:  Provision of situational awareness of media activities andAre there appropriate media briefing facilities at every level? Are there interest on the ground.any access clearance issues?  Development of media relations with all local and internationalWhat are the post operations/post activity report requirements? media.  Provision of daily NZDF media activity advisories to local andOther Factors For Consideration: international media.Planning Phase:  Coordination of media to NZDF elements conducting tasks throughout the AO.  A Media Team should deploy with the initial response team into the disaster area. The composition includes, a Senior Media  Capturing imagery of NZDF activities and sending them back Adviser in "uniform" in addition to a photographer/videographer to HQ JFNZ and DCG for the writing and releasing of media as a minimum. releases.  The Media Team must be co-located with the deployed FE HQ.  Capturing imagery of disaster affected areas for NZDF and outside organisation use.  A series of key messages need to be developed for NZDF personnel on the ground.  Capturing information and images for NZDF personnel for hometown profiles. 129 130 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 66.  Liaison with other NZ government media advisers in order to provide a collaborative media output. 3 Media: Media Package and DCG A generic media package/ brief Support. with key messages must be  Provision of media advice to JTFC on NZDF media risks and available and produced well in The sudden deployment of a advance of any disaster event – it mitigation thereof. military contribution to a disaster would only need amending when event can be initiated with little needed, to reflect the specific warning. disaster response requirements.Observations and Lessons Learned This will assist speed of reaction and readiness to respond to earlySerial Observations Lessons Learned media demand. A DCG Public Relations Officer1 Media: Social Media. The use of social media should not (PRO) should be attached to the be discouraged as it can contribute The domestic (and international) deployed JTF HQ at the outset and to maintaining SA. interest in and appetite for partner with the regional military information on the military’s Media plans must clearly address PRO. This will provide a level of response to a disaster/emergency the use of social media. specialist media savvy and can be intense. Web and social sustainable presence and media network (Twitter, You engagement. Tube, etc) continue to provide the quickest means by which widest possible dissemination of information can occur.2 Media: Perception Military planners must be mindful Management. that some aspects of military operations whilst considered The sudden appearance of benign can be for a population not armoured vehicles, soldiers, normally exposed to these sights helicopters overhead, soldiers and sounds, very unsettling. In this building sand bagged checkpoints context, without proper media and wire barriers on street management, they have the corners, LAV turrets traversing as potential to detract from positives they make use of the achieved in other areas. optics/sights, soldiers wearing night vision goggles (NVG), etc all The early deployment of a DCG have the potential to cause alarm media team, and inclusion of this for some members of the public in element in operational planning, is the immediate aftermath of a essential to ensuring timely media significant disaster event. In their releases and public awareness disorientated state such sudden messages being promulgated via appearances can be viewed as radio, TV, etc, to ensure these indicative of a state of martial law messages are released before the being enforced. Conversely, for event causes negative reception. some sectors of the community these sights and sounds can be as reassuring. 131 132 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 67. DISASTER VICTIM IDENTIFICATION and MORTUARY CHECKLIST What are the essential services and improvements needed to establish the DVI/mortuary e.g. tradesmen (carpenters, plumbers, electricians for reefers, power generation for reefers, bio-hazard for waste disposal),Note: The NZDF only has a limited Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) and mortuary site security, staff facilities, religious services, psychologists, messing,capability. NZDF resources provided to the Op CHCH QUAKE temporary DVI and accommodation, recreational/breakout area, computer and internetmortuary were essentially building facilities, power, and waste collection services; services, communications, etc?there was also a small number of NZDF personnel who augmented the NZ Police(NZPOL) led operation. From all accounts NZPOL welcomed NZDF augmentation as What are the waste/ human remains disposal arrangements?it released their qualified staff from DVI/mortuary support tasks which could beundertaken by NZDF personnel who had limited mortuary affairs training - the few What are the functional areas requirements e.g. Liaison staff,NZDF DVI qualified dental staff were an exception. The DVI/mortuary facility was not Information Centre, Coroners Office, field DVI processing building/area,equipped by the military – it was equipped by NZPOL, as the LA. This Checklist field mortuary building/area, breakout areas, etc?should be considered in the context of this information. What are the funding arrangements?Planning Has EARLLS been checked for PAR’s and recommendations?Check Activity Response Plans/SOPs. Who will form the DVI Command Team? Who is the LA?  NZDF DVI Response Plan – held by Dental Directorate HQ NZDF. When will they hold their coordination briefing?  