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Understanding RF Fundamentals and the Radio Design of Wireless Networks

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This advanced session focuses on deep-dive understanding of the often overlooked Radio Frequency part of designing and deploying a Wireless LAN Network. It discusses 802.11 radio MIMO APs and antennas …

This advanced session focuses on deep-dive understanding of the often overlooked Radio Frequency part of designing and deploying a Wireless LAN Network. It discusses 802.11 radio MIMO APs and antennas placements when to use a DAS system antenna patterns. It covers the main environments such as carpeted offices campuses and conference centers, providing feedback based on lessons learned from challenging deployments such as outdoor/stadium/rail deployments and manufacturing areas. Learn More: http://www.cisco.com/go/wireless

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  • 1. Understanding RFFundamentals and the RadioDesign of Wireless NetworksFred NiehausTechnical Marketing Engineer WNBUBRKEWN-3016 BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 1
  • 2. Session Abstract This advanced session focuses on the deep-dive understanding of the often overlooked Radio Frequency part of the design and deployment of a Wireless LAN Network. It discusses 802.11 Radio, MIMO, Access Points and antenna placements, when to use a DAS system, antenna patterns… It covers the main environments such as carpeted offices, campuses and conference centers, and it provides feedback based on lessons learned from challenging deployments such as outdoor/stadium/rail deployments and manufacturing areas. BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 2
  • 3. Session Agenda – Objectives • What is radio how did we get here? • Basic 802.11 Radio Hardware & Terminology • 802.11 Antenna Basics – Single & Diversity Antennas • Interpreting antenna patterns – Cisco Richfield Facility • Diversity, Multipath, 802.11n RF characteristics • DAS (Distributed Antenna Systems) overview • Choosing the right Access Point • Survey Tools BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 3
  • 4. What We Won’t Be Covering • Wireless Security • Clean-air (separate session for that) • WIDS/WIPS (Wireless Intrusion Prevention Service) • High density deployments (separate session for that) • LBS (Location Base Services) • Walled garden, captive portals • WLAN management • 802.11n beyond RF characteristics BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 4
  • 5. What Is Radio?How Did We End Up on These Frequencies? BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5
  • 6. Basic Understanding of Radio… AC Frequency 60 Hz or 60 CPS – Cycles Per Second Waves travel back and forth Battery is DC Typical home is AC so fast they leave the wire Direct Current Alternating Current Popular Radio Frequencies:How fast the AC current goes is its ―frequency‖ AM Radio 1100 kHz (1.100 MHz)AC is very low frequency 60 Hz (Cycles Per Second) Shortwave 3-30 MHzRadio waves are measured in kHz, MHz and GHz FM Radio 88-108 MHz Weather Radio 162.40 MHzThe lower the frequency the physically longer the radio Cellular Phones 800-900 MHzwave – Higher frequencies have much shorter waves as Wi-Fi 802.11b/g 2.4 GHzsuch take more power to move them greater distances. Wi-Fi 802.11a 5 GHzThis is why 2.4 GHz goes further then 5 GHz(given same amount of RF power) Vintage RF Transmitter BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 6
  • 7. A Radio Needs a Proper Antenna As the frequency goes up the radiating element gets smaller Cisco antennas are Omni-Directional antennas Directional antennas like this like the one on the left, ―Patch‖ antenna radiate identified by color radiate much like forward like placing tin foil Blue indicates 5 GHz a raw light bulb would behind the light bulb or tilting Black indicates 2.4 GHz everywhere in all directions the lamp shadeAntennas are custom made for the Note: Same RF energy isfrequency to be used. Some antennas used but results in greater range as its focused at thehave two elements to allow for both cost of other coverage areasfrequencies in one antenna housing BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 7
  • 8. Complex Modulation Schemes Radio technology has a lot in common with that old twisted pair phone line that started out at 300 baud and then quickly increased In order to get faster data rates, (throughput) into the radio signal, complex modulation schemes as QPSK or 64 bit QAM is used. Generally speaking, the faster the data rate the more powerful signal Example of 802.11n Modulation Coding Schemes needs to be at the receiver to beQAM or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation is one decoded.of the fastest modulation types actually sendingtwo signals that are out of phase with each other Take-away here is that 802.11n is aand then somehow ―putting all the pieces back method of using special modulationtogether‖ for even greater throughput. techniques and *not* specific to a frequency like 2.4 or 5 GHzThis is one of the advantages of 802.11n 802.11n can be used in either band BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 8
  • 9. The Radio Spectrum in the USSource US Department of Commercehttp://www.ntia.doc.gov/osmhome/allochrt.PDFBRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 9
  • 10. Wi-Fi Radio Spectrum The first frequencies available for Wi-Fi use was in the 2.4 GHz range As Wi-Fi popularity and usage increased the FCC allocated additional spectrum in the 5 GHz band. 2.4 GHz 5 GHz The spectrum we use today is also used byWi-Fi is ―unlicensed‖ so it doesn’t show up in Amateur (Ham Radio) andthe overall spectrum allocation as a service other services such as radio location (radar).But it has beginnings in the ISM (industrial There is more bandwidthScientific Medical) band where it was not in 5 GHz and mechanismsdesirable or profitable to license such short are in place to co-existrange devices. with services such as radar BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 10
