C i v i l - M i l i ta r yw o r k i n g pa p e r s12 / 2 0 1 0                                                           :...
Disclaimer:the views expressed in this Civil-Military Working Paper are those of the author anddo not necessarily reflect ...
abstRaCt          the predominance and complexity of intrastate conflict creates huge demands for civilian          capaci...
intRoduCtion       if war has changed so too must the means of response. a balanced civil and military       response is r...
functions; transitional justice; reconciliation; the provision of basic services; and economic revitalisation (UNSC‘Statem...
york University Center on international Cooperation (CiC) identified a ‘broad lack of rapidly deployablecapacity’ for ‘lea...
box 1: a sampling of governmental arrangements              australia              australian Civilian Corps (aCC), austra...
existing national arrangementsDeployable civilian capacity arrangements are found predominantly among a small number of we...
and non-government personnel, such as the UK CSG, which draws upon civil-servants and localgovernment employees and non-ci...
national ownership and Capacity developmentWhile there is no denying the need for international civilian capacity in the i...
looking aheadthe field of rapidly deployable civilian capacity is in ‘flux’ (Chandran et al. 2009, p. 3); new arrangements...
support to existing systems and approaches•   a number of recent efforts have begun to focus on strengthening the interope...
ConClusionsPeace and stabilisation missions have become increasingly civilianised over the past decade. in response, there...
bibliogRaphyausaiD, ‘What is the australian Civilian Corps?’, viewed 26 October 2010, http://www.ausaid.gov.au/acc/.austra...
United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations/Department of Field Support 2009, a NewPartnership agenda: Charting a...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

12/2010 Realising the "Imagined armies of expert civilians": A summary of national civilian capacity arrangements for conflict management

931 views

Published on

Civil-military working paper by Sarah Shteir.

Published in: News & Politics
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
931
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
12
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
16
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

12/2010 Realising the "Imagined armies of expert civilians": A summary of national civilian capacity arrangements for conflict management

  1. 1. C i v i l - M i l i ta r yw o r k i n g pa p e r s12 / 2 0 1 0 :1Realising the “imagined aRmies of expeRt Civilians”a summaRy of national Civilian CapaCity aRRangementsfoR ConfliCt managementsarah shteir w w w.c i v m i l co e . gov. au
  2. 2. Disclaimer:the views expressed in this Civil-Military Working Paper are those of the author anddo not necessarily reflect the position of aPCMCOE or of any government agency.authors enjoy the academic freedom to offer new and sometimes controversialperspectives in the interest of furthering debate on key issues.the content is published under a Creative Commons by attribution 3.0 australia(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/) licence. all parts of this publicationmay be reproduced, stored in retrieval systems, and transmitted by any means withoutthe written permission of the publisher.iSBN: 978-1-921933-10-3Published 2011.Civil-Millitary working papers ii
  3. 3. abstRaCt the predominance and complexity of intrastate conflict creates huge demands for civilian capacity support to meet the urgent needs of communities in the immediate aftermath of conflict. For this reason, peace and stabilisation missions have become increasingly civilianised over the past decade. in response, there has been considerable activity over the past decade to develop rapidly deployable civilian capacity arrangements in support of missions deployed to conflict and post-conflict countries. Currently, these arrangements are predominantly national and found among a small number of western countries. Significant challenges exist, relating to the multiplicity of arrangements and the dearth of multilateral linkages, the delicate balance between providing needed international capacity and building host nation capacity, the inherent difficulties associated with multi-agency structures, and the interaction with international civilian capacities already on the ground. the field of rapidly deployable civilian capacity is rapidly evolving. New arrangements are currently being developed and considered, including in the global South, initiatives are underway to improve existing arrangements, and proposals are being put forward for new arrangements. this paper was prepared as a background paper for the Civil-Military interaction Seminar (6–9 December 2010, Sydney, australia) organised by the asia Pacific Civil-Military Centre of Excellence on Advancing Civil-Military Effectiveness in Conflicts and Disasters: From Theory to Practice. key words: ‘civilianisation’, civilian capacity arrangements, rapid