Hastily Formed Networks at the Waldo Canyon Fire

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Cisco TACOPS responded to the Waldo Canyon Fire (Colorado) in 2012. This presentation discusses our technology response and support for the Incident Command Post.

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Hastily Formed Networks at the Waldo Canyon Fire

  1. 1. Hastily Formed Networks:Tech Lessons from the Waldo Canyon FireRakesh BharaniaNetwork Consulting EngineerCisco Tactical OperationsE-mail: rbharani@cisco.comTwitter: densaerhttp://www.cisco.com/go/tacops
  2. 2. Agenda – HFNs at the Waldo Canyon Fire!  Introducing Cisco Tactical Operations!  Understanding the Tech Challenge!  Introducing Hastily Formed Networks!  Hastily Formed Networks at Waldo Canyon Fire!  The New Reality Going ForwardICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 2
  3. 3. Introducing Cisco TacticalOperationsICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 3
  4. 4. Cisco TacOps Provides Crisis Support!  Cisco Tactical Operations (TacOps) is a dedicated crisis response team that establishes emergency networks after a disaster.!  TacOps personnel skills include technical, operational, first responder, military and logistics!  Promotes innovative technology solutions for disaster response and other hardship situations.!  Emergency response funded by Cisco Corporate Philanthropy.ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 4
  5. 5. Cisco Learned Lessons from Hurricane Katrina!  Initially: TacOps supported “extreme risk” incidents!  Expanded mission: To have a scalable, coordinated, response to disasters (2005) … because:!  Hurricane Katrina - what Cisco did: Cisco sent hundreds of volunteers and tons of equipment to Gulf region. We were successful, but…!  Hurricane Katrina - lessons learned: There were many willing engineers but few trained for the environment. Less effective due to the Cisco-wide uncoordinated response!  No standardized Cisco mobile platform for disaster response.ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5
  6. 6. Today: All-hazards Response, Anywhere.!  Waldo Canyon Fire, CO !  Pipeline Explosion, San Bruno CA!  Famine, Horn of Africa !  Plane Crash, Palo Alto CA!  Tornadoes, AL, NC, MO !  Earthquake, Port-Au-Prince Haiti!  Earthquake/Tsunami, Japan !  Fiber-Optic Cut, SF Bay Area CA!  Earthquakes, Christchurch NZ !  Flooding, Cedar Rapids IA!  Flooding, Brazil !  Evans Road Fire, NC!  Flooding, Queensland Australia !  Harris Fire, San Diego CA!  Fourmile Canyon Fire, Boulder CO !  Hurricanes Katrina, Gustav, Ike ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 6
  7. 7. United States Relationships Office of Emergency ServicesICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 7
  8. 8. International RelationshipsICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 8
  9. 9. We Deploy: Vehicles, Kits, Equipment, Expertise!  Network Emergency Response Vehicle (NERV) NIMS Type II Mobile Communications Center. Large scale network services core “Respond locally, communicate globally”!  Mobile Communicator Vehicle (MC2) NIMS Type IV (with satellite, VoIP) MCC Medium scale network services core!  Emergency Communications Kit (ECK) Rapidly deployable communications capability ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 9
  10. 10. We Have Trained Responders!  Disaster Incident Response Team (DIRT) program: USA, UK/Ireland, China, Brazil. ~200 engineers!  Takes Cisco engineers, trains them for disaster response.!  NIMS certified, hands on, VOD training!  DIRT members deploy with NERVs/ECKs ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 10
  11. 11. Giving Back As a Core Value!  Corporate Social Responsibility • Supporting the community creates goodwill. • We don’t just give money, but go into the field with a trained team to provide augmentation of resources • Threefold approach: cash, product, people. • Attract the best new employees: they care about what their employer does, not just getting a paycheck!  We are accountable: Cisco annual Corporate Social Responsibility Reports http://csr.cisco.com!  It’s not just good for the community – it’s good for Cisco ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 11
  12. 12. Understanding the TechChallengeICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 12