  • 11. Wi-Fi Radio Spectrum The 2.4 GHz spectrum has only 3 non-overlapping channels 1,6 and 11 (US) There are plenty of channels in the 5 GHz spectrum and they do not overlap 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz are different portions of the radio band and usually require separate antennas Most if not all 5 GHzEven today many portable devices in use are limited to 2.4 devices also have supportGHz only including newer devices but this is changing for 2.4 GHz however there are still many 2.4 GHz only802.11b/g is 2.4 GHz802.11a is 5 GHz devices.802.11n (can be either band) 2.4 or 5 GHz BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 11
  • 12. Basic 802.11 RF TerminologyHardware Identification BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 12
  • 13. Common RF terms• Attenuation – a loss in force or intensity – As radio waves travel in media such as coaxial cable attenuation occurs.• BER – Bit Error Rate - the fraction of bits transmitted that are received incorrectly.• Channel Bonding – act of combining more than one channel for additional bandwidth• dBd – abbreviation for the gain of an antenna system relative to a dipole• dBi – abbreviation for the gain of an antenna system relative to an isotropic antenna• dBm – decibels milliwatt -- abbreviation for the power ratio in decibels (dB) of the measured power referenced to one milliwatt of transmitted RF power.• Isotropic antenna – theoretical ―ideal‖ antenna used as a reference for expressing power in logarithmic form.• MRC – Maximal Ratio Combining a method that combines signals from multiple antennas taking into account factors such as signal to noise ratio to decode the signal with the best possible Bit Error Rate.• Multipath – refers to a reflected signal that combines with a true signal resulting in a weaker or some cases a stronger signal.• mW – milliwatt a unit of power equal to one thousandth of a watt (usually converted to dBm)• Noise Floor – The measure of the signal created from the sum of all the noise sources and unwanted signals appearing at the receiver. This can be adjacent signals, weak signals in the background that don’t go away, electrical noise from electromechanical devices etc.• Receiver Sensitivity – The minimum received power needed to successfully decode a radio signal with an acceptable BER. This is usually expressed in a negative number depending on the data rate. For example the AP-1140 Access Point requires an RF strength of at least negative -91 dBm at 1 MB and an even higher strength higher RF power -79 dBm to decode 54 MB• Receiver Noise Figure – The internal noise present in the receiver with no antenna present (thermal noise).• SNR – Signal to Noise Ratio – The ratio of the transmitted power from the AP to the ambient (noise floor) energy present.• TxBF – Transmit beam forming the ability to transmit independent and separately encoded data signals, so-called streams, from each of the multiple transmit antennas BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 13
  • 14. Identifying RF Connectors RP-TNC Connector ―RP-SMA‖ Connector Used on most Cisco Access Points Used on some Linksys Products ―N‖ Connector ―SMA‖ Connector Used on the 1520 Mesh and 1400 Bridge ―Pig tail‖ type cable assemblies BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 14
  • 15. Identifying Different Cable TypesLMR- 400 Foil & shield LMR – 1200 Leaky Coax shield cut away on one side ½ inch Heliax (Hardline) BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 15
  • 16. Antenna Cables – LMR Series This is a chart depicting different types of Times Microwave LMR Series coaxial cable. Cisco uses Times Microwave cable and has standardized on two types: Cisco Low Loss (LMR-400) and Cisco Ultra Low Loss (LMR-600). LMR-600 is recommended when longer cable distances are required Larger cables can be used but connectors are difficult to find and installBRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 16
  • 17. Antenna Cables LMR-400 is 3/8 inch Cisco Low Loss LMR-600 is ½ inch Cisco Ultra Low Loss Trivia: LMR Stands for Land Mobile RadioBRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 17
  • 18. Antenna Cables – Plenum Plenum is the air-handling space that is found above drop ceiling tiles or below floors. Because of fire regulations this type of cable must burn with low smoke The 3 Ft white cable attached to most Cisco antennas is plenum rated. Our outdoor cable (black) is not PlenumIf the cable is ORANGE in color it is usually Plenum cable is morePlenum Rated. expensive BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 18
  • 19. 802.11 Antenna BasicsBRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 19
  • 20. Antenna Basics• Antenna - a device which radiates and/or receives radio signals• Antennas are usually designed to operate at a specific frequency Wide-Band antennas can support additional frequencies but it’s a trade-off and usually not with the same type of performance.• Antenna Gain is characterized using dBd or dBi Antenna gain can be measured in decibels against a reference antenna called a dipole and the unit of measure is dBd (d for dipole) Antenna gain can be measured in decibels against a computer modeled antenna called an ―isotropic‖ dipole <ideal antenna> and the unit of measure is dBi (i for isotropic dipole) (computer modeled ideal antenna)• WiFi antennas are typically rated in dBi. dBi is a HIGHER value (marketing folks like higher numbers) Conventional radio (Public safety) tend to use a dBd rating. To convert dBd to dBi simply add 2.14 so a 3 dBd = 5.14 dBi Again… dBd is decibel dipole, dBi is decibel isotropic. BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 20
  • 21. How Does a Omni-Directional Dipole Radiate? The radio signal leaves the center wire using the ground wire (shield) as a counterpoise to radiate in a 360 degree pattern BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 21