deployment, peace and stabilisation operations sarah shteir Sarah Shteir is a research Project Officer with the asia Pacific Civil-Military Centre of Excellence. Prior to joining the Centre she completed her Master’s degree in international Social Development at the University of New South Wales, which included a research project ‘Keeping the Peace Within – Cultural Diversity among United Nations Peacekeepers: Challenges, Efforts, and Possibilities’. From 2005–2007 she worked as a Gender affairs Officer and later an assistant Best Practices Officer in the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Sudan (UNMiS) and from 2002–2005 as a Project associate for the Women’s international league for Peace and Freedom Peace Women Project in New york, with particular responsibility for gender and peacekeeping issues.realising the “imagined armies of Expert Civilians”: a Summary of National Civilian Capacity arrangements for Conflict Management 1
  4. 4. intRoduCtion if war has changed so too must the means of response. a balanced civil and military response is required. this requires boots on the ground and people who can deal as adeptly with economics, culture and anthropology as those that can fire an assault rifle. a proper balance of soldiers and civilians with solutions to political, social and economic as well as military problems is required. former Chief of australian army, lt. general peter leahy (2010, p. 12) We have been used to balancing power with power, but we are ill-equipped to deal with weakness: fragile states may require military deployments of peacekeepers, but strengthening them or managing their collapse requires much more complex strategies, drawing heavily on civilian capacities. former united nations under-secretary-general for peacekeeping operations, mr. Jean-marie guéhenno (2009, p. 7)the title of this paper reflects the increasing normative focus on the need for rapidly deployable civilianexpertise to support countries in the immediate aftermath of conflict (UNGa/SC 2009, p. 1).2 this focusstems from the changing nature of armed conflict and an enhanced understanding of the priorities and needsof countries ravaged by violent conflict.the predominance and complexity of intrastate conflict creates huge demands for capacity support tomeet the urgent needs of the conflict-affected community. these urgent needs generally include: basicsafety and security (including disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDr), security sector reform(SSr), and the re-establishment of the rule of law); re-establishment of core government institutions andCivil-Millitary working papers 2
  5. 5. functions; transitional justice; reconciliation; the provision of basic services; and economic revitalisation (UNSC‘Statement’ 2008, p. 1; UNGa/SC 2009, p. 6). Civilian expertise, alongside a military security contribution, iscritical to help conflict-affected communities meet these priority needs (UNSC ‘Statement’ 2008, p. 1). thespeed with which this expertise is deployed is a fundamental issue, as the first two years after a conflict endsrepresent a critical ‘window of opportunity’ for delivering peace dividends and building confidence in thepeace process, thus beginning to ‘lay the foundations for sustainable development’ (UNGa/SC 2009, p. 1).the predominance and complexity of intrastate conflict has led to a ‘civilianization’ of United Nations (UN)peacekeeping mandates and demanded the evolution of UN peacekeeping from predominantly militarymissions to multidimensional peacebuilding missions comprising military and civilian elements, includingpolice. With this trend toward increasingly multidimensional operations, civilians have shifted from peripheralsupport roles to the ‘core of contemporary peacekeeping and peacebuilding missions’ (de Coning 2010, p. 1).today, out of approximately 124,000 personnel serving in 16 UN peacekeeping operations, roughly 22,000are civilians, representing 20% of all UN peacekeepers (de Coning 2010, p. 1). this number increases toapproximately 25,000 civilians when one expands the purview to include the missions of the European Union(EU), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the african Union (aU) and otherinternational organisations (Center for international Peace Operations 2010).this trend toward increasing civilianisation is also visible in environments of irregular warfare such asafghanistan, where a much higher ‘premium’ is being placed on civil and political expertise, in addition totraditional military skills (Cronin 2008, p. 5). the international Security assistance Force has developed anexplicit strategy to enhance civilian engagement in afghanistan. aligned with this strategy, in april 2010, theaustralian Government announced a 50% increase in its civilian contribution to afghanistan (Department ofDefence 2010, p. 7).Despite this trend, the total number of civilian personnel in peace and stabilisation missions is not as high asit ought to be, due to significant civilian vacancy rates. according to estimates from the UN Department forField Support (DFS), for example, start-up UN peacekeeping missions have a vacancy rate of 53% (Chandranet al. 2009, p. 7).Civilian vacancy rates and the pervasively slow pace of civilian deployment is currently receiving significantattention and is a major source of concern for governments and multilateral organisations alike. in fact, this gaphas been a persistent problem for many years. the Secretary-General’s first report on protection of civilians(POC) in 1999 recommended that the Security Council ‘take steps to strengthen the Organization’s capacityto plan and deploy rapidly...’ with specific reference to ‘increasing the numbers of civilian police and specializedcivil administration and humanitarian personnel...’ (UNSC 1999, p. 18). in 2000, the Report of the Panel onUnited Nations Peace Operations (the ‘Brahimi report’) highlighted the UN Secretariat’s inability to ‘identify,recruit and deploy suitably qualified civilian personnel in substantive and support functions’ (UNGa/SC 2000,p. 21) and called for proposals for the establishment of a ‘Civilian Standby arrangements System’ (UNGa/SC 2000, p. 25). in the 2005 World Summit Outcome, Heads of State and Government urged for ‘furtherdevelopment of proposals for enhanced, rapidly deployable capacities to reinforce peacekeeping operations incrises’ (UNGa 2005, p. 23).More recently, in 2008, the United Kingdom (UK) hosted an open debate in the UN Security Councilon post-conflict stabilisation, intended to identify and address the ‘critical gaps that hamper internationalefforts to help countries stabilise and build sustainable peace as they emerge from conflict’ (UNSC‘letter’ 2008, p. 2). in the concept paper circulated prior to the debate, the Permanent representativeof the UK identified three critical gaps, one of which was ‘rapidly deployable and skilled civilian capacity’(UNSC ‘letter’ 2008, p. 3). Building on a background study commissioned for the open debate, the Newrealising the “imagined armies of Expert Civilians”: a Summary of National Civilian Capacity arrangements for Conflict Management 3
  6. 6. york University Center on international Cooperation (CiC) identified a ‘broad lack of rapidly deployablecapacity’ for ‘leadership, planning and coordination, and capacity for execution’(Chandran et al. 2009, p. 2).a similar observation was noted in the non-paper ‘New Horizon’ by the UN Department of PeacekeepingOperations (DPKO) and DFS, which identified civilian specialists as a critical shortage for 2009 (UNDPKO/DFS 2009, p. 27). Civilian deployment capabilities received significant attention again in the UN Secretary-General’s 2009 report on peacebuilding, which addressed the challenges for countries and the internationalcommunity in the immediate aftermath of conflict (UNGa/SC 2009). a significant outcome of the reportwas the establishment of the UN review of international Civilian Capacities in March 2010, which hasbeen mandated to ‘improve the international response in the aftermath of conflict by strengthening theavailability, deployability and appropriateness of civilian capacities for peacebuilding’ (UNGa 2010). 3diveRsity of aRRangementsDeployable civilian capacity arrangements can be found among Member States, regional and subregionalorganisations, within the UN,4 and among civil society organisations. 5 Some arrangements are also administeredthrough partnerships or other affiliations between governments and non-governmental organisations or privatesector bodies (see Box 1 for some examples). these arrangements generally comprise elements of standing,standby, and/or reserve/rostered components. though there are varying definitions of this terminology, whichcan create some confusion (Chandran et al. 2009, p. 7), the broad categories of capacity can be differentiated asfollows (UNGa/SC 2009, p. 19; de Coning 2010, p. 3; Chandran et al. 2009, p. 7).• standing Capacity: this arrangement provides the most reliable, timely capacity for rapid deployment as it comprises personnel who are prepared to rapidly deploy, as part of their conditions of service.• standby Capacity: this arrangement comprises a pool of personnel who are pre-identified and pre-vetted for rapid deployment when needed.• reserve/rostered Capacity: this arrangement comprises a database of personnel who can be approached for deployment, following assessment of their suitability (de Coning 2010, p. 3).according to a 2010 report by the Center for international Security and Cooperation (CiSaC), ‘theeffectiveness of response will be a function of the three factors of predictability, timeliness and reliability – willanybody come (predictability), when will they come (timeliness), and do they have the right skills, experienceand training (reliability)’(Morris 2010, p. 34).Civil-Millitary working papers 4