NZDF Mortuary SOPs (for management of deceased on What functional areas will make up the DVI, e.g. pathology, odontology, operations overseas) – held by J4, HQ JFNZ. DNA? The response plans/SOPs contain checklists for these specialist functions. What other agencies are involved - NZPOL, Victim Support, Funeral Directors, Urban Search and Rescue, Coronial services, MoH, NZDF, overseas DVI elements, etc? Temporary Mortuary Facility Services Will a temporary/field mortuary be required? Who is the LA for this? Check Activity When will they hold their coordination briefing? Are responsibilities defined? What are the linkages with a qualified undertaker, mortuary service? What is the relationship between the DVI and the temporary mortuary? What is the over arching legislation? What are the management arrangements between the DVI LA and mortuary LA? Currently the National DVI team (under NZPOL) manage Who will staff the military mortuary facility? Are our personnel the temporary mortuary if the disaster is in NZ. Will NZDF be trained/qualified? Where are they? augmenting the LAs? If so, what are the management arrangements and division of responsibilities? How long can they deploy for before requiring relief or rotation? Do we have back-up teams? Where will the field DVI and mortuary be established? If inside a NZDF camp facility what are the access implications for the DVI/mortuary staff? Where will the temporary mortuary be established? 133 134 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 68. What are the mortuary facility security access issues for family who areentitled to be present when the body is released? Note this is anemotional time and there is a need for sensitivity in managing this.Is there appropriate consideration of privacy for the Next of Kin (NOK)?Will the military temporary mortuary facility be adequately resourced(e.g. body bags, refrigeration, appropriate transport to evacuateremains, venue security)? Do we need to consider contracting asupplier for some services, e.g. additional refrigeration, transportation?Is this available in the AO?What are the protective clothing laundry requirements?What are the waste disposal arrangements?What religious faith issues need consideration/addressing? The field DVI and mortuary facility for MP Security Christchurch Quake 11 was established inside aWhat capacity is the facility expected to cater for? Tent on gate vehicle hanger and compound in BurnhamWhat equipment is required and where is it? Observations and Lessons LearnedWhat are the military, NZPOL, civilian contractor, interfacearrangements? Serial Observations Lessons LearnedWhat are the implications should this facility be required to remain 1 Disaster Victim Identification NZPOL is the LA for this specialistoperational for an extended period of up to six months or more? (DVI). area and NZDF deploys in a supporting role - this arrangementHow will the DVI/mortuary elements communicate with tasking agencies The national DVI response is proved very effective for Op OPand command elements? managed as a multi-agency CHCH QUAKE. response by NZPOL as LA. The national field mortuary was The NZDF has a limited DVI developed by national DVI team capability. There is limited members using experience from equipment and some staff. The the Asian Tsunami and Victorian capability has been established as Bushfires – the decision as to a necessary capability to support which agency will take the lead military operations - there needs to for this capability is pending. be a formal arrangement between the Police national DVI team and the NZDF as to how this area should be addressed for future HADR events. 135 136 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 69. TU Commander down to the cordon checkpoints must be addressed and The military DVI response plan is The DVI (and temporary mortuary) clarified during planning. held and managed by the Dental operation was impressive and Directorate. effective. However, the NZDF contribution for Op CHCH QUAKE amounted to the provision of a Early Liaison And Reconnaissance. Liaison/reconnaissance teams secure building and compound must be deployed early and establish the scope of the task with NZPOL. area within the confines of They must be prepared to then task their assigned cordon Task Burnham Military Camp, some staff Elements (TEs). to augment the NZPOL led operation, and the provision of electricity, waste collection services, and catering, etc – HADR Co-located Headquarters. A suitable military Tactical Party/LO team planners should not mistake that must be established with NZPOL Command HQ to coordinate and arrangement as a military facilitate appropriate C2 over the military cordon forces (noting whilst the capability. It was NZPOL led and military may be in support of OGAs they will always remain under equipped, and essentially staffed military command and control). Co-location also improves information by the national DVI response sharing, situational awareness, and task transition planning. Co-location agency. of military and supported agency representatives at each successive level down to cordon checkpoint level should be pursued as far as staff availability permits.2 Mortuary Facility. Same lessons as above. 