  • 22. Antenna Theory (Dipole & Monopole) Dipole Monopole A Monopole requires a ground plane – (conductive surface)A dipole does not require aground plane as the bottom halfis the ground (counterpoise). 808 Ft Broadcast Monopole WSM 650 AM (erected in 1932) BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 22
  • 23. Antenna Theory (Dipole & Monopole) Monopoles were added to our antenna line primarily for aesthetics and require a metal surface to radiate BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 23
  • 24. How Does a Directional Antenna Radiate? Although you don’t get additional RF power with a directional antenna it does concentrate the available energy into a given direction resulting in greater range much like bringing a flashlight into focus. Also a receive benefit - by listening in a given direction, this can limit the reception of unwanted signals (interference) from other directions for better performanceA dipole called the ―driven element‖ is placed in front of other elements. This motivates the signal to go forward into a given direction for gain. (Inside view of the Cisco AIR-ANT1949 13.5 dBi Yagi) BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 24
  • 25. Patch Antenna a Look Inside Patch antennas can have multiple radiating elements that combine for gain. Sometimes a metal plate is used behind the antenna as a reflector for more gain 9.5 dBi Patch, AIR-ANT5195-R BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 25
  • 26. Antennas Identified by Color Black indicates 2.4 GHz Blue indicates 5 GHz Orange indicates 2.4 & 5 GHz Orange indicates 2.4 & 5 GHz BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 26
  • 27. Most Common 2.4 GHz Antennasfor Access Points (Single and Diversity)Antenna Description AIR-ANT4941 2.2 dBi Swivel-mount Dipole; most popular mounts directly to radio, low gain, indoor AIR-ANT5959 2 dBi Diversity Ceiling-mount Omni AIR-ANT1729 6 dBi Wall-mount Patch AIR-ANT1728 5.2 dBi Ceiling-mount Omni AIR-ANT3549 9 dBi Wall-mount Patch BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 27
  • 28. Most Common 5 GHz Antennasfor Access Points (Single and Diversity)Antenna Description AIR-ANT5135D-R 3.5 dBi Omni-directional Antenna; mounts directly to radio, low gain, indoor AIR-ANT5145V-R 4.5 dBi Omni-directional Diversity Antenna; unobtrusive, ceiling mount, low gain, indoor AIR-ANT5160V-R 6 dBi Omni-directional Antenna; ceiling or mast mount, indoor/outdoor AIR-ANT5170P-R 7 dBi Patch Diversity Antenna; directional, small profile, wall mount, indoor/outdoor AIR-ANT5195-R 9.5 dBi Patch Antenna; directional, small profile, wall mount, indoor/outdoor BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 28
  • 29. Understanding and InterpretingAntenna PatternsBRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 29
  • 30. Understanding Antenna PatternsDipole (Omni-Directional) Low gain dipoles radiate everywhere think ―light bulb‖ BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 30
  • 31. Understanding Antenna PatternsMonopole (Omni-Directional) MIMO When three monopoles are next to each other – the radiating elements interact slightly with each other – The higher gain 4 dBi also changes elevation more compared to the lower gain 2.2 dBi Dipole BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 31
  • 32. Understanding Antenna PatternsPatch (Directional) Patch Antenna BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 32
  • 33. Understanding Antenna PatternsPatch (Higher Gain Directional) Four element Patch Array BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 33
  • 34. Understanding Antenna PatternsPatch (Higher Gain Directional) Four element Patch Array BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 34
  • 35. Understanding Antenna PatternsSector (Higher Gain Directional) Elevation plane has nulls due to high gain 14 dBi AIR-ANT2414S-R 14 dBi Sector 2.4 GHz BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 35
  • 36. Understanding Antenna PatternsSector (Higher Gain Directional)Elevation plane has nulls due to high gain 14 dBibut antenna was designed with ―Null-Fill‖meaning we scaled back the overall antenna AIR-ANT2414S-Rgain so as to have less nulls or low signal spots 14 dBi Sector 2.4 GHzon the ground. BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 36
  • 37. The Richfield Ohio (Aironet) FacilityA Quick Peek Where Antennas Are Designed... BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 37
  • 38. The Richfield Ohio (Aironet) Facility Designs Antennas and Qualifies 3rd Party AntennasSatimo software compatible with Cisco Anechoic chamber using an 18-inchStargate-64 System. Basicmeasurement tool is 8753ES absorber all the way around 1-6 GHzNetwork Analyzer. Anechoic means ―without echo‖ BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 38
  • 39. FCC Regulatory Compliance Testing Is AlsoDone at the Richfield Ohio Facility. BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 39
  • 40. Yes We Have Just a Few Access Points… BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 40
  • 41. RF Screen Rooms EverywhereCopper Shielding (Faraday Cage) BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 41
  • 42. RF Screen RoomsCopper Shielding on Top Metal on BottomCables are typically fiber and exit Doors have copper fingers andthrough well shielded holes latch tight forming an RF seal BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 42
  • 43. RF Screen RoomsCopper Shielding (Faraday Cage)BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 43
  • 44. Cisco Richfield Facility BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 44
  • 45. Understanding Multipathand Diversity—802.11n CharacteristicsBRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 45