  7. 7. box 1: a sampling of governmental arrangements australia australian Civilian Corps (aCC), australian agency for international Development & international Deployment Group (iDG), australian Federal Police Canada Stabilization and reconstruction taskforce (Start), Department of Foreign affairs and international trade Denmark international Humanitarian Service (iHB), Ministry of Foreign affairs – outsourced to NiraS, independent consultancy firm european Union Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC) Finland Crisis Management Centre (CMC), Ministry of interior germany Centre for international Peace Operations (ZiF), German Foreign Office norway Norwegian Standby Capacity Programme (NOrCaP), Ministry of Foreign affairs & Norwegian refugee Council sweden Folke Bernadotte academy, Ministry of Foreign affairs United kingdom Civilian Stabilisation Group (CSG), Stabilisation Unit, Department for international Development- Foreign and Commonwealth Office-Ministry of Defence Usa Civilian response Corps (CrC), Office of the Coordinator for reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CrS), US Department of Staterealising the “imagined armies of Expert Civilians”: a Summary of National Civilian Capacity arrangements for Conflict Management 5
  8. 8. existing national arrangementsDeployable civilian capacity arrangements are found predominantly among a small number of westerncountries, notably australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Sweden, the UK andthe USa. 6 among some countries, these arrangements have assumed a central role in their government’snational identity and international engagement. Norway, for example, considers the deployment of civilianexperts as “central to Norway’s foreign policy interests’ (de Coning et al. 2010, p. 10). Elsewhere, such as inthe asia-Pacific region, arrangements that do exist are primarily ad hoc in nature.Governmental arrangements vary considerably in their scope and structure. Some arrangements arecentralised and whole-of-government efforts, some are decentralised and housed within discrete ministries,and some might be called ‘whole-of-nation’, as they draw on government personnel and/or the widernational community.rosters are the most common form of arrangement. the Norwegian resource Bank for Democracy andHuman rights (NOrDEM), established in 1993, is one of the first national rosters to have been established bya ministry of foreign affairs (Chandran et al. annex a 2009, p. 10). Since then, Norway has established variousadditional rosters, including a rule of law Pool, the CivPOl Pool, and the Defence Security Sector reformPool (de Coning et al. 2010, p. 11). interestingly, the CiSaC report argues that many of the existing civilianrosters are ‘more of a recruitment tool than a rapid deployment tool’ (Morris 2010, p. 25).Standby capacity arrangements are another common structure, one example being Canada’s Stabilization andreconstruction taskforce (Start). Start chairs an international, multilateral standby facility, Justice rapidresponse (Jrr), for which the Jrrs thirty-eight member states and twenty member organisations nominatepersonnel. this facility trains and deploys ‘active duty criminal justice and related professionals’ for investigations,fact-finding missions, and assessment missions, among other operations (Foreign affairs and international tradeCanada 2010). another example of a standby arrangement is the UK’s Civilian Stabilisation Group (CSG),which includes a Civil Service Stabilisation Cadre that draws upon currently employed civil servants and localgovernment employees, all of whom are available for short-notice short-term and longer-term deployments(UKaid 2010).to-date, there are few genuine standing capacity arrangements. two noteworthy examples are the australianFederal Police (aFP) international Deployment Group (iDG), and the US Civilian response Corps (CrC) activeComponent. the iDG comprises a standing corps of aFP officers who are able to deploy as first respondersin situations of instability to engage in remote patrols, protection, and civil disorder, among other tasks (aFP2010). to facilitate this standby capacity, the iDG established an Operational response Group (OrG), whichprovides a ‘ready response, highly-skilled tactical policing capability for rapid deployment to unstable domesticand international operational situations’ using stability response teams and tactical response teams (aFP 2010).Similarly, the US CrC active Component comprises full-time government employees whose job is to trainfor, and deploy as first responders within 48 hours, to situations of stabilisation, reconstruction and conflictprevention (US Office of the Coordinator for reconstruction and Stabilization 2010).there are no existing national arrangements that contain all three capacities: standing, standby and reserve.the US CrC currently has a standing component and a standby component, and has plans for a reservecomponent, though this has not yet been authorized or funded by Congress (Herbst 2010).National arrangements also vary in their personnel make-up. Some arrangements draw personnelexclusively from government departments and agencies, such as the US CrC (though the planned reserveComponent would include non-government US citizens). Some arrangements comprise both governmentCivil-Millitary working papers 6