21 Sup Coy is the NZDF This area is in need of a clear mortuary affairs custodian - see capability directive clarifying the NZDF intra-net 2LFG/2Log Bn/21 military mortuary capacity, Communications. Effective communication networks are required if Sup Coy/Service Pl/MA). manning, and equipment scales for cordon operations are to be effective. The net /link requirements include However, it is a small and limited HADR. - cordon team internal needs; and cordon HQ to task HQ/cordon NZPOL capability focused on support to HQ/cordon zone NZDF LO/CO Tactical party. military operations overseas. NZDF has little experience and no qualifications to undertake mortuary affairs in a NZ domestic Rules of Conduct. Legal briefs must be given to all members of the HADR event. cordon force to ensure they understand their legal obligations and what they can and can not do (this also needs to be explained to NZPOL). Legal Officers may need to move around the cordon and brief NZDF personnel in the first 24hrs especially if the deployment of NZDFSECURITY CORDON OPERATIONS CHECKLIST personnel has been so rapid that such briefings could not be completed before hand. Legal Officers must also allow themselves sufficient time toCheck Planning Considerations Include: become orientated to the disaster area and the implications arising for a military response. Support Role. Underpinning military actions in a cordon and public security operation is "NZDF is in support of NZ Police unless otherwise directed” - no special powers were given to NZDF during the cordon for Op CHCH QUAKE, we were acting under the supervision of a Tactical Commanders (Tac Comds). Need to be thoroughly briefed on constable. By NZ law if a constable directs you to assist him or her then the situation and be positioned appropriately with NZPOL counter parts you are obliged by law to do so. That is why in the early part of the Op to ensure effective cordon C2. Tac Comds should also use the benefit of CHCH QUAKE a constable was stationed at every check point where their operational deployment experiences and be prepared to provide military personnel were engaged in cordon and security. A clear division advice and assistance to NZPOL when developing cordon routine and of responsibility between the cordon NZPOL officer and cordon military operations. Tac Comds must be proactive in supervising, briefing and 137 138 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 70. arranging and monitoring timely logistic support of their assigned TE appropriate delivery arrangements and cordon on-site facilities providedpersonnel. for. The impact these arrangements can have on morale should not be overlooked.Shifts/Rosters. The number and size of military TUs assigned and size Accommodation. Accommodation facilities that include laundry andof the cordon task will influence the duration and number of shifts that drying room facilities, access to equipment exchange stores, telephonewill be rostered. During Op CHCH QUAKE the military operated a 12 and internet services that enable personnel to link with their familyhour on, 24 hours off shift system, using three company sized TUs. members, etc should all be included in the cordon support services plan.Military planners should also note that whilst shifts of this duration arestandard for the military, OGAs involved in the cordon operation areunlikely to maintain or even be able to sustain a matching presence.The cordon sector military commander should anticipate that there will TASK TRANSITION AND TRANSFER CHECKLISTbe periods when on-site advice and assistance from some OGAs maynot be readily available. Check ActivityLong Duration/Reservists. Cordon security operations can be long Has a disaster needs assessment been completed? Does it assist induration operations – ranging from days to months (the military were still identifying potential transition points?manning cordon posts months after Op CHCH QUAKE and well into thedisaster ‘Recovery Phase’. Military planners must make early and long Has liaison been established with the LA to develop the transition plan,term contingency plans in anticipation of this. The requirement for NZDF conditions, and sign-over?Reserves must also be considered from the perspective of providingemployers with reasonable notice so they can make timelyarrangements to release their employees who are Reservists. This is Is the transfer to be to another military FE or OGA/NGO?essential to gaining employer engagement and sustained support. What happens if the military is suddenly redeployed to another missionTransportation. The requirement for and use of military vehicles (be or location after the start of the HADR operation?they 4 x 4 variants, light armoured vehicles, and helicopters) need to beaddressed in cordon planning. Any limitations as to who can and cannot How can we ensure that the humanitarian community will not becomebe transported (e.g. OGAs, apprehended parties, injured parties, etc) dependant on the military to the extent it becomes difficult to operatemust be clarified. without it?Surveillance Equipments/Capabilities. NZDF may be required to How can we make sure that humanitarian community retain the lead roleassist NZPOL by providing surveillance assets that cover ‘gaps’ in a and direction of humanitarian efforts even when military assets are usedcordon perimeter and/or detect any penetration of the cordon perimeter. as the only means available?This must be addressed in cordon planning including legal aspectsdefined that may have second and third order effects in relation to the What are the measures of effectiveness that will trigger transition andlaw and prosecution. task transfer?Cordon Checkpoint Facilities And Services. Is the military transition plan written in easily understood language thatToilets. The early deployment of Porta-loo’s should be addressed with can be understood and acted upon by non-military follow-on agencies?urgency not only because of ‘Force Protection’ hygiene needs, but alsoso as not to give cause for negative media attention arising from military Is the transition plan structured in a way that takes account of the follow-staff being forced to use make-shift arrangements. on agencies organisational structure and management capacity?Catering. The logistics of this for cordon operations (e.g. is theresufficient hot boxes, turn-around time between kitchen and military Has the transition plan been reviewed beforehand with the designatedcordon personnel – think lower than the cordon HQ, impact of weather potential follow-on agency?conditions – dust, summer heat, snow, etc) need to be considered and 139 140 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 71. Has consideration been given to when NZDF