  • 46. Understanding MultipathMultipath Can Change Signal Strength As radio signals bounce off metal objects they often combine at the receiver This often results in either an improvement ―constructive‖ or a ―destructive‖ type of interference Note: Bluetooth type radios that ―hop‖ across the entire band can reduce multipath interference by constantly changing the angles of multipath as the radio wave increases and decreases in size (as the frequency constantly changes) however throughput using these methods are very limited but multipath is less of a problem BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 46
  • 47. Understanding MultipathMultipath Reflections Can Cause Distortion As the radio waves bounce they can arrive at slightly different times and angles causing signal distortion and potential signal strength fading Different modulation schemes fair better – 802.11a/g uses a type of modulation based 802.11n with more receivers can on symbols and is an improvement over the use destructive interference older modulation types used with 802.11b (multipath) as a benefit but it is best clients to reduce multipath conditions BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 47
  • 48. Antenna Placement Considerations AP antennas need placements that are away from reflective surfaces for best performance Avoid metal support beams, lighting and other obstructions. When possible or practical to do so, always mount the Access Point (or remote antennas) as close to the actual users as you reasonably can Avoid the temptation to hide the Access Point in crawl spaces or areas that compromise the ability to radiate well Think of the Access Point as you would a light or sound source, would you really put a light there or a speaker there? Never mount antennas near metal objects as it causes increased multipath and directionality BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 48
  • 49. Understanding Diversity (SISO)802.11a/b/g Diversity Has Just One Radio Non-802.11n diversity Access Points use two antennas sampling each antenna choosing the one with the least multi-path distortion Cisco 802.11a/b/g Access Points start off favoring the right (primary antenna port) then if multi-path or packet retries occur it will sample the left port and switch to that antenna port if the signal is better. Note: Diversity Antennas should always cover the same cell area BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 49
  • 50. Understanding Diversity (MIMO)MRC Maximal Ratio Combining (Three Radios) • Receiver benefit as each antenna has a radio section • MRC is done at Baseband using DSP techniques • Multiple antennas and multiple RF sections are used in parallel • The multiple copies of the received signal are corrected and combined at Baseband for maximum SNR (Signal to Noise) benefit • This is a significant benefit over traditional 802.11a/b/g diversity where only one radio is used BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 50
  • 51. Understanding 802.11 MIMO Terminology MIMO (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output)Some RF components of 802.11n include:MRC – Maximal Ratio Combining a method that combines signals from multiple antennas taking into accountfactors such as signal to noise ratio to decode the signal with the best possible Bit Error Rate.TxBF – Transmit beam forming – The ability to transmit independent and separately encoded data signals, so-called ―streams‖ from each of the multiple transmit antennas.Channel Bonding – Use of more than one frequency or channel for more bandwidth.Spatial Multiplexing – A technique for boosting wireless bandwidth and range by taking advantage of multiplexingwhich is the ability within the radio chipset to send out information over two or more transmitters known as ―spatialstreams‖.Note: Cisco 802.11n Access Points utilize twotransmitters and three receivers per radio module. MIMO is pronounced ―My Moe‖ not ―Me Moe‖ BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 51
  • 52. Technical Elements of 802.11n Packet Backward MIMO 40Mhz Channels Aggregation Compatibility 40Mhz Packet Backward MIMO Channels Aggregation Compatibility BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 52
  • 53. Aspects of 802.11n Packet Backward MIMO 40Mhz Channels Aggregation Compatibility MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output) With Beam Forming Transmissions Arrive in Phase, Increasing Signal Strength Without Beam Forming Transmissions Arrive out of Phase and signal is weaker Performed by Ensures Signal Increases Works with Transmitter Received in Receive non-MIMO and (Talk Better) Phase Sensitivity MIMO ClientsBeam Forming Maximal Ratio Combining Spatial Multiplexing BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 53
  • 54. Aspects of 802.11n Packet Backward 40Mhz Channels Aggregation Compatibility MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output) Without MRC With MRC Multiple Signals Sent; Multiple Signals Sent and Combined One Signal Chosen at the Receiver Increasing Fidelity MIMO AP Performance Performed by Combines Increases Works with Receiver Multiple Received Receive non-MIMO and (Hear Better) Signals Sensitivity MIMO ClientsBeam Forming Maximal Ratio Combining Spatial Multiplexing BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 54
  • 55. Aspects of 802.11n Packet Backward 40Mhz Channels Aggregation Compatibility MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output) Information Is Split and Transmitted on Multiple Streams stream 1 MIMO AP stream 2 Performance Transmitter and Concurrent Increases Requires MIMO Receiver Transmission on Bandwidth Client Participate Same ChannelBeam Forming Maximal Ratio Combining Spatial Multiplexing BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 55
  • 56. Aspects of 802.11n Packet Backward MIMO 40Mhz Channels Aggregation Compatibility MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output) 40Mhz Channels Moving from 2 to 4 Lanes 20-MHz Gained Space 40-MHz 20-MHz 40-MHz = 2 aggregated 20-MHz channels—takes advantage of the reserved channel space through bonding to gain more than double the data rate of two 20-MHz channels BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 56