  13. 13. All Crisis Responders Share The Same Problem. NGOs/VOADs/ Public Safety International Orgs In complex disasters with multiple National, State &Transportation response organizations … Local Government How to deliver the right information in the right format to the right person at the right time? Critical Infrastructure Healthcare Defense 13 ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 13
  14. 14. The Need For Technology In Disaster Is Increasing Evolution in People, Process and Technologies to support Disaster and Humanitarian relief!  Radio, phone Radio & integrated Data!  Single device Any device (BYOD) Goal: Mission workflow and productivity!  Voice only Voice, Video, Data benefits that save lives!  Closed teams Open collaboration and speed recovery.!  Command Centric In the field, social media!  Fixed Locations Deployable anywhere ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 14
  15. 15. The Whole Community: Nobody Does it Alone.…We know that non-governmental organizations - like faith-based and non-profit groups - and private sector entities possess knowledge, assets and services that government simply cannot provide. An effective disaster response involves tapping into all of these resources. …Through engaging the "Whole Community," we maximize our limited funding and leverage the capabilities of our partners, who play a critical role in the process.”Craig Fugate, FEMA Administrator House Committee on Homeland Security, Subcommittee on Emergency Preparedness, 2012ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 15
  16. 16. Introducing Hastily FormedNetworksICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 16
  17. 17. Typical ICT Challenges in Disaster.Information and Computing Technologies (ICT) are Needed but Overwhelmed!  Lack of power!  Degraded telephony infrastructure!  Degraded Push-to-Talk Radio, Lack of interoperability!  Oversubscribed services!  Limited Internet access!  Few IT resources!  Lack of trained staffICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 17
  18. 18. Solution: Hastily Formed Networks (HFNs)Instant Emergency Networks!  HFNs are portable, IP-based networks that are deployed in emergencies when normal communications has been disabled or destroyed.!  Enable on-scene and remote responders to share situational awareness, coordinate operations, establish command and control.!  Communicate within the affected area as well as to the outside world.ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 18
  19. 19. Naval Postgrad. School / Cisco HFN Model HUMAN / COGNITIVE Social/Cultural Organizational Political Economic TEXT VOICE VIDEO/IMAGERY SPECIALIZED - email - Push-to-talk - VTC - CollaborationAPPLICATION - chat - Cellular - GIS - Sit Awareness - SMS - VoIP - Layered Maps - Cmd/Control - Sat Phone/PSTN - Fusion WIRED WIRELESS WIRELESS SAT - DSL LOCAL LONG HAUL BROADBANDNETWORK - Cable - WiFi - WiMAX - VSAT - Other ISP WAN - PAN - Microwave - BGAN - MAN - IP over HF POWER HUMAN NEEDS PHYSICAL NET OP CENTER - Fossil Fuel - Shelter SECURITY - Network SecPHYSICAL - Renewable - Water - Force Protection -Cmd/Control - Fuel - Access - Leadership - Food Authorization ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 19
  20. 20. HFNs: What They Are!  Portable: mobile, rolling kit, easily moved with few personnel!  Rapidly deployable: pre-configured, set up with minimal training!  Interim: Once pre-event communications is restored typically decommissioned.!  Based on: WiFi/VSAT/WiMAX/etc.ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 20
  21. 21. HFNs: What They Are NOT!  A replacement for pre-emergency infrastructure.!  Designed for large numbers of users!  High bandwidth (if on VSAT). High latency, etc. needs to be considered.ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 21
  22. 22. The First Deployed HFN: Hurricane KatrinaICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 22
  23. 23. The First Deployed HFN: Hurricane KatrinaICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 23
  24. 24. More Recently: 2010 Haiti Quake Airport USNS COMFORTNPS HFN TEAM HAITI NETWORKVSAT/BGAN SatelliteWiMAX Point-to-PointWiFi MeshWiFi Access ICT Trends 2011 Point © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 24 2 4
  25. 25. The Waldo Canyon FireICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 25
  26. 26. The Waldo Canyon Fire!  June 23 – July 10 2012!  2 Fatalities / 6 Injured!  18,247 acres burned!  32,000 evacuated!  346 homes destroyed ($352 M damage)!  The most destructive fire in Colorado history ($) ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 26