forces can be withdrawn? Observations and Lessons LearnedHow will transition and transfer coordination be achieved? Serial Observations Lessons LearnedDoes a transition working group need to be established? Who will chair 1 Civilian Contractors: Issues. Early, close continued co-it? ordination between the LA, local Accusations by local civilian city/district council (as the owner contractors that NZDF continues to of the Local Rapid AssessmentIs there a requirement for more LOs to help facilitate the transition and undertake work that they could welltransfer? Sheets that determine what tasks complete, can create potentially are assigned to NZDF and for negative public relations events for how long) and the military (as theHave stated operational objectives been achieved? NZDF. temporary service providers) is essential.What additional resources will be required during the transition andtransfer? A Transition Planning Working Group chaired by either the LA or city/ district council should beWhat key events, if any, are forecast to occur during transition and how established.will they impact the transition/transfer, if at all? Adopting this approach would doHas the military end state been achieved? much to minimize risk of the military being accused of undertaking tasks thatWhat are the funding impacts post transition and transfer? could/should be undertaken by local civilian service providers.What NZDF FE resources are required to remain behind? In this way, it is the LA Controller or city council that front anyWill new ROC be required? claims of the military ‘staying too long’.Will the incoming FE use the same facilities as the departing force? 2 Employment of Military. If they are not required, theyWhat capacity is there to have an outgoing and incoming FE in-camp at should be redeployed or theirthe same time? Task programming should seek to deployment into theatre have the military forces engaged postponed (Op RENA). continuously in so far as normalHow will turn-over/hand-over be managed? rest and recovery permits, as there are morale and logistic reasons forHave redeployment airlift and sealift arrangements been approved? avoiding a situation in which military forces are underemployed.What is the reconstitution plan for equipment being withdrawn and/orhanded over?How will transfer be acknowledged/formally recorded?What is the impact on a CIMIC Centre as the military is progressivelywithdrawn? 141 142 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 72. National Assets/resources available for civil defence emergency 53 management during a national disaster. KEY STAKEHOLDERS 4.5. The key stakeholders are: 4.5.1 Central Government. This comprises three groups: the core central government agencies with a role in ‘whole of government’ issues; supporting response agencies; and OGAs as providers of services. NZDF under the Ministry of Defence fulfils a supportingPREAMBLE role as part of a ‘whole of government’ solution.4.1 This Section describes the Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency 4.5.2. Local Authorities. Regional, district, and city councils. Management (MCDEM) structure and how the NZDF interfaces with it when required to support an emergency or disaster event. The processes 4.5.3. Emergency Services. The NZ Police, NZ Fire Service, National described therein are similar to those NZDF would follow with other Lead Rural Fire Authority, rural fire authorities, and hospital and health Agencies (LA). services.OUTLINE STRUCTURE 4.5.4. Lifeline Utilities. Essential services such as electricity, gas, water, transport and telecommunications. These are generally4.2 The MCDEM is the LA for civil defence disaster and emergency and private sector or State Owned Enterprise (SOE) entities, with disaster management responses. The MCDEM outline organisation is some central government coordination in specific sectors. shown in Figure 11. CO-ORDINATED INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMLEVELS OF RESPONSE 4.6. The CDEM community use Co-ordinate Incident Management System4.3 The MCDEM structure is based on four levels of response as described in (CMIS). It is a management protocol with a set of management rules that is common Figure 12. to all emergency service providers ensuring when they work together they already share a standardised management structure, a standardised set of management4.4 Liaison takes place between levels and incident/event management is principles, and a standardised system of information management. The core escalated dependant upon severity, the need for multi-agency support, components of CIMS are similarly aligned with the military command and continental and/or the level of emergency (local/regional/national). staff system. 54LEVELS OF EMERGENCY 4.6.1. NZDF Signatory. NZDF is a signatory to CIMS , and NZDF staff involved in a NZDF CD response are expected to understand how4.5 There are five levels of emergency response which are outlined in Figure CIMS functions. The core components of CIMS are similarly 13. Response relationships, roles, activities and EOC operation change as aligned with the military command structure and continental staff an incident escalates through these levels. This information is particularly system. useful to NZDF CDEM response planners and LOs – it outlines the key MCDEM agency actions, where and how control is exercised, and levels of 4.6.2. Function Not Position. An important consideration within CIMS responsibility. Figure 13 also identifies the type of NZDF involvement at is that incident management has four functions, not necessarily each level of an emergency response. It also identifies the entry points four positions resulting in some incidents potentially having where liaison should be established. multiple functions performed by a single manager. Likewise some functions may become complex enough to warrant separation of4.6 The CDEM Act provides for the appointment of a Director of CDEM, whose functions and duties, amongst others, include directing and controlling the 53 CDEM website. 