  • 57. Aspects of 802.11n Packet Backward MIMO 40Mhz Channels Aggregation Compatibility Packet Aggregation 40Mhz Channels Carpooling Is More Efficient Than Driving Alone Without Packet Aggregation Data Data Data 802.11n 802.11n 802.11n Unit Unit Unit Overhead Overhead Overhead Packet Packet Packet 802.11n Data Unit Overhead Packet Packet Packet With Packet Aggregation BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 57
  • 58. Aspects of 802.11n Packet Backward MIMO 40Mhz Channels Aggregation Compatibility Backward Compatibility Packet Aggregation 2.4 GHz 5 GHz 11n Operates in Both Frequencies 802.11ABG Clients Interoperate with 11n AND Experience Performance Improvements BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 58
  • 59. Understanding MCS Rates and Channel Bonding Channel Bonding: 40MHz 802.11n channel Wider channels means more bandwidth per AP 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 142.402 GHz 20 MHz channel 2.483 GHzMCS rates 0-15 applyRegardless of channelBonding.When you bond a channelYou have a control channelYou have a data (extension)ChannelLegacy clients use controlChannel for communication BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 59
  • 60. 2.4 GHz, 40 MHz BandwidthsTip: Channel bonding in 2.4 GHz should be avoided in enterprisedeployments use 5 GHz as there are no overlapping channels to worry about BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 60
  • 61. Example UNII-3 Channel Bonding In 40-MHz you define the control channel this is the channel that is used for communication by Legacy .11a clients. The Extension channel is the bonded channel that High Throughput ―HT‖ 802.11n clients use in addition to the control channel for higher throughput as they send data on BOTH channelsBRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 61
  • 62. Channel Bonding – Subcarriers802.11n uses both 20-MHz and 40-MHzchannels.The 40-MHz channelsin 802.11n are twoadjacent 20-MHzchannels, bondedtogether.When using the 40-MHz bonded channel, 802.11n takes advantage of the fact that each 20-MHz channelhas a small amount of the channel that is reserved at the top and bottom, to reduce interference in thoseadjacent channels.When using 40-MHz channels, the top of the lower channel and the bottom of the upper channel donthave to be reserved to avoid interference. These small parts of the channel can now be used to carryinformation. By using the two 20-MHz channels more efficiently in this way, 802.11n achieves slightly morethan doubling the data rate when moving from 20-MHz to 40-MHz channels BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 62
  • 63. Understanding Guard IntervalThe guard intervalthat is part of eachOFDM symbol is aperiod of time that isused to minimizeinter-symbolinterference.This type ofinterference iscaused in multipathenvironments whenthe beginning of anew symbol arrivesat the receiver beforethe end of the last Default mode for 802.11n is 800 nanosecondssymbol is done. If you set a shorter interval it will go back to long in the event retries occur BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 63
  • 64. MCS Index of 802.11n Rates NSD NCBPS GI = 800ns GI = 400ns Number of Rate in Rate in Rate in Rate in MCS spatial CodingIndex streams Modulation rate 20 40 20MHz 40MHz 20MHz 40MHz 20MHz 40MHz 0 1 BPSK ½ 52 108 52 108 6.5 13.5 7 2/9 15 1 1 QPSK ½ 52 108 104 216 13 27 14 4/9 30 2 1 QPSK ¾ 52 108 104 216 19.5 40.5 21 2/3 45 3 1 16-QAM ½ 52 108 208 432 26 54 28 8/9 60 4 1 16-QAM ¾ 52 108 208 432 39 81 43 1/3 90 5 1 64-QAM 2/3 52 108 312 648 52 108 57 7/9 120 6 1 64-QAM ¾ 52 108 312 648 58.5 121.5 65 135 7 1 64-QAM 5/6 52 108 312 648 65 135 72 2/9 157.5 8 2 BPSK ½ 52 108 104 216 13 27 14 4/9 30 9 2 QPSK ½ 52 108 208 432 26 54 28 8/9 60 10 2 QPSK ¾ 52 108 208 432 39 81 43 1/3 90 11 2 16-QAM ½ 52 108 416 864 52 108 57 7/9 120 12 2 16-QAM ¾ 52 108 416 864 78 162 86 2/3 180 13 2 64-QAM 2/3 52 108 624 1296 104 216 115 5/9 240 14 2 64-QAM ¾ 52 108 624 1296 117 243 130 270 15 2 64-QAM 5/6 52 108 624 1296 130 270 144 4/9 300 BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 64
  • 65. So to Recap – 802.11n Operation Throughput improves when all things come together 802.11a/g AP 54 48 36 24 Mbps (non-MIMO) MRC TxBF 802.11a/g client (non-MIMO) Spatial Multiplexing 802.11n AP 54 Mbps MRC (MIMO) TxBF 802.11a/g client Spatial Multiplexing (non-MIMO) MRC 802.11n AP 300 Mbps  Channel Bonding (MIMO) TxBF Spatial Multiplexing 802.11n client (MIMO) BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 65
  • 66. Understanding DAS AntennaSystems (Very Brief Overview) BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 66
  • 67. Antenna Technologies ―DAS‖Traditional DAS Deployments over Coaxial Cable• DAS – Distributed Antenna System• Mostly seen in mining, healthcare and manufacturing• Major benefits of DAS include: Carry multiple wireless signals simultaneously (cellular, paging, etc) Minimize work above ceiling Permits locations such as wiring closets where it is easier to replace• Disadvantages Usually one antenna per AP – Implementations vary among vendors Performance and/or support issues – Sometimes DAS requirement is not for Wi-Fi but for in-building cellular so WLAN cell sizes suffer Not a Cisco antenna – DAS antennas are not defined in Cisco’s Wireless Control System (WCS) must choose a ―close match‖ Reduced technology migration paths - 802.11n can be more difficult to support BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 67
  • 68. How Does DAS Work?• DAS works by placing multiple radio services on a common cable or antenna system using selective filters and/or a low gain multiband antenna.• Two methods are typically used ―Leaky coax‖ and ―discrete wideband antennas‖ or sometimes a combination of both.• Note: Cisco recommends using only discrete wideband antennas (one antenna per AP) as this prevents breaking key features like rogue AP detection and location. Leaky ―radiating‖ coaxial cable Bad for location based applications Wide-Band antenna BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 68