  9. 9. and non-government personnel, such as the UK CSG, which draws upon civil-servants and localgovernment employees and non-civil servants, including former UN staff and retired military personnel.and, some arrangements, such as Germany’s Centre for international Peace Operations (ZiF), draw uponthe wider German community.the existing national arrangements also differ in the sectors of expertise they prioritise. it is worth nothingthat, although this paper is focused on civilian support to conflict and post-conflict situations, some of thesearrangements also enable civilian support to disaster response operations; australia and Canada are twoexamples. the German and UK arrangements maintain expertise across a wide range of issue areas, fromelections to media development, from livelihoods to strategic communications. in contrast, most otherarrangements appear to focus on a discrete number of areas of expertise. the australian Civilian Corps(aCC), for example, has identified six priority fields of expertise, including security, justice and reconciliation,and economic stability (ausaiD 2010). Unsurprisingly, rule of law and the security sector are among thesectors most often prioritized in these national arrangements.issues and Challengesthere has been considerable activity over the past decade in the development of rapidly deployable civiliancapacity arrangements. recent analysis of these arrangements highlights a number of issues of concern andidentifies various challenges that require particular attention.multitude of arrangements – ‘irrational’7 and ‘incompatible’8the multitude of national arrangements, while on the surface a positive development, is problematic. to-date,the majority of these arrangements appear to have been developed in isolation from one another. CiC hasdone considerable analysis in this area and has identified a number of major weaknesses and gaps: there isno shared assessment of the capacity needs, or common strategic and operational frameworks; and there islimited awareness among, and communication and coordination between, these arrangements, which has ledto a high-level of duplication (Chandran et al. 2009, p. 3). Significantly, many of these arrangements also appearto have ‘ineffective linkages to the multilateral institutions that lead most responses’ (Chandran et al. 2009, 4).the Challenges of ‘Whole-of-government’National arrangements within a whole-of-government framework can face particular coordination challengesgiven their multi-agency structure. the multi-agency structure of the UK CSG, for example, a joint office ofthe Department for international Development, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, and the Ministry ofDefence, has proved problematic. it has been noted by outside observers that this multi-agency is an ‘orphanwith three parents’ (Wiharta and Blair 2010, p. 100-1), and lacking ‘a single champion that is invested in itssuccess and that has the power to promote its mission and force coordination among reluctant bureaucrats’(Bensahel 2008, p. 3). No doubt as these issues are identified, solutions will be developed.realising the “imagined armies of Expert Civilians”: a Summary of National Civilian Capacity arrangements for Conflict Management 7
  10. 10. national ownership and Capacity developmentWhile there is no denying the need for international civilian capacity in the immediate aftermath of conflict,this capacity must be carefully considered and planned to avoid undermining the development of the hostcountry’s national capacities. yet, although all external, international efforts ought to be guided by thisimperative of national ownership, there has been a significant lack of dedicated focus and action in this area,except in the ‘context of international exit strategies from post-conflict countries’ (UNGa/SC 2009, p. 7).according to the 2009 Report of the Secretary-General on peacebuilding in the immediate aftermath of conflict,‘there is a tendency to assume that capacity has been completely depleted, rather than finding existingcapacity and strengthening it’ (UNGa/SC 2009, p. 15). this inattention and inaction is also visible on thequestion of building capacity in the global South, with CiC observing a ‘near total lack of investment in seriousefforts to build middle-income and developing country capacity’(Chandran et al. 2009, p. 4).awareness of existing international Capacitiesas with national capacity, any international civilian capacity response ought to be aware of other internationalcapacities already on the ground, draw on these capacities, and, where possible, reinforce (UNGa/SC 2009,p. 18) rather than duplicate them. However, this dynamic and interaction is difficult to achieve given themultitude of international actors that co-exist in a conflict or post-conflict environment, and the lack of clarityregarding their roles and responsibilities. this confusion is noted by CiC in their observation - ‘the currentUN architecture for post-conflict response is flawed: and these flaws contribute to the messy reality that isthe civilian response to conflict’ (Chandran et al. 2009, p. 13). the recent establishment of the PeacebuildingCommission and Peacebuilding Support Office is intended to provide a much-needed centralized UN focalpoint for peacebuilding, though their roles are still evolving (Chandran et al. 2009, p. 13).expertise RequiredCivilians are required for a multitude of functions in a post-conflict environment. the ability to locateappropriately skilled personnel to fill the more complex, nuanced positions remains a challenge. the CiC,for example, has observed that ‘...numerous western member states have actively solicited the names ofjudges for their civilian capacity rosters. there is little evidence, however, from our research, that retiredWestern judges are in high demand, or of high utility in (for example) afghanistan, liberia, Sierra leoneor timor-leste...’ (Chandran et al. 2009, p. 4). Particularly challenging are those roles that require politicalunderstanding and expertise, such as functions relating to ministry reform, where there is currently adearth of expertise.Civil-Millitary working papers 8
  11. 11. looking aheadthe field of rapidly deployable civilian capacity is in ‘flux’ (Chandran et al. 2009, p. 3); new arrangements arebeing developed and considered; initiatives are underway to improve existing systems and arrangements; andproposals are being put forward for new systems and arrangements. these include:new arrangements in development• the australian agency for international Development (ausaiD) launched the aCC in 2009 to enable ‘the rapid deployment of trained civilian specialists to countries experiencing or emerging from natural disasters or conflict’ (ausaiD). the aCC is planned to be operational by 2011, will draw upon government and non-government personnel, and will be managed by ausaiD in coordination with the australian Defence Force and the aFP.• the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign affairs and Norwegian refugee Council (NrC) established the Norwegian Standby Capacity Programme (NOrCaP) in 2009 to oversee the multiple civilian rosters that exist to support the UN and other international organisations. Since then, a new specialised civilian standby roster has been established, the Norwegian Standby roster for Civilian Observers (NOrOBS), to support the deployment of civilian experts to peace and reconciliation missions. in January 2010, the NrC commissioned a scoping study for the establishment of NOrOBS (de Coning et al. 2010, p. 16).• the German Federal agency for technical relief is currently exploring the possibility to establish a 30-member Standing Engineering Capacity to facilitate rapid deployment of units to UN missions (Chandran et al. annex a 2009, p. 9).• the EU is in the midst of reform and reorganisation that is affecting its civilian crisis management efforts. the EU’s Civilian Headline Goal process, which maps its civilian crisis management tasks, is also undergoing review and revision (Wiharta and Blair 2010, p. 96).• the aU is developing a rapid Deployment Capability as part of the african Standby Force to provide a stabilization force to respond to genocide, to provide assistance to peacekeeping missions, and to provide an early intervention presence (Chandran et al. annex a 2009, p. 2).• there is analysis underway within the South Pacific regarding the establishment of a regional rapid reaction mechanism to respond to situations of crisis in the Pacific, although this is at an early stage.9realising the “imagined armies of Expert Civilians”: a Summary of National Civilian Capacity arrangements for Conflict Management 9
  12. 12. support to existing systems and approaches• a number of recent efforts have begun to focus on strengthening the interoperability among national civilian capacity arrangements. the aCC and US S/CrS have signed a memorandum of understanding to enhance collaboration between the two organisations. the international Stabilization and Peacebuilding initiative (iSPi) was launched to strengthen civilian capability and interoperability among international actors, following the Washington Workshop on reconstruction, Stabilization, and Peacebuilding (October 2009) (US army Peacekeeping and Stability Operations institute 2010, p. 1). though iSPi is still in its infancy as an initiative, it is expected that it will include an international working group, a community of practice, a web platform and email listservs, among other elements. also, Germany’s ZiF is currently leading a project ‘Promoting Civilian Capacity for international Peace Operations‘(CivCaP) to ‘build and improve civilian capacity for peacekeeping, peacebuilding and civilian crisis management’ (Center for international Peace Operations 2010). the project includes an online portal facilitating information-sharing and support to practitioners involved in the human resources aspect of civilian deployment, including recruitment, training, deployment, and management of personnel.