54 NZJSP No 102, 10 Aug 11, pg 1-102-7, para 16. 143 144 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 73. 58 one function to two managers. The people who direct the overall DOCTRINAL COMMAND ARRANGEMENTS FOR NZDF response are known as Incident Controllers. 4.8. The doctrinal command arrangements for NZDF elements participating in 4.6.3. CIMS Structure. See Figure 14 at end of this Section. civil defence emergencies is illustrated in Section 1. More detailed information is contained in the publication NZDDP-00.1 Command andLEGAL AUTHORITY Control in The New Zealand Defence Force, para 5.32 – The Legal authority that empowers the MCDEM and military to respond to domestic disaster and emergency events is outlined below: 4.7.1. Legal Authority for MCDEM. The CDEM Act is the legal 55 authority for the declaration of CDEM measures. The CDEM Act provides for the appointment of a Director of CDEM whose functions and duties, amongst others, include directing and controlling the National Assets/resources available for civil defence emergency management during a national 56 emergency. Emergency powers under the CDEM Act enable CDEM Groups and Incident Controllers to:Close/restrict access to roads/public Conserve essential supplies andplaces. regulate traffic.Remove/secure dangerous structures and Provide rescue, first aid, food, shelter,materials. etc.Dispose of dead persons and animals. Advise the public.Provide equipment. Enter into premises.Evacuate premises/places Remove vehicles.Requisition equipment/materials andassistance. 4.7.2. Legal Basis for Military Support of Civil Defence Emergencies. Sections 9(1)(a) and (b) of the Defence Act authorises the use of NZDF in NZ or elsewhere to perform any public service; or provide assistance to the civil power in time of 57 emergency.55 DFO 91(1), NZJSP No 102 ‘Plan AWHINA’ 10 Aug 11, page 1-102-7, para 2.56 CDEM website.57 58 DFO 91(1), NZJSP No 102 ‘Plan AWHINA’ 10 Aug 11, page 1-102-7, para 23. NZDDP-00.1 Command and Control in t+he NZDF, Oct 08, page 5-20. 145 146 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 74. Level of CDEM Agency Coordination Activation NZDF Response Response Element Note 1 Incident Site. Local community; As required by Unlikely to be required initially. NZDF suburb, town or Incident assets may be delegated to complete Incident Site incident site. Focus Controller. tasks at this level, but will be controlled on immediate at the regional or local levels. operational tasks and activities. Note 2 Local City/District Emergency When site Local military commanders are Councils. These Operations Centre emergency authorised to respond to a request from Local are autonomous (EOC). services are the Local Controller and provide limited government bodies unable to support to the local authority IAW Plan which produce their manage an AWHINA and associated NZDF own local Focus is on emergency. contingency plans and orders. emergency coordinating the management tactical response, plans, and are providing immediate responsible for support to the emergency community and management within passing information their boundaries. and requests to the regional ECC. Note 3 Regional CDEM Regional Emergency When incident Local military commanders are Groups. Note they Coordination Centre management authorised to respond to a request from 148 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – 147– HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 75. Regional are essentially (ECC). escalates and the Regional Controller and provide autonomous involves multi- limited support to the CDEM Group IAW agencies who agency response Plan AWHINA and associated NZDF Figure 13: MCDEM – Levels of Emergency produce (and Focus is on and State of contingency plans and orders. manage) their coordinating the Local L Event Type Event Status Group EOC/EOC Controllers Role NZDF region emergency Emergency is HQ JFNZ may assign additional assets. Role Involvement response across the management region, supporting the imminent. plans. local councils and 1 Local Incident. Can No Declaration. CIMS EOCs may be alerted Local Controller Level and nature passing information be dealt with by structures and principles or partially operative notified if EOC of NZDF and requests to the Emergency Services used to manage in support of lead involved. response NCMC. and/or Local Authority incident. Lead agency agency. approved by HQ resources alone. depends on incident NZDF.Note 4 National Crisis NCMC. When a Level 4 Requests for NZDF support are Specialists maybe type. Management or Level 5 typically made through inter-ministerial required for specificNational Centre (NCMC). Emergency has requests for assistance. NZDF LOs circumstances Coordinates events of been declared. deployed to the NCMC (or LA national national significance. (See Figure 13 ops centre) to facilitate a NZDF 2 Local Multi-Agency No Declaration. As EOC in Key Support Local Controller As above. for Levels of coordinated response. Incident. As above above, plus Group may Agency Role. Local coordinating the Emergency). assume coordinating Authority EOC agreed functions. role for functions agreed partially or fully Group Controller on the day. activated and notified. coordinating agreed functions. Possibility of GEOC partially activated in monitoring role. 3 Imminent or State of Declaration of state of EOC fully activated Local Controller Level and nature Local Emergency. local emergency is and is coordinating exercising of NZDF 149 150 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 76. The event may not or being considered, or response and delegated powers. response cannot be managed deemed necessary. management of the approved by HQ 