  • 69. Leaky Coax DAS Cable has shielding removed on one side – center radiates Leaky coaxial systems are sometimes used in mining applications and assembly lines (think above assembly work benches)To be effective, it needs to be installed in very close proximity to the actual WLAN users (distances are short typically 5-10 Ft) and will not work at higher 5 GHz frequencies. Limited to single channel - high potential for co-interference issues Note: Leaky coax is not recommended for advanced RF features such as voice or locationBRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 69
  • 70. Traditional Coaxial DAS SolutionsDepending on the type of ―wide band antenna‖ DAS system, signals leave the Access Point antenna port and go through mechanical filters and/or bi-directional amplifier combiner circuitry. While this is much better then a leaky coaxial system, it is not a simple installation and requires specialized installers with experience cutting and terminating the unique low loss cable that is coaxial in nature but has a hard metal shield. RP-TNC TerminatorNote: Unused antenna ports should be terminated to avoid adjacent cell interference BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 70
  • 71. New Approach DAS over CAT-5 Cisco has a Solutions Plus partnership with Mobile AccessWhich is offering an active DAS system over unshielded twisted pair BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 71
  • 72. Co-existence of Wi-Fi and Cellular Antenna Wi-Fi over Overlay In-building cellularTraditional DAS Shared Coax cabling No Wi-Fi limitations APs in closet No Wi-Fi limitations Cheap UTP cables No Cisco RF SupportLikely no MIMO, MRC Expensive cabling or ClientLink, RRM, Duplicate cablingPoor roaming, Location BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 72
  • 73. Co-existence with CUWN Wi-Fi 2 Cellular Bands or 1 MIMO Service Access Cellular POE Alt B WLAN AP Switch Pod Controller New / Existing Cat-5/6 Ethernet GigE POE Alt A BDA, BTS, Pico, Femto Cellular WLAN “Cell, PCS” “802.11n” Ethernet-LAN MobileAccessVE Frequencies Shared Structured Traffic Passes Shifts Carrier to Starting at Cabling System is Over Intermediate 140 MHz and Passive to WLAN 0 to ~100 MHz Frequencies Above and Cellular BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 73
  • 74. Access Points and FeaturesBRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 74
  • 75. Introduction of New Access Points 11abg 11n 11n + CleanAir 1250 3500eRuggedized 1240 1260 1130 1140 3500iCarpeted BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 75
  • 76. Aironet Indoor Access Point Comparison AP 1130 AP 1140 AP 3500i AP 1240 AP 1250 1260 3500e Integrated CleanAir No No Yes No No No Yes Data Uplink (Mbps) 10/100 10/100/1000 10/100/1000 10/100 10/100/1000 10/100/1000 10/100/1000 E-PoEPower Requirement 802.3af 802.3af 802.3af 802.3af 802.3af* 802.3af 802.3af Installation Carpeted Carpeted Carpeted Rugged Rugged Rugged Rugged -20 to -20 to -20 to -20 to Temp Range 0 to +40°C 0 to +40°C 0 to +40°C +55°C +55°C +55°C +55°C Antennas Internal Internal Internal External External External External Wi-Fi standards a/b/g a/b/g/n a/b/g/n a/b/g a/b/g/n a/b/g/n a/b/g/n DRAM 32 MB 128 MB 128 MB 32 MB 64 MB 128 MB 128 MB Flash 16 MB 32 MB 32 MB 16 MB 32 MB 32 MB 32 MB•802.3af fully powers single radio AP1250 or provides 1x3 performance on a dual radio 1250 BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 76
  • 77. Integrated Antenna? – External Antenna? Carpeted areas Rugged areas Integrated antenna versions Use for industrial applications are designed for mounting where external or directional on a ceiling (carpeted areas) antennas are desired and or where aesthetics is a applications requiring higher primary concern temperature ranges BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 77
  • 78. When to Use Integrated Antennas• When there is no requirement for directional antennas and the unit will ceiling mounted• Areas such as enterprise carpeted office environments where aesthetics are important• When the temperature range will not exceed 0 to +40C BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 78
  • 79. When to Use external AntennasReasons to consider deploying a rugged AP• When Omni-directional coverage is not desired or greater range is needed• The environment requires a more industrial strength AP with a higher temperature rating of -20 to +55 C (carpeted is 0 to +40 C)• The device is going to be placed in a NEMA enclosure and the antennas need to be extended• You have a desire to extend coverage in two different areas with each radio servicing an independent area - for example 2.4 GHz in the parking lot and 5 GHz indoors• Requirement for outdoor or greater range Bridging application (aIOS version)• Requirement for WGB or mobility application where the device is in the vehicle but antennas need to be mounted external Rugged AP in ceiling enclosure BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 79
  • 80. When to Use AP-1240 and AP-1250Reasons to consider the AP-1240 or AP-1250• The AP-1240 and AP-1250 support higher gain antennas - a benefit only if a high gain antenna already exists or is required• Higher gain (up to 10 dBi) can improve WGB and Bridging distances• Recommend the AP-1240 if there is no requirement for 802.11n support or the infrastructure is older 10/100 ports• AP-1240 will work with older Cisco PoE switches (Cisco proprietary power)• AP-1240 draws less power so better for solar applications• AP-1240 supports Cisco Fiber injectors• Tip: Higher than 10 dBi antenna gains are supported with the 1300 Series Bridge/AP BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 80
  • 81. Which 802.11n Access Point Is Right?• AP-3500i and AP-3500e have the very latest Cisco features such as Clean Air Cisco’s spectrum intelligence• AP-1140 and AP-1260 are of similar design less Cisco Clean Air features and can also run autonomous code (aIOS) for stand alone or Workgroup Bridge applications. Note: 3500 Series does not support the older aIOS modes• All the Access Points were designed to have similar coverage for ease of deployment BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 81
