Key Concepts Representation


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Key Concepts Representation

  1. 1. Key Concepts: Representation
  2. 2. >More than 30% of advertising still portrays women as slim blonde bimbos under the age of 30;   >Over half of the men featured in adverts are over 30;   >Male actors in adverts are nearly always dark-haired; females are typically blonde;   >Only 11% of men featured in adverts are slim and muscular;   >Women are rarely shown in the driving seat when men and women travel together.   Ofcom   
  3. 3. >The media do not present reality; they 're-present' it. The media present a selection of reality.   >In the case of TV Drama, the scriptwriter, camera operator, the editor and the producer all make selections and changes before the drama is broadcast.   >Magazines and newspapers go through a similar process of selection involving the journalist, the picture editor, sub-editor and the editor.   >This process of selection is called MEDIATION.   >These manufactured versions of reality are based on the values of the producers and, in turn, the values of the larger society and culture.
  4. 4. >A media representation is a depiction, a likeness or a constructed image of something in real life.   >A representation can be of:   > individual people (Barrack Obama, Jade Goody, David Beckham);   > social groups (age groups, gender, racial groups);   > ideas (law and order, unemployment);   > events ( 2010 Olympics, FA Cup Final)    
  5. 5. A representation can be a single image, a sequence of images or a whole programme or film;    A representation can take the form of written words, spoken words or song lyrics.      
  6. 6. >Representations invite audiences to understand them and agree with them in certain preferred ways. However as we saw with Stuart Hall's encoding/decoding model the audience do not have to agree with the preferred meaning of the representation.   > A representation is composed of repeated elements - the more we see these elements repeated, the more representation will appear natural or 'normal'.   > We are invited to either identify with or recognise the representation - in TV Drama we are positioned to identify with lead characters - this is through their dialogue and repeated use of the close-up.    
  7. 7. > The media make categories of people, events or ideas - categories include labels such as 'the unemployed', 'asylum seekers' or 'chavs'.   > Representations contain a point of view - all representations contain the point of view of the people who made them; the IDEOLOGY of the producer affects the representation.   > Representations have a mode of address - hidden behind the apparent naturalness of the representation will be some assumptions about who you are. This is the mode of address the producer takes; does the producer assume you will share their values?   Adapted from: Media & Meaning: An Introduction Stewart, Lavelle & Kowaltzke  
  8. 8. >Noam Chomsky says 'the media serve the interests of state and corporate power, which are closely linterlinked, framing their reporting and analysis in a manner supportive of established privilege and limiting debate accordingly'   >To get a deeper understanding of the ways representation functions ask the following questions about media texts:   > Who made it? >When was it made? > Where was it made? >What are its social/political/cultural origins? > What are its purposes? >Who benefits from the representation or whose point of     view does it support?