5 Imminent or State of Declaration of state of NCMC, GEOCs and National Controller Will be controlled without the adoption Declaration can be for emergency. GEOC Group Controller NZDF. Additional National Emergency. national emergency is all EOCs fully exercising statutory and coordinated of emergency powers an entire district of one and adjacent EOCs supporting the response being considered, or has activated powers. Group by HQ JFNZ. A or more wards. alerted or partially Local Controller, assets/suppleme been deemed Controller Joint Task Force activated to monitor and giving ntation may be necessary. responding to may be activated the situation and consideration to directed by HQ priorities set by the to respond to the ready to respond if further escalation. JFNZ. task. National Controller. situation deteriorates. Adjacent CDEM Groups and Local Controller responding to National Controller priorities set by the notified. Group Controller.4 Imminent or State of Declaration of state of GEOC and all EOCs Group Controller As above. Local Emergency local emergency is being fully activated. exercising statutory that is regionally considered, or has been powers. significant. Due to the deemed necessary, that NCMC and adjacent magnitude or involves the entire Local Controllers GEOCs may be responding geographic spread of CDEM Group area or alerted or partially an incident; or one or more districts, activated to monitor to priorities set by warning of significant the situation and be the Group event with potential OR an adjacent CDEM Group requires ready to respond if the Controller. National regional impact; or co- situation deteriorates. Controller giving ordinated assistance assistance consideration to is required to support or a major population further escalation. an adjoining CDEM Group centre is devastated. 151 152 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 77. responsible. between  MaintainingFigure 14: Coordinated Incident Management System responding financial records  Property agencies and theCIMS Function Incident Operations Logistics Planning / Intelligence Conservation, Incident Controller minimising the Management impact of the Team on incident. progress.CIMS IC Ops Logs Planning / IntelAbbreviation Broad Functions  Ops The Ops function can  Supply  Situation Unit be organised byMilitary Equivalent Comd J3/S3 J4/S4 J5 (for Planning) (situation  Log  Facilities Unit  Resources unit agency, task, orat Operational dependant) J2/S2 (for Intel) geography at theLevel  Planning/Intel  Communications  Management Support discretion of the Ops  Safety Officer Manager  Health  Intelligence  Information  Sector  Catering  Advanced PlanningCIMS Identified Ensures overall Ensures that Ensures that Ensures that there is an Commanders OfficerResponsibilities incident resolution, responders are active responders can overall strategy by:  Finance this includes by: perform by:  Liaison Officer  Police responsibility for:  Allocating tasks to  Monitoring and  Fire  Safety of agencies on the providing  Collecting and analysing Responders. ground. resources information.  Ambulance  Incident  Monitoring  Establishing and  Drafting the Incident  Other agencies Stability, doing progress of maintaining Action Plan responding the most incident against incident facilities  Liaising with technical effective job Incident Action experts. while being Plan goals  Creating the financially communications  Communicating plan 153 154 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 78. any emergency; and  includes, without limitation, the planning, organisation, co-ordination, and implementation of those measures, knowledge and practices. Civil Defence A CDEM Group is a consortium of local authorities in a Glossary of Terms Emergency region working in partnership with emergency services, Management amongst other things, to prepare CDEM Group plans that Term Explanation Groups (CDEM address the 4Rs (reduction, readiness, response and 61 Groups) recovery). Each Mayor and Regional Chairperson agrees Civil Actors 59 All non-military personnel, including the national the plans under which the CDEM Group operates, and population and local authorities, as well as international, each local authority is responsible for planning and national, and non-governmental organisations and provision of CDEM within its district. agencies. Civil-Military The coordination and cooperation, in support of the Civil Defence A Civil Defence Emergency is defined in the Civil Defence Cooperation mission, between the commander and civil authorities, 62 Emergency Emergency Management (CDEM) Act as a situation that: (CIMIC) including the national population and local authorities, as well as international, national and non-governmental  is the result of any event, whether natural or organisations and agencies. otherwise, including, without limitation, any explosion, earthquake, eruption, tsunami, land Civil-Military The primary interface at the tactical level with the civilian movement, flood, storm, tornado, cyclone, serious Cooperation population and civilian organisations. The CIMIC Centre fire, leakage or spillage of any dangerous gas or Centre (CIMIC would normally be open to the public and manned by a substance, technological failure, infestation, plague, Centre) 63 civil military cooperation team. May also be known as the epidemic, failure or a disruption to an emergency CIMIC Operations Centre, or CIMIC Coordination Centre service or a lifeline utility, or actual or imminent attack or warlike act;  cause or may cause loss of life or injury or illness or distress or in any way endangers the safety of the public or property in New Zealand or any part of New Zealand; and  cannot be dealt with by emergency services, or otherwise requires a significant and co-ordinated response under the this Act. Civil Defence It means: Emergency Management 60  the application of knowledge, measures, and practices that are necessary or desirable for the safety of the public or property; and are designed to guard against, prevent, reduce, or overcome any hazard or harm or loss that may be associated with 61 CDEM website.59 62 ADDP 3.11 Civil-Military Cooperation, 24 Aug 04, Glossary. ADDP 3.11 Civil-Military Cooperation, 24 Aug 04, Glossary.60 63 National Civil Defence Emergency Management Strategy, page 15. ADDP 3.13 Information Operations, Nov 06, Glossary. 