  • 82. Coverage Comparison – 5GHz AP1140 AP1250 AP3500i AP3500eBRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 82
  • 83. Installation and DeploymentConsiderations BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 83
  • 84. Content Site Survey Access Point Placement Channel Strategy Mixed Mode Environments Network Capacity & Scalability BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 84
  • 85. Site Survey Prepares for 802.11n • Recommended to optimize 11n deployment • Survey reveals effects of building characteristics on the wireless spectrum Metal Wall • Measure RF variations due to human activity and time of day Furniture • Survey with client types that Elevator you plan to implement (11n, 11abg, VoIP, location tags) Glass • Spectrum intelligence to detect interference BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 85
  • 86. Access Point Placement ABG Access Point Placement 1 per 5,000 sq feet for data only 1 per 3,000 sq feet for voice, location ABG ABG Radio Resource Management Adaptive channel / power coverage Operational simplicity ABG ABG Web Email Several Supported Apps BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 86
  • 87. Access Point Placement .11n same 1 for 1 replacement Newer APs reuses existing Cisco AP bracket drill holes ABG Improved coverage at ABG higher data rates ERP Backup Video ABG Voice ABG Web Email Supported Apps 802.11n is the same overlay however more applications supported at any given location BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 87
  • 88. Effective Frequency Use 5GHz - 2.4GHz Create a 5 GHz Strategy• 5 GHz Recommended for 802.11n More available spectrum—greater number of channels Benefits from 40MHz channels, although 20MHz still works well Many 11n devices only support 40MHz in 5GHz, although Cisco supports 40MHz in both 2.4GHz and 5GHz• 2.4 GHz still benefits from MIMO and packet aggregation BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 88
  • 89. 5 GHz Dynamic Frequency Selection When Radar Is Present APs Shift Channels— Results in Lower Available Channels and Loss of UNI 2 and UNI 2e Bands Radar No DFS DFS Available Support Support 40MHz Channels 4 11 5 GHz Frequency UNI 1 UNI 2 UNI 2 Ext. UNI 3 BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 89
  • 90. DFS and Available Bandwidth• Full DFS support is required for Available Bandwidth in 5GHz for 11n complete use of channels in 5GHz 1350 1350Mbps 1350Mbps 1200• Limited DFS support directly 1050 impacts available bandwidth 900 750 US Europe 600Mbps• Limited bandwidth restricts 600 450 application support and 300 US 300Mbps Europe negates investment in 11n 150 0 Meru/Aruba Meru/Aruba Cisco Cisco * 40 MHz Channels in 5GHz Available Channels per Region Theoretical Cisco Meru/Aruba 11n 5GHz 24 21 8 20MHz United States 11n 5GHz 11 9 4 40MHz 11n 5GHz 19 19 4 20MHz Europe 11n 5GHz 9 9 2 40MHz BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 90
  • 91. Backward Compatibility & Co-Existence• Co-existence of ABG/N APs• Benefits of 11n accrue to ABG clients MIMO benefits ABG clients on the AP receive side from MRC Co-Existence at Controller Level Backwards Compatibility WLAN Controller WLAN Controller 11g 11n 11g 11n 54 Mb 48 Mb 36 Mb 28 Mb 300 Mb 54 Mb 300 Mb Roam 11g 11n 11g 11n BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 91
  • 92. Mixed Mode Performance  3 Modes of operation WLAN Controller supported Capacity Legacy 300mb Green Field 11n Mixed  Mixed mode experiences slight performance impact 0 due to ABG clients 54 Mb 300 Mb  11n clients still transmit at full performance  PHY and MAC for 11n 11g 11n provides co-existence and protection for ABG clientsBRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 92
  • 93. Wall Mounting Which Model to Choose? AP-1140 and AP-3500i AP-1260 and AP-3500eWall mounting is acceptable Best for enterprise deployments asfor small deployments such coverage is more uniformas hotspots, kiosks, etc but especially for advanced featuresradiation is better on ceiling such as voice and location BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 93
  • 94. Aironet 1140 / 3500i (style case)Third party wall mount option is available Oberon model 1029-00 is a right angle mount http://www.oberonwireless.com/WebDocs/Model1029-00_Spec_Sheet.pdf BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 94
  • 95. Access Points (Internal Antenna Models)Designed Primarily for Ceiling (Carpeted) Installations Access Point has six integrated 802.11n MIMO antennas 4 dBi @ 2.4 GHz 3 dBi @ 5 GHz Note: Metal chassis and antennas were designed to benefit ceiling installations as the signal propagates downward in a 360 degree pattern for best performance BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 95
  • 96. Antenna Patterns Azimuth and Elevation Patterns for 2.4 GHz & 5 GHz2.4 GHz 5 GHzAzimuth Azimuth2.4 GHz 5 GHzElevation Elevation BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 96
  • 97. What About Mounting Options?Different Mounting Options for Ceiling APs Locking enclosures and different color plastic ―skins‖ available from third party sources such asCisco has options to mount to www.oberonwireless.commost ceiling rails and directly into www.terrawave.comthe tile for a more elegant look BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 97
  • 98. Clips Adapt Rail to ―T‖ Bracket. Attaching to Fine Line Ceiling Rails If the ceiling rail is not wide enough or too recessed for the ―T‖ rail this can be addressed using the optional clipsPart Number for ceiling clips is AIR-ACC-CLIP-20=This item is packaged in 20 pieces for 10 Access Points BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 98