• the Stockholm international Peace research institute (SiPri) is currently carrying out a research project on ‘the Civilian Contribution to Peace Operations: assessing Progress and addressing Gaps’. the project is intended to ‘support policy development and other initiatives that will strengthen national, regional and international capacities to enhance civilian contributions to peace operations’ (Stockholm international Peace research institute 2010). Workshops have already been held for this project in africa and Europe, and most recently in the asia-Pacific region.• as mentioned earlier, a UN-appointed Senior advisory Group is currently conducting a review of international Civilian Capacities, assisted by the UN Peacebuilding Support Office. the review process will include a series of consultations and events culminating in an international Symposium on Civilian Capacity.proposals for new approaches• in their 2009 report Rapid Deployment of Civilians for Peace Operations: Status, Gaps, and Options, the CiC proposes a three-tiered or phased system for rapid deployment, focusing on UN-led integrated peace operations. the three phases are: ‘start up’, to deploy integrated Standing Early recovery teams to conduct sector-specific strategic assessment and planning; ‘ramp up’, to deploy Sector Specialist teams; and lastly ‘staff up’ to deploy long-term full-time personnel.10 this system would be backed-up by a number of new institutional arrangements for sourcing rapidly deployable personnel, including a rapid response Civilian Corps, task-specific Centers of Capacity, and a ‘GlobalDem’, a global roster of rosters.• in a Policy Brief by the Norwegian institute for international affairs (NUPi), de Coning advocates for the establishment of a global civilian capacity partnership to facilitate improved linkages between the UN recruitment system, the international training and rostering community, and interested Member States (de Coning 2010, p. 3–4).• CiSaC proposes the establishment of a North/South partnership between a limited number of countries to provide enabling standby capacities for the UN in the areas of policing, the judiciary and corrections (Morris 2010, p. 39–40).• the European Council on Foreign relations has provided a strong critique of the EU’s current crisis management missions, describing them as mostly ‘small, lacking in ambition and strategically irrelevant’ (Korski and Gowan 2009, p. 11). they propose a new mission concept that focuses on ‘scalable assistance partnerships’ and shifts responsibility away from diplomats in Brussels to civilians on the ground to ensure speed, security and self-sufficiency (Korski and Gowan 2009, p. 15).Civil-Millitary working papers 10
  13. 13. ConClusionsPeace and stabilisation missions have become increasingly civilianised over the past decade. in response, therehas been considerable activity to develop rapidly deployable civilian capacity arrangements in support ofmissions deployed to conflict and post-conflict countries. Currently, these arrangements are predominantlynational and found among a small number of western countries. Significant challenges exist, relating to themultiplicity of arrangements and the dearth of multilateral linkages, the delicate balance between providingneeded international capacity and building host nation capacity, the inherent difficulties associated withmulti-agency structures, and the interaction with international civilian capacities already on the ground. Newarrangements are currently being developed and considered, including in the global South, initiatives areunderway to improve existing arrangements, and proposals are being put forward for new arrangements.endnotes1 Mr. lakhdar Brahimi quoted in UNSC ‘5895th meeting’ 2008, p. 10.2 the United Nations defines the immediate aftermath of conflict as the first two years after the end of the main conflict in a country.3 On 7 March 2011, after the finalisation of this paper, the report of the Senior advisory Group for the review of international Civilian Capacities was released. the report is available at: http://www.civcapreview.org/linkClick.aspx?fileticket=SE-205trKg0% 3D&tabid=3188&language=en-US.4 these include the UN High Commissioner for Human rights’ rapid response roster, the Department of Political affairs’ Mediation Support Unit’s Standby team, the DPKO’s Standing Police Capacity (SPC), and the inter-agency UN Protection Standby Capacity Project (ProCaP) and Gender Standby Capacity Project (GenCaP).5 Canada’s Civilian reserve (CaNaDEM) and the african Civilian response Capacity for Peace Support Operations (aDFEM) are two examples.6 annex a of Chandran et al. 2009 provides a detailed overview of existing national, multilateral and civil society civilian deployment capacities, 1–23.7 Note, this term is also used to describe multilateral deployable teams (Chandran et al. 2009, p. 10).8 the UK Government has gone so far as to describe these arrangements as ‘at times incompatible’ (UNSC ‘letter’ 2008, p. 3).9 this information is from: ‘Specific terms of reference: Support Study on options to establish a regional rapid reaction Mechanism to address situations of crisis in the Pacific’.10 this system is based on the idea that the ‘primary gap in civilian capacity is substantive first, and then administrative and logistical’ (Chandran et al. 2009, p. 5, 8).realising the “imagined armies of Expert Civilians”: a Summary of National Civilian Capacity arrangements for Conflict Management 11