155 156 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 79. Command, Within the context of CIMS – the Coordinated Incident Fragmentary An abbreviated form of an operation order (OPORD), Control and Management System - these terms help define the roles Orders issued as required, that eliminates the need to restate Coordination and responsibilities between incident managers that may 67 information contained in a basic OPORD. direct responders from multiple organisations and line (FRAGOs) managers that act within a single agency.  Command operates vertically within an agency.  Control operates horizontally between agencies.  Coordination describes the overall cohesion of agencies working together with defined responsibilities. Direct Support 64 The support provided by an element or formation not Humanitarian The use of available military resources to assist or attached to or under command of the supported Assistance (HA) compliment the efforts of responsible civil actors or element/agency, but required to give priority to the specialized civil humanitarian organisations in fulfilling 68 support required by the supported element/agency. their primary responsibility to alleviate human suffering. Should a military force undertake such HA tasks, 65 Disaster Relief The organised response to alleviate the situation resulting responsibility should be handed-over/returned to the 69 from a catastrophe, the aims of which are to save life and appropriate civilian agency at the earliest opportunity. lessen suffering, limit damage and restore essential services to a level that enables local Joint Task Force A force composed of assigned or attached elements of 70 authorities to cope. Disaster relief demands the total (JTF) the Army, Navy, and the Air Force, or two or more of integration of the relief effort with the life-support assets these Services, operating under a single commander. and infrastructure available within the stricken area. Joint Task Force Is the operational (and probably deployed) commander of Emergency The term has the same meaning as in section 4 of the Commander a nominated JTF. 71 Services 66 CDEMA and means: the New Zealand Police, New (JTFC) Zealand Fire Service, National Rural Fire Authority, rural fire authorities, and hospital and health services. Their primary role is in the response and recovery phases of an event. However, they are increasingly being involved with civil defence management planning, particularly at the local authority level. 67 NZDDP-5.0 Joint Operations Planning, Jun 11, Glossary. 68 NZDF Joint Doctrine Note 1/10 – Guidelines For The Military Contribution to64 NZDDP-00.1 Command and Control in the NZDF, Oct 08, page G-2. Stabilisation, Jul 10, Glossary.65 69 JDP 0-01.1, United Kingdom Glossary of Joint and Multinational Terms And ADDP 3.11 Civil-Military Cooperation, 24 Aug 04, Glossary 70Definitions, Ed 7, Jun 06. NZDDP-5.0 Joint Operations Planning, Jun 11, page 82.66 71 National Civil Defence Emergency Management Strategy, pg 15. NZDDP-00.1 Command and Control in the NZDF, Oct 08, page G-2. 157 158 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 80. Lead Agency (LA) A LA may be designated to take the lead in policy Lines of All the land, water and air routes that connect an making, planning and information sharing, and acting as Communications operating military force with one or more bases or 76 the main point of contact for other agencies, the military operations and along which supplies and reinforcements and political components, non-governmental move. organisations, and other concerned parties. The LA may allocate tasks and coordinate activity, but it does not have Local Authorities Regional, district, and city councils play an important role 72 any command responsibility or overall authority. in delivering emergency management services at the An organisation with current responsibility for managing community level. Under the Civil Defence Act local an emergency. 73 authorities have specific emergency planning responsibilities and access to extraordinary powers during a declared emergency. 77 Multi-Agency Activities or operations in which multiple agencies, including national, international and non-state agencies and other actors, participate in the same or overlapping areas with varying degrees of inter-agency cooperation. National An event of national significance includes, without 78 Significance limitation, any case where the Minister or Director of CDEM considers that:  there is widespread public concern or interest; or Levels of Civil There are two: Defence  there is likely to be significant use of resources; or Emergency 74  National Emergency. A national emergency, an event of national significance, is declared  it is likely that the area of more than one CDEM group by the Minister of CDEM under CDEMA s66; will be affected; or and  it affects or is likely to affect or is relevant to New  Local Emergency. Mayors are empowered Zealand’s international obligations; or under CDEMA s68 to declare a local emergency within their territorial boundary.  it involves or is likely to involve technological, processes, or methods that are new to New Zealand; Declared emergencies have a seven day duration and or may be extended or terminated.  it will result or is likely to result in or contribute to significant or irreversible changes to the environment Lifeline Lifeline utilities can be defined as essential services such (including global environment). 