  • 99. AP Placement in Plenum Areas• When placing the Access Point above the ceiling tiles (Plenum area) Cisco recommends using rugged Access Points with antennas mounted below the Plenum area whenever possible• Cisco antenna have cables that are plenum rated so the antenna can be placed below the Plenum with cable extending into the plenum• If there is a hard requirement to mount carpeted or rugged Access Points using dipoles above the ceiling – This can be done however uniform RF coverage becomes more challenging especially if there are metal obstructions in the ceiling• Tip: Try to use rugged Access Points and locate the antennas below the ceiling whenever possible BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 99
  • 100. Installation Above the Ceiling TilesAn Optional Rail Above the Tiles May Be Used Note: The AP should be as close to the tile as practical AP bracket supports this optional T-bar box hanger item 2 (not supplied) Such as the Erico Caddy 512 or B-Line BA12 BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 100
  • 101. Installation Above the Ceiling TilesMount AP Close to the Tiles and Away from Objects Installing Access Points above the ceiling tiles should be done only when mounting below the ceiling is not an option. Such mounting methods can be problematic for advanced RF features such as voice and location as they depend on uniform coverage Tip: Mount antennas either below ceiling tile or the AP as close to the inside of theTry to find open ceiling areas away from tile as possiblemetal obstructions (use common sense) BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 101
  • 102. Plenum Installs That Went WrongYes It Happens and When It Does Its Bad… When a dipole is mounted against a metal object you lose all Omni-directional properties. It is now essentially a directional patch suffering from acute multipath distortion problems. Add to that the metal pipes and it is a wonder it works at all. Tip: Access Points like lightDipole antennas up against a metal box and sources should be near thelarge metal pipes Multipath everywhere users – Perhaps the AP is here for ―Pipe Fitter Connectivity‖? BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 102
  • 103. Plenum Installs That Went WrongHuh?? You Mean It Gets Worse? BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 103
  • 104. Installations That Went WrongCeiling mount AP up against pipe hmmm A little ICE to keep the packets cool BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 104
  • 105. Installations That Went WrongPatch antenna shooting across a metal fence Mount the box and antennas downward Please BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 105
  • 106. Installations That Went WrongSure is a comfy nest glad the AP runs a bit on the warm side BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 106
  • 107. Minimize the Impact of Multipath • Temptation is to mount on beams or ceiling rails • This reflects transmitted as well as received packets • Dramatic reduction in SNR due to high-strength, multipath signals Minimize Reflections When Choosing Locations BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 107
  • 108. Antennas for RuggedAccess Points802.11n Options for Ceilings and Walls BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 108
  • 109. Guide to Antenna Part Numbers BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 109
  • 110. MIMO Ceiling Antenna 2.4 GHzAIR-ANT2430V-R (3 dBi Ceiling Mount Omni) Antenna has three monopole elements BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 110
  • 111. MIMO Ceiling Antenna 5 GHzAIR-ANT5140V-R (4 dBi Ceiling Mount Omni) Antenna has three monopole elements BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 111
  • 112. AIR-ANT2451NV-R 2.4 GHz (2.5 dBi) & 5 GHz (3.5 dBi) Dual Band Ceiling Omni Six leads - 5 GHz antennas have blue markings (shrink wrap) BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 112
  • 113. AIR-ANT2460NP-R 2.4 GHz 6 dBi Three Element Patch BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 113
  • 114. AIR-ANT5160NP-R 5 GHz 6 dBi Three Element Patch BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 114
  • 115. AIR-ANT2450NV-R= & AIR-ANT5140NR-RMIMO ―Multi-mount‖ Omni 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz New 3 in 1 Antenna for 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz. Gain is 4 dBi Comes with articulating wall mount, can also be used on ceiling BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 115
  • 116. New Cisco Antenna Part Numbers BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 116
  • 117. Outdoor Weatherproofing Coax-Seal can be used with or without electrical tape. Taping first with a quality electrical tape like Scotch 33+ vinyl allows the connection to be taken apart easier. Many people tape then use Coax-Seal then tape again this allows easy removal with a razor blade. Note: Always tape from the bottom up so water runs over the folds in the tape. Avoid using RTV or other causticwww.coaxseal.com material. BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 117
  • 118. Complete Your OnlineSession Evaluation Receive 25 Cisco Preferred Access points for each session evaluation you complete. Give us your feedback and you could win fabulous prizes. Points are calculated on a daily basis. Winners will be notified by email after July 22nd. Complete your session evaluation online now (open a browser through our wireless network to access our portal) or visit one of the Internet stations throughout the Convention Center. Don’t forget to activate your Cisco Live and Networkers Virtual account for access to all session materials, communities, and on-demand and live activities throughout the year. Activate your account at any internet station or visit www.ciscolivevirtual.com.BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 118
  • 119. Visit the Cisco Store for Related Titles http://theciscostores.comBRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 119
  • 120. BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 120
  • 121. Thank you.BRKEWN-3016 © 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 121