UN press releases, 12 September, 26 October, 20 June 2011
Stanley McChrystal, Retired General, US Army; Former Commander, US and ISAF Afghanistan, interviewed by Tom Brokaw, New York, 6 October 2011
“the International community must bring such learned outsiders, who have worked for years on the ground, back into the policy centre to minimise the abstraction and isolation of our elites.”More humility, restraint needed.Rory Stewart, “The Case Against Grand Plans” Guardian Weekly, 28 October 2011
Borrowed from Sheptycki (in Gill 2009).
Peace Operations and Organised Crime: Building Capabilities to Confront Criminal Networks and Promote Development Professor Andrew Goldsmith Executive Director Centre for Transnational Crime Prevention University of Wollongong
Transnational crime – threat to peace• “I remain particularly • Report of the UN Secretary- concerned about drug- General on developments in trafficking activities in Guinea-Bissau, 17 June Guinea-Bissau. The country’s 2011, p.14 very limited resources and means to curb this threat to peacebuilding and to combat the illegal trafficking is worrisome, as the absence of reliable information.”
Insecurity and illegality – obstacles todevelopment • “conflicts feed on narcotics, piracy and gender violence, and leave refugees and broken infrastructure in their wake” • “There are places where fragile states can seek help to build an army, but we do not yet have similar resources for building police forces or correction systems” [Robert Zoellick, Preface, WDR 2011]
Forms of Action Public Environmental Crime Youth Gangs Private Arms Trade Corruption Human Trafficking Criminal Violence Drug Trafficking Piracy Terrorist Actions Organised Crime in ML Conflict-Affected States Diverted, Implicated Diverted Development Peace Operations Degraded Institutions Vulnerable persons of Governance Women and Police Children Courts and Corrections Drug Consumers Displaced GovernmentHarms Caused Persons
West Africa Coast Initiative• WACI launched in 2009 by UNODC, UNDPKO, UNDPA, UNOWA and INTERPOL in support of the ECOWAS regional plan to address drug trafficking, organised crime in West Africa• Four pilot countries – Sierra Leone (UNIPSIL), Guinea-Bissau (UNIOGBIS), Liberia (UNMIL) and Cote D’Ivoire (UNOCI)• First High Level Policy Committee (WACI POLCOM met on 21 June 2011 in Dakar, Senegal [picture]• 27 October 2011 – first Program Advisory Committee meeting (WACI PROCOM) held in Bissau
Transnational crime units• One key strategy of WACI: establishment of Transnational Crime Units in Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, and Liberia• In Guinea-Bissau, in addition to TCU, UN through its Peacebuilding Commission has contributed to capacity- building judges, prosecutors and police investigators in relation to drug trafficking and transnational crime; also working on critical infrastructure, SSR more broadly, and international cooperation/mutual legal assistance in criminal matters• 12 September: opened “model Police Station”, 11 more planned: gender, community policing focus
Serious Crime Support Units UNPOL positions in each mission Analysis & Operational Support Support to PC, UNPOL & JMAC Support to Host-State Police
“We need to know more” - McChrystal “reliable data on youth gangs• “We didn’t know enough and in the narcotics trade are we still don’t know enough. virtually non-existent”• “Most of us, me included, (WB/LAC 2011, p. 16) had a very superficial understanding of the situation and history” “This Report draws upon research from a variety of fields…largely because it is further advanced than research on violent organized crime, trafficking, gang activity, or terrorism” WDR 2011
“The case against grand plans” – Rory Stewart • “If there is a lesson from all these countries, it is that there is no substitute for detailed experience in a particular place. • “The best the west can do is to rely on more people who are focused on the specific history and culture…, more attentive to the realities of rural life.
Characteristics of OC ResponsesContainment Transformation National Security Human SecurityPolice and Military Human Security Intelligence Intelligence Police Skills Diverse Skills Short-term Focus Longer-term Focus Stop Immediate Build Conditions for Harm Security Resilience Abstract EmbeddedCommunity Support Community Support Tactical Success Strategic Success
“As long as we cannot up-level our ‘thinking’ beyond Us and Them, the goodies and the baddies, it will go on and on”[RD Laing] THE END