  27. 27. The Response!  Type I IMT (Harvey’s GB IMT)!  1,286 Personnel Assigned!  76 Engine Companies!  11 Dozers!  8 Helicopters!  4 MAFFS C-130 ANG Tankers!  Firefighters came from 34 States ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 27
  28. 28. Cisco Technology Response!  El Paso County, CO request for “advanced communications support” from Cisco.!  Cisco Tactical Operations response based from San Jose, CA and Raleigh, NC!  Communications requirements: 1.  Wireless networks for the Type I IMT 2.  IP Telephony support at ICP 3.  Support El Paso County Disaster Recovery Center IP Telephony ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 28
  29. 29. Wireless Network Deployment!  Priority One: Support the IMT staff with wireless access in an unreliable environment.!  Cellphones were disabled in the area – how to get data?!  The answer was a “mesh” wireless network that would support both mission-critical and “courtesy” open Internet access.!  Security policy applied on infrastructure to deconflict traffic. (BYOD) ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 29
  30. 30. Advanced Mesh Wireless Network!  Secured Network: Supporting ~100 IMT/Unified command Staff!  Unsecured (open) network: Supporting ~500 firefighters and support staff. ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 30
  31. 31. Mesh Wireless: Waldo Canyon Fire, 2012ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 31
  32. 32. Multipoint TelePresence: Waldo Canyon Fire, 2012ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 32
  33. 33. Cisco ECK For VoIP: Waldo Canyon Fire, 2012ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 33
  34. 34. So what? Why do we need data in an emergency?!  Example: Social Media.!  #waldocanyonfire – 100k messages between June 25 and July 10.!  25,000 unique users!  What about email?!  Or GIS?!  WebEOC? The Twitter Desk at the El Paso County EOC!  Twitter: #smem – where the discussion is at. ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 34
  35. 35. Official Agencies on Twitter, Waldo Canyon FireICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 35
  36. 36. But…!  If you don’t have access to data communications in your emergency, you have access to none of this content. ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 36
  37. 37. Challenges!  Spectrum Management. There were at least 40 APs at that facility, all conflicting for 14 802.11 2.4Ghz Channels!!  Lack of awareness by on scene COML/COMT staff as to non-LMR spectrum management challenges.!  “The ICS-205 Problem”!  Infrastructure security – aka what happens when trucks drive over your fiber optic link? ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 37
  38. 38. The New RealityICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 38
  39. 39. The Future (As We Know It)!  Networks just as critical as radio!  Collaboration in communities of interest via multiple modes: Video, VoIP, IM, chat, incident mgmt apps, GIS!  IP as “Interoperability Protocol” / all-hazards!  Technology infrastructure for day-to-day ops, not just “100-year flood”!  Next-generation disaster-management apps Community-based “fusion” applications for crisis management & information dissemination Everyone has a phone that can post to Twitter, flickr, Facebook in seconds.!  Technology is easy … politics is (still!) hard. ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 39
  40. 40. Now What? Your Next Move.!  Response agencies should consider ICT as a primary service in disaster as essential as food, water, shelter and medical care!  Agencies must plan for future investment in ICT. Partner with your IT departments!!  Governments, NGOs and other humanitarian agencies should continue work to establish working partnerships with private sector resources!  Agencies need to test and train with technology regularly to ensure personnel are practiced and able to use it effectively ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 40
  41. 41. Connect With Us: Web. Email. Social Media.!  On Cisco.com: http://www.cisco.com/go/tacops/!  Email: tacops-info@cisco.com!  Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/cisco.tacops!  Twitter: @SJ_NERV @RTP_NERV ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 41
  42. 42. Thank You!ICT Trends 2011 © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 42

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