  14. 14. bibliogRaphyausaiD, ‘What is the australian Civilian Corps?’, viewed 26 October 2010, http://www.ausaid.gov.au/acc/.australian Department of Defence 2010, ‘australia’s commitment in afghanistan fact sheet’.australian Federal Police, ‘international Deployment Group’, viewed 26 October 2010, http://www.afp.gov.au/policing/international-deployment-group.aspx.--, ‘international Deployment Group’, viewed 27 October 2010, http://www.afp.gov.au/policing/international-deployment-group.aspx and http://www.afp.gov.au/policing/international-deployment-group/operational-response-group.aspx.Bensahel, N 2008, ‘international Perspectives on interagency reform’, testimony presented before the Housearmed Services Committee, Subcommittee on Oversight and investigations, raND Corporation.Center for international Peace Operations, ‘CivCaP - Civilian Capacity for Peace Operations’, ZiF, viewed 14September 2010, https://www.civcap.info/.Chandran, r et al. 2009, rapid Deployment of Civilians for Peace Operations: Status, Gaps, and Options, NyUCenter on international Cooperation.de Coning, C 2010, ‘Civilian Capacity in United Nations Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding Missions’, NUPiPolicy Brief.de Coning, C et al. 2010, ‘Scoping Study: Norwegian Standby roster for Civilian Observers (NOrOBS) -the role and Position of NOrOBS in the Context of Norway’s Contribution toCivilian Peacemaking, Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding’, NUPi report, Norwegian institute of international affairs.Cronin, PM 2008, ‘irregular Warfare: New Challenges for Civil-Military relations’, Strategic Forum, no.234.Foreign affairs and international trade Canada, ‘Jrr – Justice rapid response’, viewed 27 October 2010,http://www.international.gc.ca/start-gtsr/Jrr-irSJ.aspx.Guehenno, JM 2009, ‘Foreward’ in D Korski and r Gowan, Can the EU rebuild failing states? A review of Europe’scivilian capacities, European Council on Foreign relations.Herbst, J 2010, ‘ambassador John Herbst, Coordinator for reconstruction and Stabilization on S/CrS 2009year in review’, viewed 20 September 2010, http://www.state.gov/s/crs/rls/remarks/137532.htm.Korski, D and Gowan, r 2009, Can the EU rebuild failing states? A review of Europe’s civilian capacities, EuropeanCouncil on Foreign relations.leahy, P 2010, ‘How do we know when we are at war?’ Perspectives, lowy institute for international Policy.Morris, E 2010, ‘Conjuring Spirits from the vasty Deep: a User’s Guide to Proposals for Strengthening UNCivilian Capacity in Peace Operations’, Center for international Security and Cooperation, Stanford University.Stockholm international Peace research institute, ‘Civilian contribution to peace operations’, viewed 27October 2010, http://www.sipri.org/research/conflict/pko/civilian_contribution.UKaid, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, and Ministry of Defence, ‘UK Civilian Stabilisation Group’, viewed27 October 2010, http://www.stabilisationunit.gov.uk/index.php/civilian-stabilisation-group.Civil-Millitary working papers 12
  15. 15. United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations/Department of Field Support 2009, a NewPartnership agenda: Charting a New Horizon for United Nations Peacekeeping.United Nations General assembly 2005, ‘resolution adopted by the General assembly: World SummitOutcome’, a/rES/60/1.-- 2010, ‘Secretary-General names senior advisory group to guide review of international Civilian Capacities’,viewed 8 October 2010, http://www.un.org/news/press/docs/2010/pbc65.doc.htm.United Nations General assembly/Security Council (UNGa/SC) 2009, report of the Secretary-General onpeacebuilding in the immediate aftermath of conflict, a/63/881–S/2009/304.-- 2000, ‘report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operation’s, a/55/305–S/2000/809.United Nations Security Council 2008, ‘Security Council: 5895th meeting, tuesday, 20 May 2008, 10 a.m.,New york’, S/Pv.5895.-- 2008, ‘Statement by the President of the Security Council’, S/PrSt/2008/16.-- 2008, ‘letter dated 2 May 2008 from the Permanent representative of the United Kingdom of GreatBritain and Northern ireland to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council’,S/2008/291.-- 1999, ‘report of the Secretary-General to the Security Council on the Protection of Civilians in armedConflict’, S/1999/957.US army Peacekeeping and Stability Operations institute 2010, ‘international Stabilization and Peacebuildinginitiative (Concept Note – 29 January 2010 – For Circulation)’.US Office of the Coordinator for reconstruction and Stabilization, ‘Job Opportunities’, viewed 27 October2010, http://www.crs.state.gov/index.cfm?fuseaction=public.display&shortcut=4tWM.Wiharta, S and Blair, S 2010, ‘Civilian roles in peace operations’, SiPri yearbook 2010: armaments,Disarmament and international Security, Oxford University Press.realising the “imagined armies of Expert Civilians”: a Summary of National Civilian Capacity arrangements for Conflict Management 13

×