75 as electricity, gas, water, transport and Utilities telecommunications. The economic viability of communities and the nation as a whole depends upon the continued operation of lifeline utilities. At the local level, local authorities foster links with key utilities to ensure that their emergency management plans are integrated. 75 Ministry of Civil Defence & Emergency Management. 76 ABCA Coalition Operations Handbook, Ed 5, dated 1 Aug 10, Glossary.72 77 ADDP 3.11 Civil-Military Cooperation, 24 Aug 04, Glossary. NZDF JDN 3/10 Guidelines for the Conduct of Stabilisation Operations, Jul 11,73 National Civil Defence Emergency Management Strategy, page 15. page 59.74 78 CDEM website. National Civil Defence Emergency Management Strategy, page 16. 159 160 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 81. 81 (OPCON) location. Non- NGOs are private, self-governing, not for profit Governmental organisations dedicated to issues such as alleviating It is a doctrinal norm to allocate OPCON of deployed Organisations human suffering; promoting education, healthcare, NZDF forces to a field commander, whilst the 79 (NGOs) economic development, environmental protection, human Commander Joint Forces NZ retains Operational rights, and conflict resolution; and encouraging the Command (OPCOM). establishment of democratic institutions and civil society. Operation Order A directive, usually formal, issued by a commander to 82 subordinate commanders for the purpose of effecting the (OPORD) coordinated execution of an operation plan. Situational The understanding of the operational environment, in Awareness context of the commander’s (or staff officer’s) mission or 83 task. (SA) Operational Operational Command (OPCOM) is the highest degree of Control operational authority that can be assigned to a 80 (OPCON) commander in the NZDF. The delegation of OPCOM authorises a commander to task the assigned assets over the range of its capabilities without further reference to the commander who holds full Command. Once assigned OPCOM, a commander may:  Detail missions and tasks as appropriate;  Reassign forces to another force;  Allocate the separate use of components of assigned elements; and  Delegate Operational Control (OPCON), Tactical Command (TACCOM) or Tactical Control (TACON) to a subordinate commander. Operational Operational Control (OPCON) denotes a commander’s Control authority to direct assigned forces to accomplish specific missions or tasks, usually limited by function, time, or 81 NZDPP-00.1 Command and Control in the New Zealand Defence Force, Oct 08, pages 3-6.79 82 NZDDP-5.0 Joint Operations Planning, Jun 11, page 29. NZDDP-5.0 Joint Operations Planning, Jun 11, Glossary.80 83 NZDPP-00.1 Command and Control in the New Zealand Defence Force, Oct 08, NZDF JDN 3/10 Guidelines for the Conduct of Stabilisation Operations, Jul 11,pages 3-5. page 60. 161 162 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 82. 84 4 R’s The 4Rs - Reduction, Readiness, Response, and List of Acronyms and Abbreviations Recovery – form the basis of New Zealand’s integrated approach to civil defence emergency management. ADMIN Administration  Reduction. Identifying and analysing long-term risks to human life and property from hazards; taking steps to eliminate these risks if practicable, and if not, AIG Address Indicator Group reducing the magnitude of their impact and likelihood of their occurring. AOG All of Government  Readiness. Developing operational systems and capabilities before a civil defence emergency AME Aero Medical Evacuation happens; including self-help and response programmes for the general public and specific programmes for emergency services, lifeline utilities C2 Command and Control and other agencies.  Response. Actions taken immediately before, during CDF Chief of the Defence Force or directly after a civil defence emergency to save lives, protect property, and help communities recover. CIMIC Civil Military Cooperation  Recovery. The coordinated efforts and processes to bring about the immediate, medium-term and long- CCIR Commanders Critical Information Requirements term holistic regeneration of a community following a civil defence emergency. CIS Communication Information Systems CIMS Co-ordinated Incident Management System COMJFNZ Commander Joint Forces New Zealand CONOPS Concept of Operations CONPLAN Contingency Plan COP Common Operating Picture DCG Defence Communications Group DNA Disaster Needs Assessment DON Degree of Notice84 National Civil Defence Emergency Management Strategy, page 15. 163 164 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –
  • 83. DR Disaster Relief MOE Measure of EffectivenessDVI Disaster Victim Identification MOU Memorandum of UnderstandingEARLLS Electronic Activity Reporting and Lesson Learned System NCMC National Crisis Management CentreEBR Enhanced Battle Rhythm NGO Non-Governmental OrganisationEOC Emergency Operations Centre NTM Notice to MoveFE Force Element NZDF New Zealand Defence ForceFOB Forward Operating Base NZPOL New Zealand PoliceHA Humanitarian Assistance OGA Other Government AgencyHADR Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief OP(S) Operation(s)HSS Health Support Services OPCOMD Operational CommandIAW In Accordance With OPCON Operational ControlJTF Joint Task Force PRO Public Relations OfficerJTFC Joint Task Force Commander ROC Rules of ConductJTF HQ Joint Task Force Headquarters SA Situational AwarenessLO Liaison Officer SOP Standard Operating ProcedureLOC Lines Of Communication TE Task ElementLOG Logistics TU Task UnitMCDEM Ministry of Civil Defence And Emergency Management VHF Very High Frequency 165 166 – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE – – HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND DISASTER RELIEF AIDE-MEMOIRE –